# Chapter 1 Lecture Notes: Economics for MBAs and Masters of Finance

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1 Chapter 1 Lecture Notes: Economics for MBAs and Masters of Finance Morris A. Davis Cambridge University Press stands for Gross Domestic Product. Nominal is the dollar value of all goods and services that are produced in the United States. Real is a measure of the quantity of all goods and services that are produced. 1st edition Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 1 / 46 Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 2 / 46 Growth in nominal from year t to year t + 1 is Example. Suppose everyone picks apples from trees. Price of an apple in year t is p a,t. The number of apples picked in year t is a t. Nominal in year t is p a,t a t. Real in year t is a t. p a,t+1 a t+1 p a,t a t and growth in real from year t to year t + 1 is a t+1 a t Real increases when apples are more plentiful. Nominal increases by more than real when the price of apples increases. Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 3 / 46 Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 4 / 46

2 Suppose now that households get utility from both apples and bananas. Suppose households get utility from apples. Then, when real increases, utility has increased. So in this simple example, growth in real is informative about growth in living standards utility). Let s define set the year 2000 as year t. The price of bananas in the year 2000 is p b,2000 and the number of bananas picked is b Nominal in 2000 is p a,2000 a p b,2000 b 2000 How do we define real? And however we define it, will it be informative about living standards? Note: This isn t so obvious. Suppose production of apples increases but production of bananas decreases? On net, is this bad or good? Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 5 / 46 Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 6 / 46 Here is the procedure. 1 First, for some arbitrary year currently 2000), nominal is set equal to real. This should tell you right away that the level of real is meaningless it is arbitrary. 2 However, growth in real is not meaningless and is calculated as real 2001 real = p a,2000 a p b,2000 b 2001 p a,2000 a p b,2000 b Divide num. and denom. by price of apples in 2000, p a,2000. real = p a,2000 a p b,2000 b real 2000 p a,2000 a p b,2000 b 2000 = a b 2001 a b 2000 pb,2000 p a,2000 ) pb,2000 p a,2000 ) 1.0. Numerator and denominator are equal to real in 2000 and 2001 in units of apples at year-2000 prices rather than real in constant year-2000 dollars). Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 7 / 46 Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 8 / 46

3 Nom. Real Year a p a b p b a p a b p b \$2000 apples \$ \$15.0 \$100.0 \$150.0 \$250.0 \$ \$ \$15.5 \$100.0 \$170.5 \$270.5 \$ The book shows that the expression for real growth reduces to ) a2001 φ a φ ) ) b b 2000 Growth in real, apple equivalents: 12.25/ = -2.0% Growth in real, constant year \$2000: 245.0/ = -2.0% φ 2000 is the fraction of nominal accounted for by purchases of apples. This is called the measured expenditure share on apples. 1 φ 2000 ) is the fraction of nominal accounted for by purchases of bananas Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 9 / 46 Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 10 / 46 Note that expenditure shares are updated every period, that is real growth from 2001 to 2002 is computed as ) a2002 φ a φ ) ) b b 2001 where φ 2001 and 1 φ ) 2001 are the measured expenditure shares on apples and bananas in Why does growth in real tell us anything useful? Well, suppose that households get utility from apples and bananas in year 2000 and 2001 of Then, the book shows that u 2000 = φlna 2000 ) + 1 φ) lnb 2000 ) u 2001 = φlna 2001 ) + 1 φ) lnb 2001 ) u 2001 u 2000 = φ a2001 a 2000 ) + 1 φ) b2001 b 2000 ) 1. So, if φ = φ, then utility increases whenever real growth is positive. Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 11 / 46 Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 12 / 46

4 2 caveats: 1 does not track all output produced in the U.S. It only tracks output sold in the marketplace. Work done at home that is non-marketed child-care, laundry, etc) is not included as. 2 Real growth tracks changes in living standards only if all is consumed each period. If some is set aside as investment, then changes in real growth are not necessarily linked to changes in living standards. Historical behavior of. 2007: Nominal was \$13,841.3 billion and real was \$11,566.8 billion base 2000). Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 13 / 46 Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 14 / Figure: Annual Real and Trend Real, , Log Scale Log Real Trend Log Real Real has increased at a roughly constant rate of about 3.6% per year Log Real Trend Log Real The growth rate of trend real slowed in 1973 to 3.0% per year. Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 15 / 46 Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 16 / 46

