CHAPTER D1 ION OPTICS OF MAGNETIC/ELECTRIC SECTOR MS

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "CHAPTER D1 ION OPTICS OF MAGNETIC/ELECTRIC SECTOR MS"

Transcription

1 Back to Basics Section D: Ion Optics CHAPTER D1 ION OPTICS OF MAGNETIC/ELECTRIC SECTOR MS TABLE OF CONTENTS QuickGuide Summary Preamble MassAnalysisofIons MagneticSector ElectrostaticAnalyser(ElectricSector) Magnet / Electrostatic Analyser Combination 375 ElectricFocusingLenses Y-Focus,Z-FocusandDeflectLenses Curvature and Rotation Lenses MetastableIons EnergyFilter Conclusion Micromass UK Limited Page 367

2 This page is intentionally blank. Micromass UK Limited Page 368

3 Quick Guide Substances are converted into species having positive or negative charges (ions) in the ion source. For an ion of mass (m) and a number (z) of positive or negative charges, the value m/z is an important mass spectrometric observable. Astreamofions(an ion beam) is directed out of the ion source towards a collector which records their arrival. As with a light beam and glass lenses, an ion beam can be directed and focused using electric and magnetic fields, often called lenses by analogy with their optical counterparts. The system of electric and magnetic fields or lenses is called the ion optics of the mass spectrometer. Electric lenses correct aberrations in the shape of the ion beam. Electric and magnetic fields can be used sequentially, as described in this issue. Crossed electromagnetic fields are described in the separate issue on quadrupoles. Another important property of electric and magnetic fields is their ability to separate ions according to their individual masses (m 1,m 2... m n ) or, more strictly, their mass-to-charge ratio (m 1 /z, m 2 /z... m n /z). After the ion source, the ion optics split the ion beam into its component m/z values (compare splitting white light into a spectrum of colours). By changing the strengths of the electric and magnetic fields, ions of different m/z values can be focused at just one spot (the collector). From the strengths of the electric and magnetic fields, m/z values are measured. A chart showing the number of ions (abundance) arriving at the collector and their respective m/z values is a mass spectrum. Summary The ion optics of a mass spectrometer cause the ion beam leaving the ion source to arrive at a collector after being separated into individual m/z values and focused. Micromass UK Limited Page 369

4 Field Current Direction of Deflection Figure 1 Fleming s Left Hand Rule Micromass UK Limited Page 370

5 ION OPTICS OF MAGNETIC/ELECTRIC SECTOR MASS SPECTROMETERS Preamble In the ion source, substances are converted into positive or negative ions having masses (m 1,m 2,... m n ) and a number (z) of electric charges. From a mass spectrometric viewpoint, the ratio of mass to charge (m 1 /z, m 2 /z... m n /z) is important. Generally, z =1,inwhich case, m 1 /z = m 1, m 2 /z = m 2... m n /z = m n, so that the mass spectrometer measures masses of ions. To do this a stream of ions (the ion beam) is injected into the mass analyser region, a series of electric and magnetic fields known as the ion optics. In this region, the ion beam is focused, corrected for aberrations in shape and the individual m/z ratios measured. The ion beam finally arrives at a collector which measures the number (abundance) of ions at each m/z value. The width and shape of the ion beam is controlled by a series of slits (object or source, collector, alpha etc.), situated between the ion source and the collector. A chart of m/z values and their respective abundances makes up the mass spectrum. Ion optics are considered in greater detail below. Mass Analysis of Ions Magnetic Sector In this section, magnetic and electric sectors and electric focusing lenses are discussed. When moving charged species (ions) experience a magnetic field, they are deflected. The direction of the deflection can be described by Fleming's left hand rule (Figure 1). Themagnitudeofthedeflectionisgovernedbythemomentumofthe ion and is described by the following equations (1,2). Firstly, the kinetic energy of the ion is equal to the energy gained through acceleration from the ion source (equation 1). zv = --mv2 1 2 Secondly, the centrifugal force on the ion as its path is deflected by a magnetic field is equal to the force exerted by the field on a moving charge (equation 2). mv = zb r (1) (2) Micromass UK Limited Page 371

6 Ion beam Magnet Deflected ions Figure 2 Deflection in a magnetic field of an ion beam consisting of increasing mass-to-charge ratios, m 1 /z...m 5 /z and split into different trajectories (1-5) respectively Object Slit α - Slit Focused Ion Beam (Collector Slit) Figure 3 Directional (or angular) focusing of a magnet. Micromass UK Limited Page 372

7 From equations (1,2), the velocity of the ion can be eliminated to give the relationship (3). m ---- z = B 2 r V Where: r = radius of arc of ions being deflected in the magnetic field V = accelerating potential applied to ions leaving the ion source B = magnetic field strength z = number of charges on an ion m = mass of any one ion v = velocity of an ion after acceleration through the electric field (V). If only ions with a single charge (z =1) are considered then, with a constant field strength and constant accelerating voltage, the radius of arc depends on mass and, from (3), equation (4) is obtained. r = m V (4) B 2 Thus, it is possible to separate ions of different mass (Figure 2) with ions arriving at position 1 (greater deflection) being of lower mass than those arriving at position 5 (lesser deflection). In the modern scanning mass spectrometer, it is more convenient that ions should arrive at a single point for monitoring (collection) and so r (or r 2 )is kept constant. This means that B and/or V must be varied to bring all ions to the same focus, viz., one of the relationships (5) must apply: m B 2 (V constant) m 1/V (B constant) m B 2 /V (5) From these relationships, (5), it can be seen that, if either the magnetic field (B) or the voltage (V) or both B and V are scanned, the whole range of masses of the ions may be brought into focus sequentially at a given point, the collector. Generally, a scanning magnetic sector mass spectrometer carries out mass analysis by keeping V constant and varying the magnetic field (B). A further property of the magnetic field is that a diverging ion beam entering that field leaves with the beam converging. Thus, the magnet is said to be directional (or angular) focusing (Figure 3). (3) Micromass UK Limited Page 373

