Graphical Processing Units to Accelerate Orthorectification, Atmospheric Correction and Transformations for Big Data

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1 Graphical Processing Units to Accelerate Orthorectification, Atmospheric Correction and Transformations for Big Data Amanda O Connor, Bryan Justice, and A. Thomas Harris IN52A. Big Data in the Geosciences: New Analytics Methods and Parallel Algorithms I December 13, 2013 AGU 2013 Fall Meeting The information contained in this document pertains to software products and services that are subject to the controls of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR). The recipient is responsible for ensuring compliance to all applicable U.S. Export Control laws and regulations.

2 Agenda Why Earth Science/Remote Sensing Where Exelis VIS fits in GPU Background Earth Science where GPU can be effectively used Success Story

3 GPU, Why Earth Science/Remote Sensing? Long time Big Data Challenge Hundreds to Thousands of 100+mb images in a collect or large 10gb<< images Computationally intense numeric processing Need quick turn around in Intelligence, Disaster Management, or just increased throughput for large processing volumes

4 Where Exelis VIS Fits in. 35+ years of COTS software development to solve remote sensing problems that include Planetary Remote Sensing Earth Remote Sensing (Optical, Radar, Thermal, LiDAR, Sonar) Medical Imaging (PET, CT, MRI, etc) Two COTS products lines: IDL and ENVI IDL is an interpreted programming language designed to work with imagery ENVI is a full remote sensing application built in and extensible with IDL ENVI and IDL can be used in a distributed or cloud computing environment with a Services Engine component

5 What is GPU Acceleration? A graphics processing unit or GPU is a specialized processor that offloads 3D or 2D graphics rendering from the main CPU(s) In a personal computer, a GPU can be present on a video card, or it can be on the motherboard Their highly parallel structure makes them more effective than general-purpose CPUs for a range of complex algorithms Certain algorithms can be run on the GPU to greatly speed up numerical processing Most computers, including laptops, today have GPU(s)

6 High-level GPU Architecture (Why it can do what it can do) CPU (4 cores) GPU (>128 cores) Control Cache DRAM CPU Flow control (If, then) DRAM GPU Compute-intensive Highly parallel computation

7 Why aren t all your COTS products GPU enabled? Competing Architectures / Companies > Exelis VIS went with NVIDIA/CUDA because it s widely used > Very similar to C, which our existing staff has expertise in > Some projects re-purposable, but many are custom

8 Exelis VIS GPU Solution Developed a CUDA based GPU processing framework that can be redeployed Services group develops, this ensures meeting needs of specific architectures Worked with groups with BIG data analysis issues with time critical needs GPU enabled Existing ENVI and IDL routines, no reinventing the wheel, just make it go faster.

9 EXELIS VIS GPU Approach CUDA Compute Unified Device Architecture > Royalty-Free C Language extension to ANSI standard C99 > Complete SDK - Freely distributed > API for thread handling, memory management > Standard math libraries, BLAS, FFT Integrated with ENVI/IDL > Use of IDL s Internal API to create a DLM > Integrates fully into IDL as a system routine > Most flexible solution > Recommended for most applications > Maximum performance increases are achieved through custom kernel development > Can be deployed from ArcGIS

10 Earth Science Applications Spatial Processing Problem: Image projection and registration very slow with standard CPU processing This can delay using imagery to make time critical decisions where location is important e.g. Defense and Security, Disaster response/mitigation, Image production Image projection Orthorectification Orthorectification: a process that removes the geometric distortions introduced during image capture and produces an image product that has planimetric geometry, like a map. Image Courtesy Sylla Consult

11 Earth Science Applications Spatial Processing Problem: Image projection and registration very slow with standard CPU processing This can delay using imagery to make time critical decisions where location is important e.g. Defense and Security, Disaster response/mitigation, Image production Examples > Rigorous Frame Camera Model > Used in airborne platforms, small / medium format cameras > Use GPU to project camera frames to align with GIS layers > Resample data to a desired grid > Large format commercial satellite data > Orthorectification using Rational Polynomial Coefficients (RPC) > Resample and reproject to desired format

12 Spatial Processing: Orthorectification Example RPC Orthorectification Results Input / Output CPU Time GPU Time WV1 Point Collect 2.4gb 2+ Hours 3 Minutes (32k x 32k In, 35k x 35k Out) QuickBird 4-band Image 600mb (6878k x 7184k In, 8652k x 9204k Out) 15 Minutes 17 Seconds Hardware: Intel Core 2 2.6GHz, 4GB RAM, GTX280 GPU Elevation Model: SRTM Derived DTED Disk I/O is dominant (60% of total) GPU is only ~25% utilized!