5 Components of Figure: Annual Real and Nominal, , Log Scale Economists find it useful to disaggregate total production) into a few key components. C + I + G + X M) Log Real Log Nominal With few exceptions, nominal has increased at a faster rate than real. Especially after WWII and during the 1970s. C = private consumption I = private investment G = government spending X = exports, M = imports, and X-M = net-exports This is called the expenditure side of measuring, since subdivides output into categories based on how the output is spent. Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 17 / 46 Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 18 / 46 Components of Components of Two more general notes about C, I, G, X-M before discussing in detail 1 Real C, I, G, X-M are each computed in an identical fashion to the apples-bananas example. 2 technical) Although = C + I + G + X M exactly holds for nominals, it does not exactly hold for reals. Consumption is anything that, once enjoyed today, cannot be enjoyed tomorrow. We will assert in future lectures) that households get utility from real consumption. My French friends like to use the example of a massage for consumption. Maybe electricity is more appropriate. Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 19 / 46 Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 20 / 46

6 Components of Components of Sometimes consumption is hard to measure: Consumption of Housing Services: Do not want to count the value of a house as consumption. This is because a house lasts 80 years or more. So, measure the stream of rental services, count that as consumption. Consumption as defined by the BEA includes purchases of other durable goods. This is wrong Consumption data: Nominal Real base 2000) Excluding Durables \$8,627.4 \$7,010.4 Including Durables \$9,710.2 \$8,252.8 Figure: Ratio of Annual Nominal Consumption Excluding Durables) to Annual Nominal, Consumption share is about 60 percent. It is about 10 percentage points higher if we include durables. Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 21 / 46 Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 22 / 46 Components of Components of Figure: Detrended Log Real Consumption Excluding Durables) and Log Real, Investment does not provide us with any utility today. Investment is anything we store away that provides us with the potential for consumption tomorrow. Nominal investment in 2007 was \$2,130.4 billion and real investment was \$1, base) Detrended Log Real Detrended Log Real Consumption xcl. Durables) Importantly, real consumption is less volatile than real. In this sample, real consumption is about 70 percent as volatile. This means that either I, G, or M-X must be more volatile than. Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 23 / 46 Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 24 / 46

7 Components of Components of Another way of saying this: investment adds to our capital stock; capital is a factor of production; thus investment enables us to produce more. K t+1 = K t δk t + I t The future capital stock equals the current stock, less depreciated capital, plus investment. The big sub-categories of investment in the NIPA reflect this idea: Equipment and software spending 48% of I in 2007) Non-residential structures 23% of I in 2007) Residential structures 30% of I in 2007) Change in Inventories 0% of I in 2007) Figure: Ratio of Annual Nominal Gross Private Domestic Investment to Annual Nominal, Since 1950, investment share of has been about 16 percent. Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 25 / 46 Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 26 / 46 Components of Components of Figure: Detrended Log Real Gross Private Domestic Investment and Detrended Log Real, Detrended Log Real Detrended Log Real Investment Real investment is 4-5 times more volatile than real. Three main points about government spending: 1 The share of accounted for by all government spending has been relatively stable at 20 percent since Government spending G) is itself subdivided into federal and state and local governments, government consumption and investment for feds and s-l, consumption and investment for non-defense and defense for the federal government. The single-biggest line-item expenditure in 2007 is for state and local consumption education spending). 3 Government spending is not necessarily related to tax receipts or government surpluses or deficits. Many of the tax receipts collected by the federal government is transferred back to people Medicare, Social Security, etc.) Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 27 / 46 Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 28 / 46

8 Components of Components of Explanation Denote income net of taxes as Y T. Suppose households either consume C) or save their income Suppose for saving households either invest in companies I) or buy newly issued government bonds B). C + I + B) = Y T Rearrange terms and add up across all households: C + I + B + T) = Y If Y = it does) and net exports are 0, then G = B + T. Also note that B does not crowd out private investment, although G may. In this chapter, we do not have much to say about net exports Chapter 4 discusses trade in more detail except net exports allow C + I + G to be different than. Suppose C = as is about true now), and G = 0 as is NOT true now). Then I = X M) = M X. This means that our investment is not zero, but rather foreigners are financing our investment they are buying our capital stock. Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 29 / 46 Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 30 / 46 More Accounting More Accounting So far, we have talked about the expenditure side we have sub-divided into categories based on spending. But every time a dollar is spent a dollar is earned. So we could have sub-divided using the income side. In practice, the expenditure side does not exactly equal the income side, the difference is called the statistical discrepancy. In our models, we will specify that output is produced using technology, capital, and labor. We will assume yes) that the same technology is freely available to all firms. This means that firms use only two costly inputs, capital and labor. So in our income-accounting, it will be useful to see how much output income) accrues to capital and how much accrues to labor. Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 31 / 46 Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 32 / 46