8 (LOW ENERGY IONS) (HIGH ENERGY IONS) OUTER ESA PLATE SLIT INNER ESA PLATE Y FOCUS SLIT SOURCE SLIT (VARIABLE) Figure 4 Focusing and dispersion properties of an electrostatic analyser. Micromass UK Limited Page 374

9 So far, it has been assumed that all ions leaving the source have exactly the same kinetic energy but this is not really the case. In EI, the spread in kinetic energy can be as much as 1 volt and, with FAB can be as much as 4 volts. This spread results in a blurred image at the collector because the magnet has no energy focusing and ions of different kinetic energies are brought to slightly different foci. Thus a single magnetic sector has directional (or angular) focusing and therefore is said to be single focusing only. Electrostatic Analyser (Electric Sector) An electrostatic analyser (ESA) is a directional (or angular) focusing device and is also energy dispersive (Figure 4). As shown in equations (1,2), the energy gained by ions accelerated from the ion source is zv 1 = --mv 2 and in the electric sector, the 2 centrifugal force acting on the ions is given by equation (6), mv ze = (6) R where: E = electric potential (voltage) between the inner and outer ESA plates. R = radius of curvature of ion trajectory From these equations, the relationship (7) is obtained. 2V R = (7) E No mass or charge appears in this equation so that, in the electric sector, the ion flight path bends in an arc, which depends only on the accelerating voltage (V) and the ESA voltage (E). Magnet / Electrostatic Analyser Combination The ion beam is collimated when a magnetic analyser is combined with an ESA, the combination can be made both energy and mass focused, vis., the ion beam is collimated in the ESA and then properly focused in the magnetic field (Figure 5). The combination is called double focusing because it is both directional (or angular) and energy focusing. The double focusing mass spectrometer is designed such that ions of different energies (but of the same mass), converge at the collector (Figure 5). Double Focusing Forward Geometry ion optics is a combination, in which the ESA is placed before the magnet as shown in Figure 5. Micromass UK Limited Page 375

10 (HIGH ENERGY IONS) (IONS OF TUNED MASS) OUTER ESA PLATE ELECTROMAGNET (LOW ENERGY IONS) β SLIT INNER ESA PLATE COLLECTOR SLIT Y FOCUS SOURCE SLIT (VARIABLE) SOURCE SLIT (FIXED) α SLIT LENS FOCUS (BEAM CENTRE) SOURCE EI/CI Figure 5 Double focusing ion optics (forward geometry). HIGH ENERGY IONS ELECTROMAGNET OUTER ESA PLATE SOURCE SLIT (VARIABLE) 1st FFR GAS CELL Y FOCUS α SLIT LENS SOURCE SLIT (FIXED) FOCUS (BEAM CENTRE) SOURCE EI/CI LOW ENERGY IONS COLLECTOR SLIT (VARIABLE) INNER ESA PLATE CONVERSION DYNODE FARADAY COLLECTOR MULTIPLIER Figure 6 Double focusing ion optics (reverse geometry). Micromass UK Limited Page 376

11 Double Focusing Reverse Geometry ion optics is a combination, in which the magnet is placed before the ESA and is shown in Figure 6. The double focusing combination of electrostatic and magnetic sector analysers allows the inherent energy spread of the beam to be compensated for by design, and ensures that there is no spread in the beam at the collector arising from either of these sources. Electric Focusing Lenses Y-Focus, Z-Focus and Deflect Lenses It has been stated above that the focus of all masses will occur at a single position, the collector slit (Figures 5, 6). However, because the actual shape of the field within and around the pole tips of the magnet varies with changing field, especially at higher field strengths, the final focal point of the beam shifts as field strength changes. This leads to a change of focus with mass and affects the ability of the instrument to resolve small mass differences. On early mass spectrometers, the problem could be corrected by physically adjusting the position of the magnet for any given mass. On modern instruments, an electric field called the Y-focus is used to compensate for these imperfections (Figures 5, 6). The aim of this lens is to focus the ions at the same position (the collector slit) throughout the mass range. Thus, using the electric and magnetic sectors with a Y-focus lens ensures all ions are brought to the same focus and allows small differences in mass to be detected, viz., the resolution of the instrument is enhanced. On VG instruments, these lenses are sited before and after the magnetic sector. The focus and deflection lenses are used to steer the beam so that it coincides with the gap in the collector slit. The Z-focus lenses are used to change the divergence of the beam by adjusting voltages on lens plates situated on either side of the beam. The deflection lenses are used to move the whole beam; the Y-deflection lens is used to move the beam from one side to the other and the Z-deflection moves the beam up or down. The two lenses allow the ion beam to be aligned correctly with the collector slit. Voltages on the lens plates are adjusted to effect such movements of the beam (Figure 7). Micromass UK Limited Page 377

12 TYPE BEAM IN BEAM OUT Y Focus Y Deflect Z Focus Z Deflect Figure 7 Y-Focus, Z-focus and deflect lenses with their effects on the ion beam Micromass UK Limited Page 378

