Big data and Earth observation New challenges in remote sensing images interpretation

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1 Big data and Earth observation New challenges in remote sensing images interpretation Pierre Gançarski ICube CNRS - Université de Strasbourg 2014 Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 1/58

2 1 Context 2 Big Data 3 Challenges (in my opinion) Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 2/58

3 Remote sensing image What s it? Image captured by an aerial or satellite system : optic sensors : spectral responses of various surface covers associated with sunshine radar sensors Lidar... Thanks to the LIVE lab (A. Puissant) and the IPGS lab (J.-P. Malet) for providing images. Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 3/58

4 Remote sensing image What s it? Image captured by an aerial or satellite system : optic sensors : spectral responses of various surface covers associated with sunshine radar sensors Lidar... Thanks to the LIVE lab (A. Puissant) and the IPGS lab (J.-P. Malet) for providing images. Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 4/58

5 Remote sensing image Three dimensions spatial resolution : surface covered by a pixel (from 300m to few tens of centimetres) spectral resolution : number of spectral information (from blue to infrared) corresponding to the number of sensors radiometric resolution : linked to the ability to recognize small brightness variations (from 256 to level) Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 5/58

6 Remote sensing image Spatial resolutions High spatial resolution (HSR) : 20 or 10m Green Red Near infrared (NIR) Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 6/58

7 Remote sensing image Spatial resolutions Very high spatial resolution (VHSR) : from 5m to 0.5m Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 7/58

8 Remote sensing image Three dimensions spatial resolution : surface covered by a pixel (from 300m to few tens of centimetres) spectral resolution : number of spectral information (from blue to infrared) corresponding to the number of sensors radiometric resolution : linked to the ability to recognize small brightness variations (from 256 to level) Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 8/58

9 Remote sensing image Spectral resolutions Hight spectral resolution : One hundred of radiometric bands (or more) band #1 band #22 Aerial view band #29 band #38 Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 9/58

10 Remote sensing image Image interpretation Discrimination between (kinds of) objects can depend on the spectral resolution Orthophoto 0.5m CASI 2m Quickbird 2.8m SPOT 5 10m ASTER 15m SPOT 1,2,3 20m IRS 1D 23.5m LandsatTM 5 30m LandsatTM 7 30m Landsat MSS 60m Vegetation 1000m blue green red near infrared mid infrared panchromatic wavelength (µm) Orthophoto CASI: 32 contiguous bands (at 15nm each) Spectral signature of safe vegetation soil Landsat 5: plus TIR µm Landsat 7: plus TIR ASTER: plus 5 canals TIR Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 10/58

11 Remote sensing image Three dimensions spatial resolution : surface covered by a pixel (from 300m to few tens of centimetres) spectral resolution : number of spectral information (from blue to infrared) corresponding to the number of sensors radiometric resolution : linked to the ability to recognize small brightness variations (from 256 to level) Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 11/58

12 Image interpretation Semantic gap There are differences between the visual interpretation of the spectral information and the semantic interpretation of the pixels The semantic is not always explicitly contained in the image and depends on domain knowledge and on the context. =) This problem is known as the semantic gap and is defined as the lack of concordance between low-level information (i.e. automatically extracted from the images) and high-level information (i.e. analyzed by geographers) Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 12/58

13 1 Context 2 Big Data 3 Challenges (in my opinion) Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 13/58

14 Big - Data Science Big Data Big data is the term for a collection of data sets so large and complex that it becomes difficult to process using on-hand database management tools or traditional data processing applications Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 14/58

15 Big - Data Science Big Data Big data is the term for a collection of data sets so large and complex that it becomes difficult to process using on-hand database management tools or traditional data processing applications Data scientists break it into 4 dimensions : 4 V s of Big Data Michael Walker 2012 Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 15/58

16 Big - Data Science Big Data : Volume Systems produce more data than ever before and at a pace unmatched in human history. Internet : in 2020, around 10 zettaoctects, ( billions Go) by month. Large Hadron Collider (LHC) : 5 pétaoctets of scientific data by year Earth observation : Copernicus - European system for monitoring the Earth Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 16/58

17 Big - Data Science Sentinel : data volume Copernicus collects data from multiple sources : earth observation satellites (called Sentinel) and in situ sensors such as ground stations, airborne and sea-borne sensors. Sentinel : #1-1,6 To/day, #2-1,6 To/day, #3-2,2 To/day Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 17/58