13 GPU Ortho ArcGIS Integration With EXELIS VIS Integration with ArcGIS, call GPU enabled ENVI in an ArcGIS environment Available for any ENVI/IDL routine Harness GPU in a GIS Deploy best image processing practices to GIS users

14 Earth Science Applications Image Transforms Problem: Many imaging bands are highly correlated. Image transformations help remove correlation and boost signals of hard to find information in imagery or finding change. These transforms are computationally expensive Spectral Processing ICA/PCA > Calculations map very well to GPU > Functions are called iteratively > Very heavy use of matrix multiplication operations > Exelis VIS performed work to GPU enable image transforms for a government contract, this add on is freely available to certain segments of the US Government

15 Earth Science Applications Image Transforms Problem: Many imaging bands are highly correlated. Image transformations help remove correlation and boost signals of hard to find information in imagery or finding change. These transforms are computationally expensive ICA Change ICA Band 6

16 Earth Science Applications Image Transforms (PCA) Benchmarks Input data set HSI cube: 614 samples x 1024 lines x 244 bands, 16-bit Integer, 300mb Hardware CPU: GHz, RAM: 6GB GPU: NVIDIA GTX480, 1GB Video RAM, PCIe 2.0 CPU Time (seconds) GPU Time (seconds) Improvement X

17 Earth Science Applications: Atmospheric Correction Problem: Atmosphere interferes with data integrity and needs to be removed to earth science research and analysis, esp. looking an long term trends. This is a computationally heavy application that can easily be modified by GPU processing.

18 Earth Science Applications: Atmospheric Correction Benchmarks Input data set HSI cube: 614 samples x 1024 lines x 244 bands, 16-bit Integer, 300mb Hardware CPU: GHz, RAM: 6GB GPU: NVIDIA GTX480, 1GB Video RAM, PCIe 2.0 CPU Time (seconds) GPU Time (seconds) Improvement X

19 Use ENVI Services Engine to task farm with multiple GPUs > With multiple GPUs, a desktop or laptop can behave as a small super computer > The ENVI and IDL Services Engine can distribute task to GPU workers > ESE is a COTS product available now > Limitation is still file I/O, but have potentially 1000s of cores in one machine with GPU use ENVI Services Engine DATA

20 Success Story: Range and Bearing Overview Small Aerial Photography Company Collects thermal and multispectral imagery, full motion ortho imagery over fires, disasters, pipeline monitoring, environmental assessment anything where imagery can help the mission in real time. Acquires MANY images and need to have images ortho d to accurately show hotspots and change. Solution Contracted EXELIS VIS to develop GPU solution for high-speed ortho Images collected and processed on plane with a laptop Laptop a low draw on power The fire features are exploited from the real-time ortho imagery Fire features stream into a common operating picture live

21 Success Story: Range and Bearing

22 Success Story: Range and Bearing Essentially, the creation of GPU based real-time processing and exploitation enables Range and Bearing's Spot-HAWK platform to provide government, media, and the public live geoint of what the wildfire is doing NOW, not a report of what happened yesterday. Doug Campbell, Range and Bearing President/CEO

23 Summary Exelis VIS has developed tools with GPU technology to process large volumes of imagery and create meaningful products in near real time With multiple GPUs a desktop or laptop can behave as a small super computer Image processing, in particular pixel analysis is very well suited for GPUs Reusing existing ENVI and IDL functionality keep cost low and maintains analytical repeatability Utilizing video card resources like NVIDIA products is a low cost way to get amazingly fast results for big data

24 Thank you! For Further information please contact or

25 UPCOMING GTC EXPRESS WEBINARS May 28: An Introduction to CUDA Programming June 3: The Next Steps for June 4: Using NVIDIA GPUs for Real-time Data Processing in a Holographic Radar System July 16: GPU Architecture & the CUDA Memory Model August 12: Asynchronous Operations & Dynamic Parallelism in CUDA October 16: Essential CUDA Optimization Techniques

26 NVIDIA GLOBAL IMPACT AWARD Recognizing groundbreaking work with GPUs in tackling key social and humanitarian problems $150,000 annual award Categories include: disease research, automotive safety, weather prediction impact.nvidia.com Submission deadline: Dec. 12, 2014 Winner announced at GTC 2015

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