1 Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp , /08 ESSAY Ian Stevenson and Cases of the Reincarnation Type JIM B. TUCKER Division of Perceptual Studies Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Sciences University of Virginia Charlottesville, VA Ian Stevenson began studying children who claim to remember previous lives an endeavor that will surely be remembered as the primary focus of his life s work almost by accident. Enjoying a successful mainstream career with some 60 publications in the medical and psychiatric literature to his credit, he had become chairman of the Department of Psychiatry and Neurology at the University of Virginia in The following year, the American Society for Psychical Research announced a contest in honor of William James for the best essay on the topic of paranormal mental phenomena and their relationship to the problem of survival of the human personality after bodily death. Ian, who had said when he interviewed for the chairman position that he had an interest in parapsychology, had been intrigued by the concept of reincarnation and in his readings had come across reports of individuals claiming to have memories of previous lives, or apparent memories of former incarnations, as he called them. The reports came from a number of sources, such as books, magazines, and newspapers. Ian analyzed 44 of them as a group in a paper that won the contest and was subsequently published in 1960 (Stevenson, 1960a,b). He was impressed with the similarities in cases from different countries and different kinds of sources. As he told Tom Shroder years later, these forty-four cases, when you put them together, it just seemed inescapable to me that there must be something there... I couldn t see how they could all be faked or they could all be a deception (Shroder, 1999: 103). At the end of the paper, he wrote that more study of the reincarnation hypothesis was justified and he asked people who knew of additional cases of apparent past-life memories to contact him. At the time, however, he was not planning to investigate cases himself; he was too busy running his department, treating patients, and conducting other research. After the paper was published in 1960, his plans changed when he received a telephone call from Eileen Garrett, the head of the Parapsychology 36
2 Ian Stevenson and Cases of the Reincarnation Type 37 Foundation. She had learned of a case in India similar to the ones Ian had written about, and she offered to pay his expenses to investigate it. Ian accepted the offer, and by the time of the trip, he had heard about four or five cases in India and two in nearby Ceylon (now Sri Lanka). Once he got to India, he was surprised at how easily cases could be found. He was there for four weeks and saw 25 cases. Likewise, he visited Ceylon for a week and found seven cases. He thus learned that children s claims of past-life memories were much more common than anyone had previously known. Next came Chester Carlson. Carlson had invented the Xeroxing process that formed the basis for the Xerox Corporation. His wife Dorris had led him to an interest in parapsychology and in research regarding life after death, and after reading Ian s essay, he contacted Ian and offered financial support for studying new cases. Ian initially declined the offer because he was so involved in his other duties, but he eventually agreed to take a donation to purchase a tape recorder for the work. Soon after returning from India and Ceylon, Ian was contacted by Louisa Rhine, whose husband, J. B. Rhine, was head of the Duke University parapsychology lab. She had received a letter from Alaska about a case involving pastlife memories, and she forwarded it to Ian. He then went to Alaska and found a number of cases among the Tlingit tribes there. Ian was soon hooked, and he began accepting funding support from Chester Carlson. Carlson s donations and eventual bequest made it possible for Ian to create essentially a new field of research. It was one dominated by cases of very young children, as the individuals who claimed memories of previous lives usually began doing so at a very early age, often when they were two or three years old. Many talked about the end of the life, which frequently had ended suddenly or violently. Some claimed to have been deceased family members, but others said they had been strangers in another location and often showed emotional longing for the previous family. Ian discovered that in such a case, people had often gone to the other location and found that someone whose life matched the details given by the child had in fact died. In 1963 Ian took a sabbatical so that he could write the first of a number of books on the cases he had investigated. He completed the manuscript and returned to work. As the American Society for Psychical Research was preparing to publish it, a man who had assisted Ian as an interpreter in two or three of the cases in India was accused of fraud in other work of his. This caused concern that he had cheated in his interpreting work, and publication was delayed. Ian returned to India to reinvestigate those cases with another interpreter. He found that the interviews had been interpreted correctly, and the cases remained in the book. Therefore, after some delay, Twenty Cases Suggestive of Reincarnation was published in 1966 (Stevenson, 1966/1974). The cases in it were ones for which Ian had made painstaking efforts to determine exactly what the various children had said and to verify how well the children s statements matched the lives of