13 Curvature and Rotation Lenses Curvature and rotation lenses are used to correct for any imperfections (aberrations) in the cross-sectional shape of the beam before it reaches the collector slit. The curvature lens provides a means of changing any banana shaped beam cross-section into a rectangular shape (Figure 8). The rotation lens is used to rotate the beam such that the sides of the beam become parallel with the long axis of the collector slit (Figure 8). Metastable Ions Energy Filter An ion beam mainly comprises normal ions all having the same kinetic energy gained on acceleration from the ion source but there are also some ions in the beam with much less than the full kinetic energy; these are called metastable ions. An energy filter is a system of electrostatic fields which strictly has little to do with the main focusing fields but, rather, provides a means of discriminating between normal and metastable ions. The system is a filter, preventing metastable ions from being detected by the collector and it consists of a series of parallel lens plates to which is applied a decelerating voltage of 90-99% of the original accelerating potential (V). Normal ions have enough energy to pass through the filter, to reach the collector but metastable ions do not. Conclusion Through the use of sequential electric (electrostatic) and magnetic fields (sectors) and various correcting lenses, the ion beam leaving the ion source can be adjusted so that it arrives at the collector in focus and with a rectangularly shaped cross-section aligned with the collector slits. For the use of crossed electromagnetic fields, the relevant issue on quadrupole instruments should be consulted. Micromass UK Limited Page 379

14 Curvature Rotate Figure 8 Curvature and Rotate lenses and their effects on the ion beam. Micromass UK Limited Page 380

Purpose of the experiment

Purpose of the experiment Modern Physics Lab Spectroscopy Purpose of the experiment Familiarize you with advanced experimental techniques and equipment. Learn how to identify various elements by their emission spectrum. Background

More information

Teaching notes: Time of flight mass spectrometry

Teaching notes: Time of flight mass spectrometry Teaching notes: Time of flight mass spectrometry These teaching notes relate to section 3.1.1.2 Mass numbers and isotopes of our AS and A-level Chemistry specifications (7404, 7405). This resource aims

More information

Nanometer Scale Patterning and Processing

Nanometer Scale Patterning and Processing Nanometer Scale Patterning and Processing Spring 2016 Lecture 17 Electron Optics and Lithography (continued) The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or

More information

Mass spectrometry. What are the principles behind MS? What do all MS instruments have in common?

Mass spectrometry. What are the principles behind MS? What do all MS instruments have in common? Mass spectrometry What are the principles behind MS? What do all MS instruments have in common? What are the different types of MS? Lecture outline: 1) Introduction to mass spectrometry 2) sample introduction

More information

Continuing with the discussion on

Continuing with the discussion on S P E C T R O S C O P Y TUTORIAL A Beginner s Guide to ICP-MS Part VIII Mass Analyzers: Time-of-Flight Technology R OBERT T HOMAS Continuing with the discussion on mass analyzers used in inductively coupled

More information

Experiment 9 MIRRORS AND LENSES

Experiment 9 MIRRORS AND LENSES Experiment 9 MIRRORS AND LENSES In this experiment you will learn to determine the focal lengths of mirrors and lenses. You will also verify the mirror and lens equation and the magnification Formula by

More information

Lecture Outlines Chapter 26. Physics, 3 rd Edition James S. Walker

Lecture Outlines Chapter 26. Physics, 3 rd Edition James S. Walker Lecture Outlines Chapter 26 Physics, 3 rd Edition James S. Walker 2007 Pearson Prentice Hall This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in

More information

Mass spectrometry: 1. Atomic mass spectrometry

Mass spectrometry: 1. Atomic mass spectrometry 2 Mass spectrometry Mass spectrometry: 1. Atomic mass spectrometry Prof. Kristel Bernaerts 2015-2016 Ions separated according to mass/charge (m/z) ratio Determination of atoms and molecules (organic, inorganic)

More information

Lesson 12: Magnetic Forces and Circular Motion!

Lesson 12: Magnetic Forces and Circular Motion! Lesson 12: Magnetic Forces and Circular Motion If a magnet is placed in a magnetic field, it will experience a force. Types of magnets: Direction of the force on a permanent magnet: Direction of the force

More information

Chapter 27 Magnetism. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 27 Magnetism. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 27 Magnetism Units of Chapter 27 Magnets and Magnetic Fields Electric Currents Produce Magnetic Fields Force on an Electric Current in a Magnetic Field; Definition of B Force on an Electric Charge

More information

What is ICP-MS? and more importantly, what can it do?

What is ICP-MS? and more importantly, what can it do? What is ICP-MS? and more importantly, what can it do? Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry or ICP-MS is an analytical technique used for elemental determinations. The technique was commercially

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Is it possible to see a virtual image? A) No, since the rays that seem to emanate from

More information

Spectrometers: Sources Monochromators Detectors

Spectrometers: Sources Monochromators Detectors Spectrometers: Sources Monochromators Detectors Overview of a Simple Spectrophotometer (not really so simple) The typical spectrophotometer is made up of a complex arrangement of mirrors (collimators),

More information

PHYS2627/PHYS2265 Introductory quantum physics LABORATORYMANUAL Experiment 2: Balmer Series of Atomic Hydrogen Spectrum I.

PHYS2627/PHYS2265 Introductory quantum physics LABORATORYMANUAL Experiment 2: Balmer Series of Atomic Hydrogen Spectrum I. PHYS67/PHYS65 Introductory quantum physics 65-LABORATORYMANUAL Experiment : Balmer Series of Atomic Hydrogen Spectrum I.Introduction The light, or electromagnetic radiation, emitted by free atoms is concentrated

More information

Pearson Physics Level 30 Unit VI Forces and Fields: Chapter 12 Solutions

Pearson Physics Level 30 Unit VI Forces and Fields: Chapter 12 Solutions Concept Check (top) Pearson Physics Level 30 Unit VI Forces and Fields: Chapter 1 Solutions Student Book page 583 Concept Check (bottom) The north-seeking needle of a compass is attracted to what is called

More information

Ion Sources. Some characteristics of ion sources (especially in high precision work):

Ion Sources. Some characteristics of ion sources (especially in high precision work): Ion Sources Some characteristics of ion sources (especially in high precision work): It should have high efficiency in generating ions of the element of interest (or a range of elements). All of the ions

