Name: Seventh Grade Science Teacher: Page 1


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1 Name: Seventh Grade Science Teacher: Page 1
2 Why should you do this Packet? Dear future 8 th grade student, You are most likely asking yourself, what the heck is this and why do I have to do it? Let me try to explain While the SI system (metric) is actually something that is included in Pennsylvania Math Standards, it is absolutely necessary to understand it for many fields of science including Physical Science Years ago, the 8 th grade science department took over this standard to help the math teachers cover some of the information that was require in math However, now that Pennsylvania has added a science standardized test to your 8 th grade year, it has become necessary to start learning about the SI system before the start of the school year (Your standardized test next year include the PSSA MATH & READING, PSSA WRITING, PSSA SCIENCE, and the KEYSTONE EXAMS) Your future 8th grade science teachers are asking you to READ about, LEARN about, and try to USE the SI System (metric) before the start of the next school year This packet might seem like of lot of extra work to do over the summer, but if you tackle it a little at a time, it will be more manageable Don t wait until the last week of summer to get started, or it might just stress you out You may have heard from your 7 th grade teachers, but let me make one thing very clear; your 8 th grade year is going to be THE MOST difficult year at the Middle School And here is the reason why More Effort Is REQUIRED than ever before You can accomplish anything or tackle anything that you are determined to do All that is required is a will to learn it and an effort to do it Those students that do not apply themselves will find 8 th grade science to be very difficult To motivate you and start out your year in the right direction, anyone that brings a completed packet to their 8 th grade science teacher on the first or second day of school next year will earn 5 bonus points and a Free homework pass This offer is only good for your first or second day back to school Additionally, there will be a measurement test within the first few weeks of school The actual date of the test will be announced during the first week of school) If you have questions about the packet you can any of the 8 th grade science teachers and they will try to answer your questions Also if you prefer a color copy or need an extra copy, you can find a link on Mr Racchini s Website: racchini So enjoy your summer, but try to also find some time to start to understand how to use the SI System of measurement We ll see you next year! Items you will need: 1 Patience (Remember learning something new is one thing, but mastering it takes time) 2 Pencil 3 A Metric Ruler (Target, Office Max, Office Depot, and Walmart typically sell these for less than $100) 4 A Scientific Calculator (You will need one throughout the 8 th grade year (Physical Science includes a lot of math) Make sure you write your name on it with a sharpie 5 Internet Connection (Included in this packet are several links to sites that will help you in your understanding of how to measure in the SI System) Plus use Mr Racchini s website resources and Goggle Your 8 th grade science teachers, Mr Racchini 3 Rivers House Mrs Simpson MasonDixon House Mrs Danny Endeavour House Page 2
3 Until the late 1700 s, there was no UNIFIED system of measurement For example, despite the best efforts of Charlemagne and many kings of France after him, the country s measurement system was one of the most chaotic in the world In 1795 there were over 700 different units of measurements in France alone Many often referred to parts of the human body: the digit, the hand, the foot, the cubit, the pace, and the fathom The same thing was true in other countries all over the world The biggest problem was that these units were not fixed and varied from country to country, town to town, and from person to person In 1790, in the midst of the French Revolution, the National Assembly of France requested the French Academy of Sciences to create a standardized system of measurement for all measurements that was SIMPLE and SCIENTIFIC Thus the Metric system was created The System is a decimal system (No Fractions) based on the number 10 If you can count to ten you can measure with the metric system Soon after its creation it was adopted and slowly introduced into many countries In fact the US Congress passed a law in 1866 naming the metric system as the official measurement system of the United States That means