3 38 J. B. Tucker the individuals they were thought to remember. The book consisted of detailed case reports that included lists of every person Ian had interviewed, along with lengthy tables in which each statement the child had made about a previous life was listed along with the informant for that statement and the person or persons who verified that it was correct for the life of the deceased individual. Ian presented the cases in an objective, evenhanded manner, discussing their weaknesses as well as their strengths. Continuing the Work Though Twenty Cases received a number of positive reviews the American Journal of Psychiatry saying there were cases recorded in such full detail as to persuade the open mind that reincarnation is a tenable hypothesis to explain them (Laidlaw, 1967) much of the scientific community ignored it. This did not deter Ian, and in 1967 he stepped down as chairman of the department to devote himself full time to the research. In so doing, he was allowed to set up a small research division, now known as the Division of Perceptual Studies, in which to study the cases and to conduct other work in parapsychology. At that point, Ian had collected hundreds of cases, with his investigations taking him all over the world. Twenty Cases alone involved cases in India, Ceylon, Brazil, Alaska, and Lebanon. The cases were easiest to find in areas with a general belief in reincarnation, and with the help of assistants in those places, Ian went wherever he needed to go for the research, sometimes traveling over 50,000 miles a year. He published individual reports of some of the cases in journals and then began a book series of cases from particular areas. He titled it Cases of the Reincarnation Type and published four volumes through the University Press of Virginia from 1975 to 1983 (Stevenson, 1975, 1977a, 1980, 1983b). Of the first volume, the reviewer in JAMA, the Journal of the American Medical Association, stated: In regard to reincarnation he has painstakingly and unemotionally collected a detailed series of cases from India, cases in which the evidence is difficult to explain on any other grounds. The reviewer added: He has placed on record a large amount of data that cannot be ignored (King, 1975). The data were in fact ignored by most in mainstream science, with some notable exceptions. One was Eugene Brody, the editor of the Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. He published one of Ian s papers in 1977, The Explanatory Value of the Idea of Reincarnation (Stevenson, 1977b), that led to more than 1,000 requests for reprints from scientists all over the world (Stevenson, 1990b: 17). Later in 1977 Brody devoted most of one issue of the journal to Ian s work. He included a paper by Ian and commentaries from several others. One commentary was by psychiatrist Harold Lief, whose frequently quoted observation of Ian was that either he is making a colossal mistake, or he will be known... as the Galileo of the 20th century (Lief, 1977: 171). One criticism of Ian s work was that the cases he was reporting had all occurred in places with a general belief in reincarnation. Thus it was thought that
4 Ian Stevenson and Cases of the Reincarnation Type 39 families eager to find cases of rebirth were producing the cases, either purposely or accidentally. Ian addressed this in 1983 with a paper about a series of 79 American cases (Stevenson, 1983a). He compared them to cases from India and found that, though few of the American children had made verifiable statements about a previous life, they resembled the Indian cases in many ways, including the age at which the children first spoke about the previous life, the content of the statements they made, and their related behaviors. He noted that many of the cases had taken place in families without a belief in reincarnation. Years later Ian published a book of cases from Europe (Stevenson, 2003). He had also planned one of American cases but did not complete it before his death. Nonetheless, he documented in the other publications that young children s claims to remember previous lives were not purely a cultural phenomenon, as they occurred in Western countries without a general belief in reincarnation and in families without such a belief. Marked for Life An aspect of the cases that interested Ian greatly was the frequent presence in the children of birthmarks and birth defects that appeared to match wounds, usually fatal ones, suffered by the deceased individuals whose lives they were said to remember. Ian worked on a book of such cases, but his wish for careful documentation combined with a growing collection of cases caused the book to take longer and longer to complete. (At one point, a letter was found at the Division in which Ian had written that he planned to publish a book of birthmark cases the following year nearly 20 years before he actually completed the book.) Finally, in 1997 Ian published Reincarnation and Biology: A Contribution to the Etiology of Birthmarks and Birth Defects (Stevenson, 1997a), a massive 2,268-page, two-volume work that included reports and photographs of 225 cases involving birthmarks or birth defects. Many of them were not the usual blemishes, either. They were often dramatic and sometimes bizarre lesions, such as malformed digits or missing limbs, misshapen heads, and odd markings. In all of the cases, the defects matched wounds suffered by the previous individual. Ian showed his customary determination in investigating the cases, getting autopsy or police reports when they were available, or eyewitness testimony of the corpse when they were not, to verify that the marks and defects he was seeing actually did match the wounds the previous person had received. Ian wrote a synopsis, Where Reincarnation and Biology Intersect, that contained color photographs of some of the marks and defects along with far fewer pages than the two-volume set (Stevenson, 1997b). Cases with such lesions continued to be found, and several of us, led by Ian, later published a paper of additional birthmark/birth defect cases that included two American cases (Pasricha et al., 2005).