More information

Chapter 26 Geometrical Optics

Chapter 26 Geometrical Optics Chapter 6 Geometrical Optics Units of Chapter 6 The Reflection of Light Forming Images with a Plane Mirror Spherical Mirrors Ray Tracing and the Mirror Equation The Refraction of Light Ray Tracing for

More information

Practice Midterm on Magnetism

Practice Midterm on Magnetism Practice Midterm on Magnetism 1) An electron is moving at 3.0 x 10 6 m/s at an angle of 40 o to a 0.80-T magnetic field. What is the magnitude of the acceleration of the electron? a) 2.7 x 10 17 m/s 2

More information

Chapter 20. Magnetic Forces and Magnetic Fields

Chapter 20. Magnetic Forces and Magnetic Fields Chapter 20 Magnetic Forces and Magnetic Fields Magnetic Fields The most familiar example of magnetism for most people is a magnet. Every magnet has two poles, North and South --> called this since if the

More information

Physics 262. Lab #5: Geometric Optics. John Yamrick

Physics 262. Lab #5: Geometric Optics. John Yamrick Physics 262 Lab #5: Geometric Optics John Yamrick Abstract The purpose of this experiment was to use methodologies based upon the principles of geometric optics in order to characterize a pair of lenses.

More information

APPLICATION NOTES: Using Precision Molded Aspheres

APPLICATION NOTES: Using Precision Molded Aspheres APPLICATION NOTES: Using Precision Molded Aspheres Part I: The Basics Page A brief history...2 Advantages of aspheres...2 Design Wavelengths...3 Laser Windows...3 Ellipticity...4 RoHS Compliance...5 Part

More information

4.1.Motion Of Charged Particles In Electric And Magnetic Field Motion Of Charged Particles In An Electric Field

4.1.Motion Of Charged Particles In Electric And Magnetic Field Motion Of Charged Particles In An Electric Field 4.1.Motion Of Charged Particles In Electric And Magnetic Field 4.1.1. Motion Of Charged Particles In An Electric Field A charged particle in an electric field will experience an electric force due to the

More information

Transmission through the quadrupole mass spectrometer mass filter: The effect of aperture and harmonics

Transmission through the quadrupole mass spectrometer mass filter: The effect of aperture and harmonics Transmission through the quadrupole mass spectrometer mass filter: The effect of aperture and harmonics A. C. C. Voo, R. Ng, a) J. J. Tunstall, b) and S. Taylor Department of Electrical and Electronic

More information

2. Lenses Single spherical lenses Convex lenses

2. Lenses Single spherical lenses Convex lenses 2.1. Single spherical lenses 2.1.1. Convex lenses 2. Lenses Convex lenses are optical imaging components with positive focus length. After going through the convex lens, parallel beam of light becomes

More information

Single Particle Motion in Electric and Magnetic Fields

Single Particle Motion in Electric and Magnetic Fields Single Particle Motion in Electric and Magnetic Fields The following photographs were made in the Physics 180E undergraduate laboratory course in plasma physics by Professor Reiner L. Stenzel. They are

More information

View of ΣIGMA TM (Ref. 1)

View of ΣIGMA TM (Ref. 1) Overview of the FESEM system 1. Electron optical column 2. Specimen chamber 3. EDS detector [Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy] 4. Monitors 5. BSD (Back scatter detector) 6. Personal Computer 7. ON/STANDBY/OFF

More information

CHAPTER 23 Light: Geometric Optics n/reflntoc.html

CHAPTER 23 Light: Geometric Optics  n/reflntoc.html CHAPTER 23 Light: Geometric Optics http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/refl n/reflntoc.html Units The Ray Model of Light Reflection; Image Formed by a Plane Mirror Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors

More information

HSC Physics SAMPLE LECTURE SLIDES

HSC Physics SAMPLE LECTURE SLIDES HSC SAMPLE LECTURE SLIDES HSC Exam Preparation Programs 4October2015 c 2015 Sci School TM.Allrightsreserved. Overview By the 1850 s vacuum pumps had become efficient enough to reduce the pressure inside

More information

SPECTRA. REFERENCES D. Halliday and R. Resnick, Fundamentals of Physics M.M. Sternheim and J.W. Kane, General Physics INTRODUCTION

SPECTRA. REFERENCES D. Halliday and R. Resnick, Fundamentals of Physics M.M. Sternheim and J.W. Kane, General Physics INTRODUCTION REFERENCES D. Halliday and R. Resnick, Fundamentals of Physics M.M. Sternheim and J.W. Kane, General Physics INTRODUCTION In this experiment you will calibrate a prism spectrometer and use this calibration

More information

Refractive Index and Dispersion: Prism Spectrometer

Refractive Index and Dispersion: Prism Spectrometer Refractive Index and Dispersion: Prism Spectrometer OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this experiment is to study the phenomenon of dispersion i.e. to determine the variation of refractive index of the glass

More information

AP Physics Electricity and Magnetism #5 Capacitors, Magnetic Force

AP Physics Electricity and Magnetism #5 Capacitors, Magnetic Force Name Period AP Physics Electricity and Magnetism #5 Capacitors, Magnetic Force Dr. Campbell 1. A 3.00 µf and 4.00 µf capacitor are connected in series, and this combination is connected in parallel with

More information

CHAPTER 7 MASS SPECTROMETRY

CHAPTER 7 MASS SPECTROMETRY CHAPTER 7 MASS SPECTROMETRY Expected Outcomes Able to discuss the nature of molecular mass spectra and define some terms used in molecular mass spectrometry. Able to describe mass spectrometer components

More information

P Q 2 = -3.0 x 10-6 C

P Q 2 = -3.0 x 10-6 C 1. Which one of the following represents correct units for electric field strength? A. T B. N/C C. J / C D. N m 2 /C 2 2. The diagram below shows two positive charges of magnitude Q and 2Q. P Q 2Q Which

More information

Optics Nature of Light Light is a transverse wave. An electric field and a magnetic field change orthogonally to the direction of the light wave.