we should no longer be using inches, feet, gallons, pounds, and miles Do you know how tall you are in centimeters or how much you weigh in kilograms? Not many people do Why? It s because it s hard to make a change Many people were set in their ways or didn t have a need or desire to learn a new system at that time Any change will take a little time to adjust to, but will eventually feel natural Think about your parents or grandparents Believe it or not, they grew up WITHOUT CELL PHONES (first commercial cell phone call was made in 1983) or the INTERNET (AOL starts in 1989), but now how many of them use these daily Change does take time, but for the United States, changing to the Metric System has been an extremely long process Other countries have already adopted an updated version of the Metric System called the SI System (International System of Units) while the US still hasn t finished converting over to the Metric System Page 3
4 The SI System basically redefined the base units of the Metric System in a more precise way For example, in the Metric System one meter was defined as one tenmillionth of the distance between the equator and the North Pole and now the SI system defines one meter as the path travelled by light in a vacuum during a time interval of 1/299,792,458 of a second The distance is the same, but the definition has changed The United States is one of only THREE countries in the world that has not yet made the complete conversion to the SI System, which is making it harder and harder for US businesses to take part in International business The one place in the US where the conversion is complete is in all fields of science Because of this, it is necessary for you to first become familiar with SI System and then become experts on how to measure precisely and accurately with this system Since a lot of what happens in science relies on knowing how to measure, all students entering the eighth grade are expected to complete this summer measurement packet before the first day of eighth grade Your eighth grade science teacher will be reviewing this packet with you at the start of the school year and you will be tested on the material within the first few days of school Don t put it off until the last minute Work on this a little at a time over the entire summer Page 4
5 Section 1: Learning the Basics Every type of measurement in the SI System has a BASE UNIT assigned to it and all other measurements of that type are a variation of that base unit By adding a prefix to the base unit we change the meaning of the base unit and the size of our measurement For example in the Imperial System of measurement that we are used to using, the measurements of distance we had to commit to memory the meanings of INCHES, FOOT, YARD, MILES, and LEAGUES To measure volume, you had to remember the difference between, FUILD OUNCES, CUPS, PINTS, QUARTS, and GALLONS For measuring mass, you had to know OUNCES, POUNDS, and TONS However, in the SI System you only have to remember the METER, LITER, and GRAM and what happens to them when you attach one of the standard prefixes to it (The same prefixes will be used for all measurements; distance, volume, and mass) What are the SI Prefixes? There are 20 expectable prefixes that may be used with SI measurements Each prefix changes the meaning of the base unit by some factor of 10 The chart to the right, list all of the SI Prefixes, however, the ones in the middle of the range are the ones that you will use the most (kilo, hector, deka, deci, centi, and milli) and will be expected to know It is important to know the order of these prefixes from largest to smallest and try get an understanding of the size of each measurement Most likely you will use some of these more often than the others In most science and math classes, students will use Milli, Centi, Kilo, and the base unit more than any of the others, but it is still important to know what the others are and what they mean An easy way to remember these middle range prefixes is to use the following pneumonic device: Did you know that King Henry Died By Drinking Chocolate Milk i l l o e c t o e k a a s e e c i e n t i i l l i Page 5
6 To start let s think about distance The base unit for distance is one meter A meter stick is slightly longer than a yard stick (A Yard stick is 36 inches long while a meter stick is about 3937 inches long) So what is a kilometer? (1 meter x 10 3 = 1000 meters long) Tar Hollow RD Middle School Cline Hollow RD = ONE kilometer Giant Eagle = ONE mile The distance from Cline Hollow Road to Forest Lane is just about one mile The distance from Cline Hollow Road to the High School entrance is about ONE KILOMETER So what is a hectometer? (1 meter x 10 2 = 100 meters long) FR Stadium for FOOTBALL (End zone to End zone = 100yd) FR Stadium for SOCCER (Goal line to Goal line = 1 Hectometer) Page 6