5 40 J. B. Tucker Behaving Strangely Another area that interested Ian was the behavior of these children. He wrote a paper about phobias that many of the children showed, usually related to the mode of death from the life they claimed to remember (Stevenson, 1990a). He reported that 36% of the children in a series of 387 cases showed such fears. They occurred when the children were very young, sometimes before they had made their claims about the previous life. For example, he described a girl in Sri Lanka who as a baby resisted baths so much that three adults had to hold her down to give her one. By the age of six months, she also showed a marked phobia of buses and then later described the life of a girl in another village who had been walking along a narrow road between flooded paddy fields when she stepped back to avoid a bus going by, fell into the flood water, and drowned. He noted that the phobias tended to recede as the children stopped talking about the previous life but that this was not always the case. Ian also wrote about the children s play (Stevenson, 2000c). He reported that in a series of 278 cases, almost a quarter of the children engaged in play seemingly related to the lives they described that was unusual in their families and had no known role model. This often involved the previous person s occupation, such as a boy who became so wrapped up in his play as a biscuit shopkeeper that he fell behind in school and a girl in India who described a life as a sweepress and who not only enjoyed sweeping but also happily cleaned up the stools of her younger brothers when they defecated in the house, undoubtedly to the surprise of her Brahmin parents. Ian explored unusual behaviors in a series of Burmese children who reported lives as Japanese soldiers killed in Burma during World War II (Stevenson & Keil, 2005). Many of them showed behaviors that were unusual in Burma but typical of the Japanese. These included such items as wanting to wear Japanese attire trousers, belt, and boots rather than the Burmese longyi, wanting to eat raw or partially cooked fish instead of the spicy Burmese food, and personality features such as industriousness and, consistent with the occupying soldiers, cruelty and harshness. Ian thought this was one of the most important papers he had written for some years because it explored a possible third component in the development of personality, a theme he had addressed before (Stevenson, 1977b, 2000b). He pointed out that not all unusual behavior can be explained by genetics and environmental influences, alone or together, and suggested that some aspects of the deceased individuals personalities had been transferred to the children in a way that could not be explained by conventional means. Assessing the Work When I met Ian in 1996, he was energetically continuing his work and directing the Division. Despite my lack of research experience, he was always supportive of my early efforts in the field, as he had been with many
6 Ian Stevenson and Cases of the Reincarnation Type 41 others. We investigated three American cases together. He was unfailingly polite to the families in a very dignified way, but he also remained criticalminded. Of the three cases, he was quite impressed by one, and we published a report of it in the paper of birthmark cases noted above (Pasricha et al., 2005). He judged one of the other cases to be unsolved (that is, we did not find a deceased individual whose life matched the statements the child had made) and the third to be almost certainly the result of wishful thinking on the mother s part. He demonstrated a similarly cautious attitude toward the overall phenomenon of young children s claims of past-life memories. He wrote that no single case offered evidence that compelled a belief in reincarnation, and he was adamant that the term proof not be used for the evidence he had accumulated or even hoped to find. Nonetheless, although he emphasized that other explanations were possible, he wrote that he considered reincarnation to be the best explanation for the stronger cases that he had investigated including ones in which the two families involved were previously unknown to each other and for which a written record of the child s statements was made before they were verified and cases in which a medical record documented a close correspondence between a child s birthmarks or birth defects and wounds on the body of the previous individual (Stevenson, 2000a). That assessment seems fair. I reviewed many of Ian s cases as I was preparing to write a book about the work, studying not just his lengthy case reports but his field notes as well. I could see the limitations of the cases the way that memories could vary in some of them across witnesses and even across interviews with the same witness. I also saw, however, how resolute Ian was to establish the facts. Many of the files contained lists of questions that he sent his assistants after he had talked with families. These led to further work, sometimes to answer minor and seemingly unimportant details that were unclear. This happened repeatedly in some instances, and Ian himself interviewed some witnesses a number of times over a matter of years. He did all of this to make sure that he had determined as accurately as humanly possible what had happened in each case. In the end, as he wrote, he produced data that allow those who find reincarnation a congenial concept to believe in it on the basis of evidence rather than purely on the basis of faith (Stevenson, 1980, 1990b). That group, however, was not the one he was most interested in reaching. He once said with a smile that he would die a failure because he had not achieved his primary goal of getting mainstream science to seriously consider reincarnation as a possibility. Such a goal, in retrospect, may have been quixotic, particularly to be attained in a relatively short time, but as with Galileo, science s ultimate judgment on his work may come long after the end of his life. The numerous researchers contributing to this issue who were inspired and supported by Ian, and who attempt to model their own efforts by the standard he set, also demonstrate that he did not die a failure.