18 Big - Data Science Big Data : Variety Data comes in many forms Purchase history Social graphs, tweets, blog posts Scientific data Images and videos Earth observation : Radar, optical images ; texts.. Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 18/58

19 Big - Data Science Sentinel : data variety Sentinel #1 : radar imagery for land and ocean services. (Sentinel-1A, 3 April Sentinel-1B, 2016). Sentinel #2 : high-resolution optical imagery (2016). Sentinel #3 : high-accuracy optical, radar and altimetry data (2016) Sentinel #4 : atmospheric composition (around 2020) Sentinel #5 : atmospheric composition (around 2020) + in situ sensors such as ground stations, airborne and sea-borne sensors + existing systems : Pleiades system, HYPXIM program (Hyperspectral imagery),... Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 19/58

20 Big - Data Science Velocity Systems produce more data than ever before and at a pace unmatched in human history. Twenty years ago, commercial life revolved around monthly measurements. Today, measurements occur as frequently as every second. Earth observation : Sentinel Program - 5 To a day Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 20/58

21 Big - Data Science Sentinel : data velocity AglobalrevisitoftheFrenchterritory every 10 days (early 2015) : 20 Go to 35 Go a day every 5 days (2016) : 40 Go to 70 Go a day Ultimate objective : every day (2020?) 80Go à 140 Go/jour Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 21/58

22 Big - Data Science Big Data : Veracity Data can come from everybody and from everywhere. It s hard to know which information is accurate and which is out of date. Earth observation : sensor error, cloud, atmospheric distorsion... confidence in documents from the WEB Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 22/58

23 1 Context 2 Big Data 3 Challenges (in my opinion) Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 23/58

24 Challenge #1 : Multilevel analysis Context Multi levels analysis : there are a need to locate, identify and analyze geographic objects at different scales For instance : Urban planners are interested in up-to-date land cover and land use information on urban objects at several spatial (1 :100,000 to 1 :5,000) and temporal scales Geologists and geophysicists are interested by accurate mappings of landslides, providing relevant informations about potential environmental and/or human risks and by a better comprehension of the landslides structure by analyzing their different sub-parts (scarp, track and deposit areas) Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 24/58

25 Challenge #1 : Multilevel analysis Urban multilevel analysis Urban area 1:100,000 1:50,000 Strasbourg District 1:50,000 1:10,000 Urban object 1:5,000 1:2,000 CLC IFEN, 2000 BDOCS CIGAL, 2000 BDTopo IGN, 2002 Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 25/58

26 Challenge #1 : Multilevel analysis Landslide multilevel analysis Landslide structures Landslide sub-parts Fissures Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 26/58

27 Challenge #1 : Multilevel analysis Context Multi levels analysis Acquiring this information by ground survey techniques is complex, difficult and time-consuming! The increasing availability of remote sensing images is an opportunity to extract, characterize and identify the objects of interest. Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 27/58

28 Challenge #1 : Multilevel analysis Urban analysis 20 m SPOT 4 2.8m Quickbird MSR - 20m : Usable to extract and characterize urban areas VSR - 2.8m : Usable to extract and characterize urban objects Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 28/58

29 Challenge #1 : Multilevel analysis Lansdlide 20 m Landsat 5m RapidEye 0.5m IGN MSR - 20m : Usable to extract and characterize natural areas HSR - 5m : Usable to extract and characterize landslide object VHRS - 2.5m : Usable to extract and characterize object sub-parts (fissures...) Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 29/58

30 Challenge #1 : Multilevel analysis Major problem How analyse areas at a semantic level which does not directly correspond to a image resolution? Urban blocks? Homogeneous patterns of urban elements defined by the minimal cycles closed by communication ways Urban blocks on MSR image Urban blocks on HSR image! Neither resolutions (HSR or MSR) is adapted Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 30/58

31 Challenges My point of view Multilevel analysis : use of all the data in the same time Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 31/58

32 Challenge #1 : Multilevel analysis Major problem Idea How analyse areas at a semantic level which does not directly correspond to a image resolution? How use all the image avaiable on the studied area? Using the complementarity of the different resolutions For instance : MSR image Urban blocks analysis HSR image! Multiresolution (remote Pierre Gançarski sensing) Bigimage data and Earth classification observation 32/58

33 Challenge #2 : Analysis methods Context A(too?)largepanelofmethodsexistsandeachofthemis often effective but... None is superior to all others in all cases. Its depends on objectives of the mining on time available on kinds of data... ) In fact, success of data mining, depends in almost all cases, on the ability of the expert to select and configure the algorithm to be used Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 33/58