7 So what is a decameter? (1 meter x 10 = 10 meters longs) Olympic diving competitions are held at two heights: 1 a springboard dive set at 3m above the water 2 and a platform dive, set at 1 decameter So what is the Base Unit for length? (1 meter) One Yard Stick ONE METER STICK So what is a decimeter? (1 meter x 101 = 01 meters long) (Looking more closely at a meter stick) Page 7
8 So what is a centimeter? (1 meter x 102 = 001 meters long) (Looking more closely at a meter stick) So what is a millimeter? (1 meter x 103 = 0001 meters long) (Looking more closely at a meter stick) The easiest way to think about it is this: EVERY SPACE in the Si system is evenly divided into 10 spaces If you can count to ten, than you can measure with the SI system You never have to worry about fractions again (except in Math class) There are 10 millimeters that make up 1 centimeter There are 10 centimeters that make up 1 decimeter There are 10 decimeters that make up 1 meter And so on Page 8
9 Section 2: How to Measure with accuracy and precision Every time you measure something you always need to measure to the precision of the tool you are using plus one estimated digit (also called your Best Guess ) For example, if you are measuring the pencil below in centimeters using the ruler below it, your answer would be: 1235 cm decimeter From zero 2 centimeters From the last measurement 3 millimeters From the last measurement (This is the Precision of the tool [THE SMALLEST written lines]) 5 10 of the way through the empty space is your estimated digit 1235 cm The decimal point is placed after the digit of the unit that you wish to record the measurement In this case we are measuring in centimeters so the decimal point is placed after the 2 since that is the centimeter measurement Page 9
10 If we wanted to measure the same pencil from the previous page in millimeters, the answer would be 1235 mm The decimal point is placed after the digit of the unit that you wish to record the measurement In this case we are measuring in millimeters so the decimal point is placed after the 3 since that is the millimeter measurement Notice each individual digit is still the same, and just the location of the decimal point was changed We can even record the length of the pencil in kilometers if we want to Just remember your prefixes (King Henry) km hm dam m dm cm mm Best Guess km The decimal point is placed after the digit of the unit that you wish to record the measurement In this case we are measuring in kilometers so the decimal point is placed after the first zero since that is the kilometer measurement Notice each individual digit is still the same, and just the decimal was changed ABOUT THE BEST GUESS: The estimated digit is very important as it tells everyone that looks at your measurement that all of the numbers before it are absolute numbers and were actually read from the tool The last number written is always assumed to be a guess / opinion of the person reading the tool THAT MEANS A BEST GUESS (or estimated) DIGIT MUST ALWAYS BE RECORDED, even if the object is estimated to not have gone into the empty space of the tool In this case the best guess (estimated) digit would be recorded as a ZERO Page 10
11 Different tools in the SI system all measure to different precisions It doesn t matter what tool you are using as long as you remember to always measure to the smallest written lines on that tool PLUS one estimated digit for the empty space between the smallest lines Below are several different SI measurement tools Read each tool and record the measurement to the precision of the instrument PLUS one estimated digit 1) Record the length of the marker below in centimeters (cm) ) Record the length of the Model Rocket below in centimeters (cm) ) Record the width of the SD Memory Card in centimeters (cm) Page 11
12 Section 3: Measuring Distance with a meter stick Name: Pd: Date: Score Learning to read a meter stick Directions: Using your knowledge of SI rulers, write the correct measurement for each numbered location on the rulers below (For 18 measure in cm [Don t forget your decimal point]) 1) dm cm mm BG 0 90 #8 1 #1 91 2) dm cm mm BG ) dm cm mm BG 3 #4 93 #2 4) dm cm mm BG #6 5) dm cm mm BG 6 #5 96 6) dm cm mm BG 7 97 #3 7) dm cm mm BG ) dm cm mm BG 9 #7 99 Page 12