7 42 J. B. Tucker Toward the End Ian s passion for the work never abated. He was well into his eighties before he retired, and he might never have done so except for his wish to devote more time to his wife Margaret, whom he clearly adored. (In fact, he might never have taken a vacation either except for that wish.) He continued to write after retirement and even took one final final trip to India. Margaret said at one point that she did not mind his taking the research trips, but she wished he would stop referring to each one as his last. He was pleased that other researchers, with his encouragement, had become interested in the cases and had made significant contributions (e.g., Mills, Haraldsson, & Keil, 1994). Ian s final paper was a wonderful summary of his career in parapsychology that he wrote for this journal (Stevenson, 2006). Even after he finished it, he continued to discuss papers he wanted to write but eventually lost the physical energy to complete. There were more books to be written as well, as a life of 88 years was not long enough to exhaust his productivity. Ian finished his last published paper with words that, though not referring specifically to his 40 years of research on children s past-life memories, might well have applied to them: Let no one think that I know the answer. I am still seeking. References King, L. S. (1975). Reincarnation. JAMA, 234, 978. Laidlaw, R. W. (1967). Review of Twenty Cases Suggestive of Reincarnation. American Journal of Psychiatry, 124, 128. Lief, H. I. (1977). Commentary on Dr. Ian Stevenson s Research into the evidence of man s survival after death. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 165, Mills, A., Haraldsson, E., & Keil, H. H. J. (1994). Replication studies of cases suggestive of reincarnation by three independent investigators. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 88, Pasricha, S. K., Keil, J., Tucker, J. B., & Stevenson, I. (2005). Some bodily malformations attributed to previous lives. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 19, Shroder, T. (1999). Old Souls: The Scientific Evidence for Past Lives. New York: Simon & Schuster. Stevenson, I. (1960a). The evidence for survival from claimed memories of former incarnations. Part I. Review of the data. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 54, Stevenson, I. (1960b). The evidence for survival from claimed memories of former incarnations. Part II. Analysis of the data and suggestions for further investigations. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 54, Stevenson, I. (1974). Twenty Cases Suggestive of Reincarnation (2nd rev ed.). Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia. (Original work published 1966 in Proceedings of the American Society for Psychical Research, ) Stevenson, I. (1975). Cases of the Reincarnation Type, Vol. I: Ten Cases in India. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia. Stevenson, I. (1977a). Cases of the Reincarnation Type, Vol. II: Ten Cases in Sri Lanka. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia. Stevenson, I. (1977b). The explanatory value of the idea of reincarnation. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 164, Stevenson, I. (1980). Cases of the Reincarnation Type, Vol. III: Twelve Cases in Lebanon and Turkey. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia. Stevenson, I. (1983a). American children who claim to remember previous lives. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 171, Stevenson, I. (1983b). Cases of the Reincarnation Type, Vol. IV: Twelve Cases in Thailand and Burma. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.