Optics Nature of Light Light is a transverse wave. An electric field and a magnetic field change orthogonally to the direction of the light wave. Optics Nature of Light Light is a transverse wave. An electric field and a magnetic field change orthogonally to the direction of the light wave. The electromagnetic radiation does not require a medium

More information

TOF FUNDAMENTALS TUTORIAL

TOF FUNDAMENTALS TUTORIAL TOF FUNDAMENTALS TUTORIAL Presented By: JORDAN TOF PRODUCTS, INC. 990 Golden Gate Terrace Grass Valley, CA 95945 530-272-4580 / 530-272-2955 [fax] www.rmjordan.com [web] info@rmjordan.com [e-mail] This

More information

THERMAL IONISATION MASS SPECTROMETER

THERMAL IONISATION MASS SPECTROMETER THERMAL IONISATION MASS SPECTROMETER Nu TIMS - key features Patented Zoom optics for perfect peak alignment and no moving parts in the collector Automatic analysis of mixed sample turrets, eliminating

More information

This technique is called mass spectrometry and it was pioneered by British physicist Francis Aston in Let's take a closer look at how it works!

This technique is called mass spectrometry and it was pioneered by British physicist Francis Aston in Let's take a closer look at how it works! Mass Spectrometry Everyone loves a rainbow and most people understand, at least roughly, how they work: raindrops split a beam of white sunlight into rays of colored light, bending the bluish ones more

More information

Level 2 Physics: Demonstrate understanding of electricity and electromagnetism

Level 2 Physics: Demonstrate understanding of electricity and electromagnetism Level 2 Physics: Demonstrate understanding of electricity and electromagnetism Static Electricity: Uniform electric field, electric field strength, force on a charge in an electric field, electric potential

More information

UNIVERSITY OF SASKATCHEWAN Department of Physics and Engineering Physics

UNIVERSITY OF SASKATCHEWAN Department of Physics and Engineering Physics UNIVERSITY OF SASKATCHEWAN Department of Physics and Engineering Physics Physics 111.6 MIDTERM TEST #4 March 10, 2005 Time: 90 minutes NAME: (Last) Please Print (Given) STUDENT NO.: LECTURE SECTION (please

More information

1. Units of a magnetic field might be: A. C m/s B. C s/m C. C/kg D. kg/c s E. N/C m ans: D

1. Units of a magnetic field might be: A. C m/s B. C s/m C. C/kg D. kg/c s E. N/C m ans: D Chapter 28: MAGNETIC FIELDS 1 Units of a magnetic field might be: A C m/s B C s/m C C/kg D kg/c s E N/C m 2 In the formula F = q v B: A F must be perpendicular to v but not necessarily to B B F must be

More information

SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.

SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. Exam Name SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. 1) A radiating body has a Kelvin temperature To, and its surroundings are at If the Kelvin temperature

More information

C) D) As object AB is moved from its present position toward the left, the size of the image produced A) decreases B) increases C) remains the same

C) D) As object AB is moved from its present position toward the left, the size of the image produced A) decreases B) increases C) remains the same 1. For a plane mirror, compared to the object distance, the image distance is always A) less B) greater C) the same 2. Which graph best represents the relationship between image distance (di) and object

More information

RITU and the new separator at Jyväskylä. J. Uusitalo, J. Sarén, M. Leino RITU and γ-groups University of Jyväskylä, Department of Physics

RITU and the new separator at Jyväskylä. J. Uusitalo, J. Sarén, M. Leino RITU and γ-groups University of Jyväskylä, Department of Physics RITU and the new separator at Jyväskylä J. Uusitalo, J. Sarén, M. Leino RITU and γ-groups University of Jyväskylä, Department of Physics RITU, Recoil Ion Transport Unit -Magnetic configuration Q v DQ h

More information

AP2 Magnetism. (c) Explain why the magnetic field does no work on the particle as it moves in its circular path.

AP2 Magnetism. (c) Explain why the magnetic field does no work on the particle as it moves in its circular path. A charged particle is projected from point P with velocity v at a right angle to a uniform magnetic field directed out of the plane of the page as shown. The particle moves along a circle of radius R.

More information

Code number given on the right hand side of the question paper should be written on the title page of the answerbook by the candidate.

Code number given on the right hand side of the question paper should be written on the title page of the answerbook by the candidate. Series ONS SET-1 Roll No. Candiates must write code on the title page of the answer book Please check that this question paper contains 16 printed pages. Code number given on the right hand side of the

More information

Department of Organic Chemistry, IMM, Radboud University Nijmegen Mass Spectrometry

Department of Organic Chemistry, IMM, Radboud University Nijmegen Mass Spectrometry Mass Spectrometry Introduction Ionization Separation Fragmentation Isotope Effects High Resolution 1 Introduction Mass Spectrometry Mass Spectrometry allows the weight of individual molecules to be determined

More information

SPECTROSCOPY OF HYDROGEN ISOTOPES

SPECTROSCOPY OF HYDROGEN ISOTOPES Rice University Physics 332 SPECTROSCOPY OF HYDROGEN ISOTOPES I. INTRODUCTION...2! II. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS...3! III. MEASUREMENTS...4! May 2012 I. Introduction The energy levels of atoms are largely

More information

AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light

AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light Name: Period: Date: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Reflection,

More information

Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry. I. The Atomic Structure

Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry. I. The Atomic Structure Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry I. The Atomic Structure A. The Nucleus (a) Rutherford Bombardment Experiment This experiment leaded to the proposal of nucleus in atom. RESULTS (1)Most of the particles