34 Challenge #2 : Analysis methods Major problem Idea How use the efficacy and complementary of this methods without need of deep knowledge about them? Using them in a collaborative way Method #1 Method #2 Method #3 Method # Collaboration! Collaborative Multistrategy collaborative classification Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 34/58

35 Challenges My point of view Multilevel analysis : use of all the data in the same time Multistrategy collaborative classification : take advantage of complementarity of heterogenous methods Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 35/58

36 Challenge #3 : Multitemporal methods Context : Satellite Image Time Series NSPO Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 36/58

37 Challenge #3 : Multitemporal methods Context : Satellite Image Time Series 2009 Spot Image Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 37/58

38 Challenge #3 : Multitemporal methods Two types of change long-term changes (ex : urbanization) cyclic changes (ex : agriculture) Phenomenons are temporally distorted Some phenomenons are temporally distorted. Each urbanization state (bare soil, new house, old house) can be temporally distorted. Agronomy Shifted harvest/collect from one parcel to another. Ripening/Maturation speed difference. but belong to the same thematically class. Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 38/58

39 Challenge #3 : Multitemporal methods Two types of change long-term changes (ex : urbanization) cyclic changes (ex : agriculture) Observation of these phenomenons is irregular the observed phenomenon may be past! we have to deal with available images ; clouds can hide the phenomenon on certain dates ; images remain expensive! we may want to choose the temporal sampling of the image series depending on the period ; the satellite may be unavailable. Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 39/58

40 Challenge #3 : Multitemporal methods Major problem How extra information from such SITS? Idea Define each pixels radiometric value serie as a sequence : p x,y p x,y : t 1 t 2 t 3... t n Use of classical algorithms on the sequences to find global significative behaviors urbanization,agricultural cycle... Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 40/58

41 Challenges My point of view Multilevel analysis : use of all the data in the same time Multistrategy collaborative classification : take advantage of complementarity of heterogenous methods Multitemporal analysis : opportunity of new kind of analysis Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 41/58

42 Challenge #4 : High frequency of observations Context High frequency of observations impacts methodologies : to update databases or background knowledge to extract geographic object evolutions High frequency associated to big volume makes that is unrealistic to be able to process all the data for each new observation Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 42/58

43 Challenge #4 : High frequency of observations Major problem Idea How to extract information from image time series with high frequency? Take advantage of this high frequency to define new types of applications : agricultural monitoring and forecasting in the short term for instance Assuming that in such series, the changes are minimal between two observations, define incremental methods able : of adapting the classifications or indices extracted from images of updating the thematic concepts (drift concepts) Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 43/58

44 Challenges My point of view Multilevel analysis : use of all the data in the same time Multistrategy collaborative classification : take advantage of complementarity of heterogenous methods Multitemporal analysis : opportunity of new kinds of analysis High fréquency in image acquisition : new incremental methods Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 44/58

45 Challenge #5 : Background knowledge Context Semantic gap is defined as the lack of concordance between low-level information (i.e. automatically extracted from the images) and high-level information (i.e. analyzed by urban experts) in order to reduce this gap, image analysis methods using region-based (or object-based) approaches are developed these last ten years Some initiatives have focused on the use of domain knowledge for classifying urban objects A major issue in these approaches is formalization and exploitation of such knowledge : building a knowledge-base is a difficult task because the knowledge is most of the time implicit and held by the domain experts. Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 45/58

46 Challenge #5 : Background knowledge Major problem Idea How to exploit domain knowledge to facilitate extraction of relevant information from images (time series)? Build a knowledge-base as an ontology : 1 Identification of the geographic concepts 2 Formalization of these concepts Definition of relations between thematic objects (from the ontology) and image-based objets! need of an ontology associated to the images Integration of mechanisms able to take in account such knowledge into classification algorithms Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 46/58

47 Challenges My point of view Multilevel analysis : use of all the data in the same time Multistrategy collaborative classification : take advantage of complementarity of heterogenous methods Multitemporal analysis : opportunity of new kinds of analysis High fréquency in image acquisition : new incremental methods Background knowledge : need to strengthen the links between geographer and computer scientists. Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 47/58

48 Challenge #6 : Lack of expertise Context Supervised classification is the task of inferring a model from labelled training data : each example is a pair consisting of an input object and a desired class. ) The classes to be learned are known a priori Supervisor Desired class Training data Learned model Predited class Error Model seeking Classical methods : Support vector machine, Decision tree, Artificial neural network... Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 48/58