8 Ian Stevenson and Cases of the Reincarnation Type 43 Stevenson, I. (1990a). Phobias in children who claim to remember previous lives. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 4, Stevenson, I. (1990b). Some of My Journeys in Medicine. The 1989 Flora Levy Lecture in the Humanities. Lafayette: University of Southwestern Louisiana. Available at: healthsystem.virginia.edu/internet/personalitystudies/publicationslinks/some-of-my-journeys-inmedicine.pdf. Stevenson, I. (1997a). Reincarnation and Biology: A Contribution to the Etiology of Birthmarks and Birth Defects (2 Vols.). Westport, CT: Praeger. Stevenson, I. (1997b). Where Reincarnation and Biology Intersect. Westport, CT: Praeger. Stevenson, I. (2000a). Children Who Remember Previous Lives: A Question of Reincarnation (rev. ed.). Jefferson, NC: McFarland. Stevenson, I. (2000b). The phenomenon of claimed memories of previous lives: Possible interpretations and importance. Medical Hypotheses, 54, Stevenson, I. (2000c). Unusual play in young children who claim to remember previous lives. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 14, Stevenson, I. (2003). European Cases of the Reincarnation Type. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. Stevenson, I. (2006). Half a career with the paranormal. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 20, Stevenson, I., & Keil, J. (2005). Children of Myanmar who behave like Japanese soldiers: A possible third element in personality. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 19,
REVIEW CHILDREN S REPORTS OF PAST-LIFE MEMORIES: A REVIEW Jim B. Tucker, MD 1# Researchers have studied young children s reports of past-life nation, many cases have been found in the West as well. This
18 Who Jesus Is LESSON 1 Finding Out About Jesus Who do you think Jesus is? Some people say He was a great teacher. Others say He was a prophet, a philosopher, a Western god, or a good man whose example
Radical Jesus Study Guide Radical Gospel Session 1, pp. 9 23 Texts used in these pages: Matthew 3; Luke 3:1-22; Matthew 4:1-11; Luke 4:1-12; Matthew 4:12-22; Matthew 5:1-11; Matthew 5:43-48; Matthew 7:24-27;
Title: MOSES: A PROPHET BECOMES A GREAT LEADER Space for Notes (Yours and ours) Theme: God s dealings with Moses gives hope to leaders and to oppressed people Bible Basis: Deuteronomy 34:10-12 NLT; Exodus
SECTION 1 Overview From the time that children are just toddlers, they try to be helpful. They imitate their moms and dads, dusting off tables and chairs or trying to sweep the floor. Initially, children
Explanatory Notes: A DESPERATE CRY TO GOD FOR HEALING Bible verses: Psalm 6 NIrV Introduction: Are you in good health today? Most people greet each other with the question, How are you? We are happy when
Haslingden High School RE HOMEWORK BOOKLET Year 8 Block A Name: Form: Subject Teacher: Date Given: Date to Hand in: Level: Effort: House Points: Comment: Target: Parent / Guardian Comment: 0 Year 8 Block
Title: WHO DO YOU SAY I AM? (Review of Messages E1-11, the Life of Jesus) Space for Notes: (Yours and ours) Theme: People who hear the story of Jesus must choose how they will respond to him. Bible Basis:
p T h e L a s t L e a f IN A SMALL PART OF THE CITY WEST OF Washington Square, the streets have gone wild. They turn in different directions. They are broken into small pieces called places. One street
Student Essays on NASA Project The trip to Washington D.C. for the Quarterbacks of Life program was enlightening for various reasons; it goes without saying that being able to visit the nation's capital,
First 100 Instant Words the had out than of by many first and words then water a but them been to not these called in what so who is all some oil you were her sit that we would now it when make find he
Dear Billy, I am writing to let you know how much I am missing you. I have some good news. I am going to be an auntie. I am so excited about finding out what my sister is having. I am very proud of you,
Fry Instant Words High Frequency Words The Fry list of 600 words are the most frequently used words for reading and writing. The words are listed in rank order. First Hundred Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group
Chapter 8 How-to Share Your Testimony Acts 26:1 32 UNDERSTANDING Pages 100-103 DISCUSSION Pages 104-114 Understanding / How-to Share Your Testimony UNDERSTANDING WHAT DO I NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THIS PASSAGE?
James Shepherd, CEO You can be successful in merchant services. You can build a residual income stream that you own. You can create lasting relationships with local business owners that will generate referrals
T h e G i f t o f t h e M a g i p T h e G i f t o f t h e M a g i ONE DOLLAR AND EIGHTY-SEVEN CENTS. That was all. She had put it aside, one cent and then another and then another, in her careful buying
Devotion NT226 CHILDREN S DEVOTIONS FOR THE WEEK OF: LESSON TITLE: Rejection at Nazareth THEME: We need to come to Jesus with hearts of wonder and worship. SCRIPTURE: Mark 6:1-6 Dear Parents Welcome to
Section 3 Beginnings of Buddhism Chapter 4 Ancient India Objectives Learn about the Buddha and his teachings. Find out how Buddhism was received inside and outside India. Key Terms meditate to focus the
1The Surplus 2 The US economy produces an amazing number of different products: thousands of different foods, countless movies, dozens of different type cars, hundreds of entertainment products, dozens
Unit 7 Childhood memories KEY READING SKILL INFERRING MEANING KEY VOCABULARY SKILL WORDS WITH DIFFERENT MEANINGS Focus 1 Look at these pictures and read the information. childhood noun the time of your
Anne Frank Essay Assignment We have just finished studying Anne Frank. For this assignment, I want you to really think deeply about how reading about reading The Diary of Anne Frank has impacted the way
Gift of the Magi By O Henry One dollar and eighty-seven cents. That was all. And sixty cents of it in the smallest pieces of money - pennies. Pennies saved one and two at a time by negotiating with the
Charles Drew ABC Game Originally developed by Steve Cooke. This information gap has been revised because colleagues have pointed out that the circumstances surrounding Drew s death are not clear. Was he
League of Denial Video guide and questions I Part I Mike Webster 0:00-21:37 minutes Vocabulary concussion - a stunning, damaging, or shattering effect from a hard blow; especially : a jarring injury of
Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 73 80, 2008 0892-3310/08 ESSAY Where Science and Religion Intersect: The Work of Ian Stevenson EDWARD F. KELLY AND EMILY WILLIAMS KELLY Division of
Theoretical Sensitivity Theoretical sensitivity is a term frequently associated with grounded theory. t is in fact, the title of the book written on this method by Glaser (1978). But, just what is theoretical
Fish for Breakfast Meditation on John 21: 1-14 Jesus Appears to Seven Disciples 1 After these things Jesus showed himself again to the disciples by the Sea of Tiberias; and he showed himself in this way.