13 Name Pd Date Score Let s Practice measuring distance using the SI System 1) Complete the list below of SI system units of length from largest to smallest: 2) Use your Metric Ruler to measure the following lines in the label listed at the right of each line Write the answer on each line mm dam m cm Best Guess m cm mm m Guess m cm mm cm Page 13
14 3) Measure the total distance of each bent line in the label listed at the right of each line Write the answer for each segment on each line and then CIRCLE the Total distance cm cm mm mm m Page 14
15 C Name: Pd: Date: Measuring Length Practice A 1) Measure the longest side of this paper in km km hm dam m dm cm mm BG 2) Measure the shortest side of this paper in mm km hm dam m dm cm mm BG 3) Measure on this page the distance longest side of the Title box in cm km hm dam m dm cm mm BG 4) Measure the height of this M in dm B km hm dam m dm cm mm BG 5) Measure the following line in m km hm dam m dm cm mm BG Measure the distance between the following DOTS on this page (Edge of the DOT to the Edge of the DOT) 6) Measure the distance from the DOT A to DOT B in centimeters 7) Measure the distance from the DOT C to DOT D in meters 8) Measure the distance from the DOT A to DOT D in kilometers 9) Measure the distance from the DOT A to DOT C in millimeters 10) Measure the distance from the DOT B to DOT D in meter 11) Measure the distance from the DOT B to DOT C in centimeters D Page 15
16 GREEN BLUE RED Name: Pd: Date: Score No other city can Measure up to Pittsburgh s Firsts Directions: Using a metric ruler and your knowledge of how to measure length, following the directions below to discover some of the things that Pittsburgh was first in for every question always start at the dot in the START HERE box (ONLY START HERE FOR NUMBER ONE OF EACH QUESTION) Then using the color indicated, draw the path that was used to find the answer (You may first use a pencil and then trace over it with the color later) 1 The world s first theater devoted to motion pictures, opened on Smithfield Street in Pittsburgh in 1905 What was its name? (1) Measure DOWN 1350cm, then LEFT 460 cm (2) Measure UP 1250 cm, then RIGHT 1245 cm (3) Measure DOWN 085 cm, then LEFT 1000 cm (4) Measure LEFT 525 cm, then DOWN 1155 cm (5) Measure RIGHT 240 cm, then UP 495 cm (6) Measure UP 465 cm, then RIGHT 095 cm (7) Measure DOWN 630 cm, then LEFT 055 cm (8) Measure UP 690 cm, then RIGHT 480 cm (9) Measure DOWN 525 cm, then LEFT 525 cm (10) Measure DOWN 160 cm, then RIGHT 030 cm (11) Measure DOWN 345 cm #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 2 What was the name of the world s first true baseball stadium was that was built in Pittsburgh in 1909? (1) Measure RIGHT 335cm, then DOWN 210 cm (2) Measure DOWN 800 cm, then LEFT 795 cm (3) Measure UP 610 cm, then RIGHT 1155 cm (4) Measure DOWN 445 cm, then LEFT 700 cm (5) Measure LEFT 490 cm (6) Measure DOWN 520 cm, then RIGHT 1295 cm (7) Measure UP 780 cm, then LEFT 455 cm (8) Measure UP 380cm (9) Measure UP 105 cm, then RIGHT 455 cm (10) Measure DOWN 745 cm, then LEFT 1280 cm (11) Measure RIGHT 090 cm, then UP 465 cm (12) Measure RIGHT 430 cm, then UP 060 cm #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 3 Game 4 of the 1971 World Series in Pittsburgh was the first World Series (1) Measure DOWN 1340 cm, then LEFT 460 cm (2) Measure UP 1250 cm, then RIGHT 1255 cm (3) Measure DOWN 255 cm, then RIGHT 295 cm (4) Measure DOWN 965 cm, then LEFT 530 cm (5) Measure LEFT 735 cm, then UP 765 cm (6) Measure RIGHT 1100 cm, then DOWN 025 cm (7) Measure RIGHT 160 cm, then UP 230 cm (8) Measure RIGHT 265 cm, then DOWN 650 cm (9) Measure DOWN 060 cm, then LEFT 925 cm (10) Measure LEFT 330 cm, then UP 225 cm #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 Page 16
17 Page 17 START HERE A E B C D F G Z H I U Y V W X T K O L M N P Q J R S Space
18 Section 4: How to use measure Volume The process for measuring volume is very similar to the process for measuring distance The major difference is the tool that you use Volume is the measurement of how much space something takes up There are several different ways to find volumes The state of matter and shape of the object will determine which way you measure its volume Volumes are typically recorded in ml or cm 3 They represent the same amount of space In fact 1ml of water will fit perfectly into a box that is 1cm x 1cm x 1cm Liquids and gases are usually measured in ml, while solids are always measured in cm 3 Volumes of Liquids: In order to find the volume of liquids you will have to use a graduated cylinder A Graduated cylinder is read very similarly to the way a meter stick is read They come in