49 Challenge #6 : Lack of expertise Supervised classification : case of VHSR How many classes? 10? - Road - Building... 50? - Road - Street - Red car - Blue car - Lighted (half) roof - Shadowed roof... Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 49/58

50 Challenge #6 : Lack of expertise Supervised classification : case of VHSR How to give enough examples by class with high number of classes? Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 50/58

51 Challenge #6 : Lack of expertise Supervised classification : case of VHSR Lack of sample in VHRS images It does not exist (for the moment) exploitable ground truth about geographic object evolutions. Build such one : is labor-intensive, time-consuming, expensive requires that the experts have defined the types of sought changes Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 51/58

52 Challenge #6 : Lack of expertise Major problem Idea How to exploit images or image time series with no or insufficient training dataset (lack of ground truth)? Unsupervised methods : clustering Supervised clustering : use of (very) small training dataset to guide clustering algorithm Integration of human-expert in the process (Active learning ) : 1. Starting from (relatively few) training examples, the system learns a model 2. It evaluates the model using the unlabeled objects 3. From this evaluation, the system ask to the expert, the label of specific objects (e.g., at the border of two classes) 4. These objects are added to training examples 5. The process is iterated until a given quality criterion is satisfied Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 52/58

53 Challenges My point of view Multilevel analysis : use of all the data in the same time Multistrategy collaborative classification : take advantage of complementarity of heterogenous methods Multitemporal analysis : opportunity of new kinds of analysis High frequency in image acquisition : new incremental methods Background knowledge : need to strengthen the links between geographer and computer scientists. Lack of expertise : use of unsupervised (or guided) approaches Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 53/58

54 Challenge #7 and so on : scale-up, data and knowledge quality Major problem #7 Scalability : How to exploit huge (distributed) dataset of images? How to deal with the huge picture (20000 x pixels, for example) that can not fit into memory? #8 Quality of data/knowledge : How to find, evaluate and correct errors in raw data (image) or segmentation data? How to find, evaluate and correct errors or incoherencies in knowledge base (how to trust the expert?) #9 Robustness of algorithms : How to take into account errors in raw data (image) or segmentation data? How to take into account errors or incoherency in knowledge base Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 54/58

55 Challenge #7 and so on : scale-up, data and knowledge quality Major problem #7 Scalability #8 Quality #9 Robustness of algorithms : #10 Multisource : How to use other kinds of data : texts, domain ontologies? What kind of knowledge to be extracted? How to combine methods from others domains (geography, linguistic,...) Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 55/58

56 Challenges Multilevel analysis : use of all the data in the same time Multistrategy collaborative classification : take advantage of complementarity of heterogenous methods Multitemporal analysis : opportunity of new kinds of analysis High fréquency in image acquisition : new incremental methods Background knowledge : need to strengthen the links between geographer and computer scientists. Lack of expertise : use of unsupervised (or guided) approaches Scalability : need to rethink the algorithms. Quality : define method to evaluate and correct error or imprecision in data as well as in knowledge Quality : define algorithm able to take into account error/imprecision in data as well as in knowledge Multisource : combine all the information available on the studied areas regardless their media Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 56/58

57 Challenges Multilevel analysis : use of all the data in the same time Multistrategy collaborative classification : take advantage of complementarity of heterogenous methods Multitemporal analysis : opportunity of new kinds of analysis High fréquency in image acquisition : new incremental methods Background knowledge : need to strengthen the links between geographer and computer scientists. Lack of expertise : use of unsupervised (or guided) approaches Scalability : need to rethink the algorithms. Quality : define method to evaluate and correct error or imprecision in data as well as in knowledge Robustness : define algorithm able to take into account error/imprecision in data as well as in knowledge Multisource : combine all the information available on the studied areas regardless their media but above all The most important challenge : what kind of new services can be offered to end-users? ( Out of scope of my speech...) Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 57/58

58 Summary A challenging domain... Multi levels analysis : need to use all the available data source and methods Multi strategy classification Multi resolution classification Temporal analysis Multi temporal classification Time series incremental analysis Knowledge-based analysis Interdisciplinary to integrate/merge/... data and knowledge from different domain (STIC, SHS,...) : images analysis, data mining, text analysis, environment sciences, geosciences,... Pierre Gançarski Big data and Earth observation 58/58

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