Exercise 1 Read the newspaper article about a crime. Find the answers to the following questions. a) Who found the body? b) Where was the body taken? c) What is a morgue? d) How many bodies have been found
The Resurrection of Jesus By R. Keith Loftin Pre-Session Assignments One week before the session, students will take the following assignments. Assignment One Read the comments related to 1 Corinthians
BOOK 3, PART 2, LESSON 4 FOLLOWERS OF JESUS ARE SERVANTS THE BIBLE: Acts 6:2 4, Romans 12:10, Romans 12:10a THEME: God gave Jesus followers the power to carry on the work Jesus had begun. They gathered
Unit 1 BeaUTy Interview Read and listen to Alvin s story. A: I m Alvin Goh. I m a cosmetic surgeon in Hong Kong. Cosmetic surgeons, like me, make people look beautiful and feel better. I: I ve heard that
Lesson 6 Joseph Smith Begins to Translate the Gold Plates Purpose To help the children understand that when we pray, we should seek Heavenly Father s answers and follow his guidance. Preparation 1. Prayerfully
17 December 2011 voaspecialenglish.com Phillis Wheatley, 1753-1784: Early African- American Poet A rare signed edition of Phillis Wheatley s poetry from 1773 (Download an MP3 of this story at voaspecialenglish.com)
Sight Word Superstars Building Fry List Fluency By Jennifer Bates http://finallyinfirst.blogspot.com/ How I use this program I developed this program because I noticed many of my students were still trying
Clutter is words, phrases, or sentences that take up space but do no needed work; they contribute little, if anything, to the message of the piece. Clutter may also be commonly referred to as wordiness
PUSD High Frequency Word List For Reading and Spelling Grades K-5 High Frequency or instant words are important because: 1. You can t read a sentence or a paragraph without knowing at least the most common.
A Guide to Cover Letter Writing Contents What is a Cover Letter?... 2 Before you get started - Do your Research... 3 Formatting the letter... 4 Cover letter content... 5 Section 1 - Opening... 5 Section
27 November 2011 voaspecialenglish.com Georgia O'Keeffe, 1887-1986: Her Paintings Showed Her Love for the American Southwest Detail from "Blue and Green Music," 1921 (You can download an MP3 of this story
Ten Strategies to Encourage Academic Integrity in Large Lecture Classes Brian Udermann and Karrie Lamers Introduction Academic integrity has been and continues to be a lively topic of discussion on most
The Unicorn in the Garden by James Thurber. p.1. The Unicorn in the Garden by James Thurber (1894-1961). reprinted from Fables For Our Time Once upon a sunny morning a man who sat in a breakfast nook looked
Joe Joins the Circus (or Elephant Love): A Case Study in Learning Theory Jennifer Feenstra Department of Psychology Northwestern College, Orange City, IA Part I Elephant Love Joe had wanted to join the
A Service to Commemorate the Life of Florence Nightingale 13 th May 2009 Westminster Abbey The Dean In a sermon addressed to 2,000 nurses and health professionals in Westminster Abbey on Florence Nightingale
BOOK 1, PART 3, LESSON 4 THE FORGIVING FATHER THE BIBLE: Luke 15:11-32 THEME: We can discover what Jesus wants us to do and be by hearing the parables Jesus told. PREPARING FOR THE LESSON MAIN IDEA: Jesus
Devotion NT224 CHILDREN S DEVOTIONS FOR THE WEEK OF: LESSON TITLE: The Woman at the Well THEME: Jesus knows all about us and He loves us. SCRIPTURE: John 4:1-42 Dear Parents Welcome to Bible Time for Kids!