different sizes, so make sure you first identify its size and precision before trying to use it Steps to reading a Graduated Cylinder 1 Determine the cylinders maximum capacity (The maximum capacity of the GC to the left is 50 ml) 2 Determine the values of the unnumbered graduation lines a It takes ten lines to go from 30 ml to 40 ml b So the change in volume number of lines 10 ml 10 lines = 1 ml per line 3 This now tells you that the smallest measurement that you can make with Graduated lines on this graduated cylinder is in the Ones place THIS IS THE PERCISION OF THIS TOOL 4 Just as you did with the meter stick, you will need to estimate how far the liquid is into the empty space between lines This estimated number is the next smallest place holder (In this case it is the tenths place) 5 The liquid in a graduated cylinder tends to have a curvature to it This curved shaped is called a Meniscus a It is a scientific standard to always read the meniscus from its lowest point b For example, the liquid in the graduated cylinder to the left is reading 429 ml Page 18
19 Volumes of Solid Objects: In order to find the volume of solid objects you might have to use a meter stick and a calculator All standard geometric shapes (Cubes, Cylinders, Spheres, etc), have a mathematical formula for determining volume Below are some of those formulas: Volume of Cube = Length x Width x Height (V = L x W x H) Volume of Cylinder = π x Radius 2 x Height (V = πr 2 H) R = 192 cm H = 235cm H = 700 cm W = 308 cm L = 781 cm V = π x R 2 x H V = L x W x H V = 781 cm x 308 cm x 235 cm V = π x (192 cm x 192 cm) x 700 cm V = 5623 cm 3 V = 8103 cm 3 Notice that the label for volume (cm 3 ) is created when 3 centimeter measurements are multiplied together cm x cm x cm = cm 3 Page 19
20 Some solid objects are not perfect geometric shapes (Cubes, Cylinders, Spheres, etc), so mathematical formulas will not work The volume can still be found if you understand the concept of displacement The Universal Law of Displacement states that no two things may occupy the same space at the same time For example if you enter your classroom and someone is sitting in your seat, they will have to move in order for you to sit there Or think about getting into a bath You put some water in the tub Then you get in what happens to the level of the water? As you get in, you push some of the water out of the way and this makes the water level rise When you get out, the water level will go back down The neat thing is, that the amount of water that moved out of the way is equal to the volume of the person that got in We can use this same concept to find the volume of irregularly shaped objects You put a known amount of water into a container (Graduated Cylinder), and drop an irregularly shaped object into the water The water will be displaced and the change in volume for the water will be equal to the volume of the object Direct Displacement Volume After = 555 ml Volume Before = 447 ml Volume AFTER 555 ml  Volume BEFORE ml Volume of water displaced 108 ml Volume of water Displaced = Volume of Object 108 ml = 108 cm 3 Volume Labels Solids = cm 3 Liquids = ml Gases = ml Since the rock is a SOLID object, the volume should be recorded in cm 3 Page 20
21 Name: Measuring Volumes Period: Date: Score Directions: Determine the volume of the following objects Make sure you show your work Height = 550 cm Width = 350 cm (1) Volume = Length = 1260 cm Height = 314 cm (2) Volume = Width = 275 cm Length = 1533 cm R = 286 cm H = 190 cm (3) Volume = R = 054 cm H = 613 cm (4) Volume = Page 21
22 (5) (6) Answer all of the following questions about this Graduated Cylinder? (a) Maximum Capacity: (b) Value of each unnumbered line: (C) Volume of the gray liquid: Answer all of the following questions about this Graduated Cylinder? (a) Maximum Capacity: (b) Value of each unnumbered line: (C) Volume of the gray liquid: (6) 3 (7) Answer all of the following questions about this Graduated Cylinder? (a) Maximum Capacity: (b) Value of each unnumbered line: (C) Volume of the gray liquid: Answer all of the following questions about this Graduated Cylinder? (a) Maximum Capacity: (b) Value of each unnumbered line: (C) Volume of the gray liquid: Page 22
23 REMEMBER: Anyone that brings a completed packet to their 8 th grade science teacher on the first or second day of school next year will earn 5 bonus points and a Free homework pass This offer is only good for your first or second day back to school Additionally, there will be a measurement test within the first few weeks of school Page 23
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