9 More Accounting More Accounting The NIPA National Income and Product Accounts) do not cleanly divided up income into labor and capital income. However, some categories of income are reported in the NIPA are clearly capital income. Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 33 / 46 Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 34 / 46 More Accounting More Accounting Let s assume that the fraction of ambiguous income that should be attributed to capital is the same as the economy-wide capital share. α Total Income = Unambig Cap Income + α Ambig Income This implies α = Unambig Cap Income Total Income Ambig Income The procedure produces a stable estimate for α of Figure: Capital s Share of Income α), Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 35 / 46 Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 36 / 46

10 More Accounting More Accounting Unfortunately, we re not managing globalization properly. Instead of working for all of us, globalization is working only for a few of us. Why does this matter? Because politicians think that labor s share of income has fallen recently. This is because they are focusing on changes to only one component of income called corporate profits. On the next page, text is copied from a recent speech by Hillary Clinton May 29, 2007) Now, it is working for corporations. Corporate profits have grown an average of 13% a year since 2001, adjusted for inflation. It s working for CEOs who ve seen their pay go from 24 times the typical worker s in 1965, to 262 times the typical worker in And it s working for Americans with incomes at the very top. In 2005, all income gains went to the top 10% of households, while the bottom 90% saw their incomes decline, in spite of the fact that worker productivity has increased for six years. Now, in past economic expansions, that s not the way it was. In the past, about 75% of net corporate revenues have gone to employee compensation, and only 25% to profits. However, for the past five years, the comparable figures are 41% going to employee compensation and 59% going to profits. Think about this: last year, the share of America s national income going to corporate profits was the highest since 1929 while the share going to the salaries of American workers was the lowest. Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 37 / 46 Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 38 / 46 More Accounting More Accounting The next page shows you the facts! Note: The sum of the two lines is < 1.0) Employee Compensation as a Pct. of Income Corporate Profits as a Pct. of Income Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 39 / 46 Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 40 / 46

11 Inflation Inflation Inflation is not the level of prices. It is the rate of change of prices. In the media the use of the word inflation depends on the situation: Can refer to rate of change of all prices, rate of change of some prices, or the rate of change of one price. Let s return to the scenario where is all apples. The rate of change of apple prices and banana prices is apples bananas p a,2001 p a, p b,2001 p b, The inflation rate on a basket of apples and bananas is ) pa,2001 φ p φ ) ) p b, , a,2000 p b,2000 exactly analogous to how we calculate real growth. Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 41 / 46 Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 42 / 46 Inflation Inflation Figure: Annual Inflation Rate, All Consumption and Consumption Excl. Food and Energy, Policy-makers tend to focus on the inflation rate for all consumption goods. Two sources: CPI, consumer price index, collected the BLS. Sample of urban consumers. Technical Note: Expenditure shares are not updated every period. NIPA consumption excluding food and energy Core consumption) Inflation Rate, All Consumption Inflation Rate, Consumption Excl. Food and Energy Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 43 / 46 Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 44 / 46

12 Inflation Inflation In measures of consumer price inflation, the price of investment goods is not taken into account. This can lead to confusion. The biggest source of confusion: inflation to house prices is not counted as part of consumer price inflation. This is because housing is an investment. Rather, rental prices including imputed rents to owner-occupied homes) are in the CPI, since rents are the consumption stream spun off by housing. From 1997:1-2007:4 rents have increased by 46 percent but house prices have increased by about 90 percent. This is why the commentators think that the government is playing tricks. Most of the rest of this book abstracts from inflation that is, the inflation rate is assumed to be zero. This is done for two reasons: 1 Inflation is easy to understand. If the government prints money, and real output has not increased, there will be inflation. 2 Inflation is too hard to understand. At 2 to 4 year horizons, inflation and may be causally linked. We don t have a commonly-accepted theory for why this would be true, and there is still some debate about the size of the correlation and whether it has changed over time). Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 45 / 46 Morris A. Davis Cambridge U Press) Chapter 1 1st edition 46 / 46

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