The Story of Ruby Bridges Our Ruby taught us all a lot. She became someone who helped change our country. She was part of history, just like generals and presidents are part of history. They re leaders,
Helping People with Mental Illness A Mental Health Training Programme for Community Health Workers Module E Helping Families Cope with Mental Health Problems Page 1 About this course Helping People with
Milgram s Obedience Experiment Obedience to authority is a basic tenant of any human social organisation. Virtually every society has developed some sort of hierarchy in which some individuals exercise
Little Churches All Around (Missions) Teacher Pep Talk: So, the church grew. The Great Commission was a BIG job, and God had provided the power to do this big job by sending the Holy Spirit at Pentecost.
SONNET 116 AND THE MANHUNT LINKS Both of these poems discuss similar subject matter and come to the same conclusion despite there being over 5oo years between the times that they were written. Both poems
Devotion NT285 CHILDREN S DEVOTIONS FOR THE WEEK OF: LESSON TITLE: The Day of Pentecost THEME: Jesus sent the Holy Spirit to indwell and empower us. Dear Parents SCRIPTURE: Acts 2:1-41 Dear Parents, Welcome
Illogical Shifts in Tense, Person, Number, and Voice A shift occurs anytime a writer changes tense, person, number, or voice. As you write and revise, be sure that any shifts you make are logical. An illogical
Devotion NT226 CHILDREN S DEVOTIONS FOR THE WEEK OF: LESSON TITLE: Rejection at Nazareth THEME: We need to come to Jesus with hearts of wonder and worship. SCRIPTURE: Mark 6:1-6 Dear Parents Welcome to
How to Become a Published Author Brian Tracy Teleseminar Notes May 27, 2009 There are 400,000 books published each year and yours might as well be one of them. Before I wrote my first book, I read several
Explanatory Notes: WILL WE BE MARRIED IN THE LIFE AFTER DEATH? Series title: Topic: Marriage in heaven / heaven as a marriage Table of Contents: Message 1: What is the Life after Death Like? p. 1 Message
Josie s Story by Sorrel King A guide for book clubs Prepared by the Josie King Foundation www.josieking.org Page 1 of 8 From Sorrel Thank you for reading Josie s Story and for choosing it for your book
Written Statement of Suzanne Mintz Founder CEO Emeritus Caregiver Action Network to the Commission on Long-Term Care August 20, 2013 I am honored to have been asked to speak to the commission regarding
USING SAMPLE PROMPTS WRITING In addition to developing topics to assign students and encouraging students to develop their own topics, teachers may assign topics from the sample prompts listed on the following
Pre-Session Warm Up Solomon Disobeys God (1 Kings 11:1-13, 28-40) [Teacher, discuss the fact that what you spend your time and money on is what s most important to you.] What do you love to do? How much
Family Caregiver Guide The First Step in Care: Becoming a Family Caregiver The United Hospital Fund s Next Step in Care guides (www.nextstepincare.org) are designed to help family caregivers and health
Bible for Children presents WISE KING SOLOMON Written by: Edward Hughes Illustrated by: Lazarus Adapted by: Ruth Klassen Produced by: Bible for Children www.m1914.org 2007 Bible for Children, Inc. License:
by Tina Nicholas HOUGHTON MIFFLIN HARCOURT Helen Keller s Special Friend by Tina Nicholas PHOTOGRAPHY CREDITS: Cover Bettmann/Corbis; tp Hulton-Deutsch Collection/Corbis; 3, 5 Bettmann/Corbis; 7 Hulton
BIBLE LESSON 1. Jacob was on a long journey going to his father's home. Jacob had his wives and children with him and he had many cows and donkeys and sheep and camels as well. Jacob's twin brother Esau,
Writing Topics Topics in the following list may appear in your actual test. You should become familiar with this list before you take the computer-based TOEFL test. Remember that when you take the test
Iraq: Family visits to prison bring smiles and hope Feature http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/feature/2013/02-14-iraq-prisondetention.htm After learning that a number of people held in Chamchamal
Introduction Slowly, this strange fear grew into horror. Yes, horror. If I tell you why, you will not believe me. You will think I am mad. The Black Cat is one of Edgar Allan Poe s most famous horror stories.