More information

Lenses. 1 History. 2 Background

Lenses. 1 History. 2 Background HB 04-06-06 Lenses 1 Lenses Equipment optical bench, incandescent light source, laser, 3 lens holders, case of lenses etc., vernier calipers, 30 cm ruler, meter stick Reading Your textbook Optional Reading

More information

Components of a Mass Spectrometer. P. Babu, Ph. D. Centre for Cellular and Molecular Platforms

Components of a Mass Spectrometer. P. Babu, Ph. D. Centre for Cellular and Molecular Platforms Components of a Mass Spectrometer P. Babu, Ph. D. Centre for Cellular and Molecular Platforms Relative abundance Mass spectrometer Mass spectrometer is an instrument that measures the mass-tocharge ratio

More information

ZEEMAN EFFECT. Fabry-Perot Spectroscopy: Observation of the Anomalous Zeeman Effect in Mercury 5461Å Line

ZEEMAN EFFECT. Fabry-Perot Spectroscopy: Observation of the Anomalous Zeeman Effect in Mercury 5461Å Line 2/22/06 ZEEMAN EFFECT Fabry-Perot Spectroscopy: Observation of the Anomalous Zeeman Effect in Mercury 5461Å Line Objective This experiment employs a Fabry-Perot interferometer used as a high resolution

More information

AP Physics Problems Magnetism

AP Physics Problems Magnetism AP Physics Problems Magnetism 1. 1974 2 Electrons of various nonrelativistic speeds are moving in a plane perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field. Because of the magnetic force, the electrons move in

More information

Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS)

Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) The first steps along the way to FT- ICR-MS date back to the 1930s, when Ernest Lawrence, at the University of California, Berkeley,

More information

Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Technical Overview Introduction Time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF MS) was developed in the late 1940 s, but until the 1990 s its popularity was limited. Recent improvements

More information

qv x B FORCE: ELECTRONS IN A MAGNETIC FIELD

qv x B FORCE: ELECTRONS IN A MAGNETIC FIELD qv x B Force 9-1 qv x B FORCE: ELECTRONS IN A MAGNETIC FIELD Objectives: To see the effect of a magnetic field on a moving charge directly. To also measure the specific charge of electrons i.e. the ratio

More information

Ion molecule Collisions

Ion molecule Collisions Ion molecule Collisions Bhas Bapat Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad bapat@prl.res.in August 2012, IUAC Workshop Ion molecule Collisions (Bapat, PRL) Outline Outline of an atomic/molecular physics

More information

Measurement of Ion Kinetic-energy Distributions in Electron-impact Ion Sources of a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer

Measurement of Ion Kinetic-energy Distributions in Electron-impact Ion Sources of a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 59, No. 4, October 2011, pp. 2670 2675 Measurement of Ion Kinetic-energy Distributions in Electron-impact Ion Sources of a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer Jong

More information

Determination of the gravitational constant with a Cavendish balance

Determination of the gravitational constant with a Cavendish balance Determination of the gravitational constant LEP Related topics Law of gravitation, torsional vibrations, free and damped oscillations, forced oscillations, angular restoring moment, moment of inertia of

More information

Date: Deflection of an Electron in a Magnetic Field

Date: Deflection of an Electron in a Magnetic Field Name: Partners: Date: Deflection of an Electron in a Magnetic Field Purpose In this lab, we use a Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) to measure the effects of an electric and magnetic field on the motion of a charged

More information

ABC Math Student Copy

ABC Math Student Copy Page 1 of 20 Physics Week 10(Sem. 2) Name Light Chapter Summary Nature of Electromagnetic waves Polarization Electromagnetic waves are transverse waves, meaning they have an antinode that is perpendicular

More information

Unit 7 Practice Test: Light

Unit 7 Practice Test: Light Unit 7 Practice Test: Light Name: Multiple Guess Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is used in

More information

Mirrors and Lenses Imaging Science Fundamentals Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science

Mirrors and Lenses Imaging Science Fundamentals Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science Mirrors and Lenses Curved Mirror Light Rays C F Axis of symmetry υ Parallel light rays reflect off of a curved mirror and converge at a Focal Point υ C is the Center of Curvature for the curved mirror

More information

Electric Deflection of Electrons

Electric Deflection of Electrons Electric Deflection of Electrons Objective The purpose of this experiment is to observe that the spacial deflection of an electron in a cathode ray tube is directly proportional to the deflection potential.

More information

Summary of the characteristics of different mass analyzers

Summary of the characteristics of different mass analyzers Summary of the characteristics of different mass analyzers All mass spectrometers combine ion formation, mass analysis, and ion detection. This discussion is concerned with how various mass analyzers are

More information

BLUE PRINT - III XII - PHYSICS

BLUE PRINT - III XII - PHYSICS BLUE PRINT - III XII - PHYSICS Topic VSA SA I SA II LA Total ( 1 mark) ( 2 marks) ( 3 marks) ( 5 marks) Electrostatics 1(1) 2(1) - 5(1) 8(3) Current Electricity - 4(2) 3(1) - 7(3) Magnetic effect & Magnetism

More information

Skoog Chapter 7 Components of Optical Instruments

Skoog Chapter 7 Components of Optical Instruments Skoog Chapter 7 Components of Optical Instruments General Design of Optical Instruments Sources of Radiation Wavelength Selectors (Filters, Monochromators, Interferometers) Sample Containers Radiation

More information

The Zeeman Effect or How to measure the magnetic field of a star

The Zeeman Effect or How to measure the magnetic field of a star The Effect or How to measure the magnetic field of a star Overview The energy levels in an atom are sensitive to the magnetic field in which the atom is placed. This phenomenon is known as the effect.