GOOD SAMARITAN The Good Samaritan 1 The Good Samaritan Lesson Text: Luke 10:25-37 INTRODUCTION: A. Luke 10:25-37 is known to Bible readers as the story of the Good Samaritan. Although the Bible never calls
Art Masterpiece Series 3 2015-2016 1. Reflections Art Project 2. Wayne White 3. Norman Rockwell 4. Claude Monet 5. Edvard Munch 6. Stan Lee 7. Mandarin Paul Gauguin 8. Piet Mondrian Reflections (PTA 1969)
Alexander Hamilton Background Information: Alexander Hamilton was born in the British West Indies in 1755, the son of James Hamilton and Rachel Lavine, who were not yet married. Hamilton s father abandoned
Walk by Faith not by Sight John 20:19-29; 1 Corinthians 15:12-20 1. Our thinking process needs proof because it is hard to believe when there is no proof scientifically or historically. Our basic thinking
Cases of the Reincarnation Type with Memories from the Intermission Between Lives Poonam Sharma, B.A. Jim B. Tucker, M.D. University of Virginia ABSTRACT: For the last 40 years, researchers have collected
LUKE S PLACE SUPPORT AND RESOURCE CENTRE FOR WOMEN AND CHILDREN PRESENTING EVIDENCE ABOUT ABUSE IN THE FAMILY COURT PROCESS A Tip Sheet for Women Introduction: As you begin and move through any legal process
13. Jesus is Anointed by Mary Studying God s Word Bible Reference John 12: 1-8 Memory Verse Psalm 116:12 How can I repay the Lord for all his goodness to me? Bible Background In all four Gospels we find
Step Three B1.2 READING & TRAINING Robert Louis Stevenson The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde audio CD PART TWO The Search for Mr Hyde Mr Utterson was unhappy after his walk with Richard Enfield.
Devotion NT206 CHILDREN S DEVOTIONS FOR THE WEEK OF: LESSON TITLE: The Birth of John the Baptist THEME: God is worthy of our praise. SCRIPTURE: Luke 1:39-80 Dear Parents Welcome to Bible Time for Kids!
Unit 1 Family Matters Sibling Science: How Important Is Birth Order? Many families could tell stories about their oldest child who always does well in school and has a stable job. The same families could
Theme 6 Relationships: Curriculum development resources Year 3 Max s Bad Week Embarrassment (guilt) Happiness (proud) Story It was Saturday morning and Max was still in bed. He knew that Mum would soon
Protecting Vulnerable Adults from Abuse and Neglect: a U.S. Experience Page Ulrey January 15, 2015 Question. Report. Collaborate. My Position Senior Deputy Prosecuting Attorney Elder Abuse Project King
Helping English Language Learners Make Sense of Math Word Problems A Lesson with Second Graders Rusty Bresser, Kathy Melanese, and Christine Sphar Featured in Math Solutions Online Newsletter, Fall 2008,
YOUR PERSONAL ACCIDENT INSURANCE PLAN For Employees of City of Fort Smith 6CC000 B-13292 (1-12) CONTENTS CERTIFICATION PAGE............................................. 1 SCHEDULE OF BENEFITS...........................................
A Roper Center Data Review Facing Death In medieval times, earthly existence was regarded as a vale of tears, a trial to be endured until you reaped your real reward: eternal life in a far better place.
Lesson Plan Video: 15 minutes Lesson: 35 minutes Pre-viewing :00 Warm-up: Ask students to discuss the phrase I don t get mad I get even. Ask students to name some possible consequences of someone plotting
The Man Who Went to the Far Side of the Moon by Bea Uusma Schyffert Reading Level (Lexile) 850L Format/Length Biography, 80 pages Picture Support Photos, diagrams, and illustrations Language Register Middle
Understand the ideas Ways to help people out of poverty 1. Read about poverty and ideas to help people out of it What is poverty? Nitin is a ten-year old boy living in a small village in central India.
Writing a Personal Statement for Medical School The personal statement is a crucial part of any graduate school application. However, the medical school personal statement is unique in several ways. Please
Lord Chancellor s Exceptional Funding Guidance (Inquests) 1. This guidance is issued by the Lord Chancellor to the Director of Legal Aid Casework under section 4(3) of the Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment
Revisiting the 1692 incident that led to 20 killed in Salem, Massachusetts By Smithsonian.com, adapted by Newsela staff on 10.17.16 Word Count 792 TOP: Fanciful representation of the Salem witch trials,
Authentic Relationship In your relationship with God, who does most of the talking? Do you think God has things he would like to say to you personally? Does God still speak to his people in direct ways
BBC Learning English Part 1 Callum: Hello and welcome to. Today we start a new series about culture and inter-cultural communication. It s called - - and is presented by Marc Beeby. Hello. I m Marc Beeby.