More information

LAB 8: Electron Charge-to-Mass Ratio

LAB 8: Electron Charge-to-Mass Ratio Name Date Partner(s) OBJECTIVES LAB 8: Electron Charge-to-Mass Ratio To understand how electric and magnetic fields impact an electron beam To experimentally determine the electron charge-to-mass ratio.

More information

DIFFRACTION GRATINGS AND SPECTROSCOPY

DIFFRACTION GRATINGS AND SPECTROSCOPY Experiment 8 Name: S.N.: SECTION: PARTNER: DATE: DIFFRACTION GRATINGS AND SPECTROSCOPY Objectives To introduce and calibrate a diffraction grating, and use it to examine several types of spectra. To learn

More information

S1 Waves & Electricity summary notes

S1 Waves & Electricity summary notes S1 Waves & Electricity summary notes Waves Reflection and Refraction 1 We are learning to examine what happens to a single ray of light when it hits a plane mirror at an angle. 2 We are learning to examine

More information

EXPERIMENT IV. FORCE ON A MOVING CHARGE IN A MAGNETIC FIELD (e/m OF ELECTRON ) AND. FORCE ON A CURRENT CARRYING CONDUCTOR IN A MAGNETIC FIELD (µ o )

EXPERIMENT IV. FORCE ON A MOVING CHARGE IN A MAGNETIC FIELD (e/m OF ELECTRON ) AND. FORCE ON A CURRENT CARRYING CONDUCTOR IN A MAGNETIC FIELD (µ o ) 1 PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PHYSICS 104 LAB Physics Department Week #4 EXPERIMENT IV FORCE ON A MOVING CHARGE IN A MAGNETIC FIELD (e/m OF ELECTRON ) AND FORCE ON A CURRENT CARRYING CONDUCTOR IN A MAGNETIC FIELD

More information

Semester II lab quiz Study Guide (E&M, Optics) Physics 136/164

Semester II lab quiz Study Guide (E&M, Optics) Physics 136/164 Semester II lab quiz Study Guide (E&M, Optics) Physics 136/164 In this guide, lab titles/topics are listed alphabetically, with a page break in between each one. You are allowed to refer to your own handwritten

More information

Homework #8 203-1-1721 Physics 2 for Students of Mechanical Engineering. Part A

Homework #8 203-1-1721 Physics 2 for Students of Mechanical Engineering. Part A Homework #8 203-1-1721 Physics 2 for Students of Mechanical Engineering Part A 1. Four particles follow the paths shown in Fig. 32-33 below as they pass through the magnetic field there. What can one conclude

More information

Lab 4: DIFFRACTION GRATINGS AND PRISMS (3 Lab Periods)

Lab 4: DIFFRACTION GRATINGS AND PRISMS (3 Lab Periods) revised version Lab 4: Objectives DIFFRACTION GRATINGS AND PRISMS (3 Lab Periods) Calibrate a diffraction grating using a spectral line of known wavelength. With the calibrated grating, determine the wavelengths

More information

PHYSICS 441 3/16/05 ZEEMAN EFFECT. Fabry-Perot Spectroscopy: Observation of the Anomalous Zeeman Effect in Mercury 5461Å Line

PHYSICS 441 3/16/05 ZEEMAN EFFECT. Fabry-Perot Spectroscopy: Observation of the Anomalous Zeeman Effect in Mercury 5461Å Line ZEEMAN EFFECT Fabry-Perot Spectroscopy: Observation of the Anomalous Zeeman Effect in Mercury 5461Å Line Objective This experiment employs a Fabry-Perot interferometer used as a high resolution spectrograph

More information

Chapter 22 Magnetism

Chapter 22 Magnetism 22.6 Electric Current, Magnetic Fields, and Ampere s Law Chapter 22 Magnetism 22.1 The Magnetic Field 22.2 The Magnetic Force on Moving Charges 22.3 The Motion of Charged particles in a Magnetic Field

More information

Magnets and Magnetic Fields Electric Currents Produce Magnetic Fields Force on an Electric Current in a Magnetic Field; Definition of B Force on

Magnets and Magnetic Fields Electric Currents Produce Magnetic Fields Force on an Electric Current in a Magnetic Field; Definition of B Force on Chapter 20 Magnetism Units of Chapter 20 Magnets and Magnetic Fields Electric Currents Produce Magnetic Fields Force on an Electric Current in a Magnetic Field; Definition of B Force on Electric Charge

More information

The Grating Spectrometer and Atomic Spectra

The Grating Spectrometer and Atomic Spectra PHY 192 Grating Spectrometer Spring 2014 1 The Grating Spectrometer and Atomic Spectra Introduction In the previous experiment diffraction and interference were discussed and at the end a diffraction grating

More information

A Beginner s Guide to ICP-MS Part X Detectors

A Beginner s Guide to ICP-MS Part X Detectors TUTORIAL A Beginner s Guide to ICP-MS Part X Detectors Robert Thomas Robert Thomas has more than 30 years of experience in trace element analysis. He is the principal of his own freelance writing and consulting

More information

Instrumentation & Methods: ICP/MS, Uranium

Instrumentation & Methods: ICP/MS, Uranium Instrumentation & Methods: ICP/MS, Uranium Jeff Brenner Minnesota Department of Health Overview and Fundamentals of ICP-MS Determination of Metals Using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Overview

More information

Cathode-Ray Tube. qvb = qe. Solving this equation for v, we obtain the expression. v = qe qb. v = E B

Cathode-Ray Tube. qvb = qe. Solving this equation for v, we obtain the expression. v = qe qb. v = E B Cathode-Ray Tube The charge of the electron was first measured by Millikan. Unfortunately, the mass of an electron is too small to measure on an ordinary balance. It is possible, however, to find the charge-to-mass

More information

Image formation Ch. 36

Image formation Ch. 36 Image formation Ch. 36 Reflection Law Images Formed by Mirrors 1. Images Formed by Flat Mirrors 2. Images Formed by Spherical Mirrors a- Concave Mirrors b- Convex Mirrors Images Formed by Thin Lenses Images

More information

CHARGE TO MASS RATIO OF THE ELECTRON

CHARGE TO MASS RATIO OF THE ELECTRON CHARGE TO MASS RATIO OF THE ELECTRON In solving many physics problems, it is necessary to use the value of one or more physical constants. Examples are the velocity of light, c, and mass of the electron,

More information

Light: Geometric Optics

Light: Geometric Optics Light: Geometric Optics Units of Chapter 23 The Ray Model of Light Reflection; Image Formed by a Plane Mirror Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors Index of Refraction Refraction: Snell s Law Total

More information

A Transportable Double-Focusing Mass Spectrometer. Gottfried Kibelka, Scott Kassan, Omar Hadjar, Chad Cameron, Scott Shill

A Transportable Double-Focusing Mass Spectrometer. Gottfried Kibelka, Scott Kassan, Omar Hadjar, Chad Cameron, Scott Shill A Transportable Double-Focusing Mass Spectrometer Gottfried Kibelka, Scott Kassan, Omar Hadjar, Chad Cameron, Scott Shill 7 th HEMS Workshop, Santa Barbara, CA September 21 24, 2009 Mass Spectrometer Mattauch-Herzog

More information

LECTURE 14 MAGNETIC FIELDS & FORCES

LECTURE 14 MAGNETIC FIELDS & FORCES LECTURE 14 MAGNETIC FIELDS & FORCES Lecture 14 2 Reading chapter 26-1 to 26-2 Magnetic fields and force Motion of a point charge in a B field n Cyclotron motion n Velocity selector n q/m measurement for

More information

Geometric Optics Lab Exercises

Geometric Optics Lab Exercises Geometric Optics 1 Physics 123, Fall 2012 Name Geometric Optics Lab Exercises You are provided with: laser (with diffuser), ray table, smoke lens set, optical bench, converging lenses, variable aperture,

More information

CHAPTER 4. Mass Spectrometry

CHAPTER 4. Mass Spectrometry CHAPTER 4 Mass Spectrometry 4.1 Introduction and History The earliest forms of mass spectrometry go back to the observation of canal rays by Goldstein in 1886 and again by Wien in 1899. Thompson s later

More information

Detailed simulation of mass spectra for quadrupole mass spectrometer systems

Detailed simulation of mass spectra for quadrupole mass spectrometer systems Detailed simulation of mass spectra for quadrupole mass spectrometer systems J. R. Gibson, a) S. Taylor, and J. H. Leck Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, The University of Liverpool,

More information

PHYSICS PAPER 1 (THEORY)

PHYSICS PAPER 1 (THEORY) PHYSICS PAPER 1 (THEORY) (Three hours) (Candidates are allowed additional 15 minutes for only reading the paper. They must NOT start writing during this time.) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

More information

PARTIAL PRESSURE MEASUREMENT

PARTIAL PRESSURE MEASUREMENT 89 PARTIAL PRESSURE MEASUREMENT J.H. Leck University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK Abstract The quadrupole mass spectrometer is now well established as the instrument used almost universally for partial

More information

Scanning Electron Microscopy in Analysis and Fabrication of Nanostructures

Scanning Electron Microscopy in Analysis and Fabrication of Nanostructures Scanning Electron Microscopy in Analysis and Fabrication of Nanostructures 0 Introduction The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) has been one of the most versatile and widely used tools of modern science

More information

Beta Decay Spectroscopy

Beta Decay Spectroscopy Beta Decay Spectroscopy Revision of 1/16/2012 I. INTRODUCTION Beta decay of a nucleus takes place when it emits either an electron (β ) or a positron (β + ). In general, radioactive emission occurs when

More information

Name: Lab Partner: Section:

Name: Lab Partner: Section: Chapter 10 Thin Lenses Name: Lab Partner: Section: 10.1 Purpose In this experiment, the formation of images by concave and convex lenses will be explored. The application of the thin lens equation and

More information

Cathode Ray Tube. Introduction. Functional principle

Cathode Ray Tube. Introduction. Functional principle Introduction The Cathode Ray Tube or Braun s Tube was invented by the German physicist Karl Ferdinand Braun in 897 and is today used in computer monitors, TV sets and oscilloscope tubes. The path of the

More information

Sample Analysis Design. Element2 - Basic Software Concepts

Sample Analysis Design. Element2 - Basic Software Concepts Sample Analysis Design Element2 - Basic Software Concepts Scan Modes Magnetic Scan (BScan): the electric field is kept constant and the magnetic field is varied as a function of time the BScan is suitable

More information

Candidate Number. General Certificate of Education Advanced Level Examination June 2014

Candidate Number. General Certificate of Education Advanced Level Examination June 2014 entre Number andidate Number Surname Other Names andidate Signature General ertificate of Education dvanced Level Examination June 214 Physics PHY4/1 Unit 4 Fields and Further Mechanics Section Wednesday

More information

E/M Experiment: Electrons in a Magnetic Field.

E/M Experiment: Electrons in a Magnetic Field. E/M Experiment: Electrons in a Magnetic Field. PRE-LAB You will be doing this experiment before we cover the relevant material in class. But there are only two fundamental concepts that you need to understand.

More information

8. THE E/M EXPERIMENT

8. THE E/M EXPERIMENT 8. THE E/M EXPERIMENT Equipment List: Pasco E/M set-up Cenco power supply assorted permanent magnets tensor lamp assorted bananas meter sticks Purpose: To explore the trajectory of moving charge in a uniform

More information