Body Composition & Its Affects on the Sports Performance Spectrum

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1 Body Composition & Its Affects on the Sports Performance Spectrum

2 Body Composition Affects Having a certain body fat to muscle mass ratio is related to athletic performance. Research has shown that t increased muscle mass increases strength, power, and agility. Spaniol FJ. (1997). Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 11(4): 286. Spaniol FJ. (2002). Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 16(4): Performance

3 General Body Fat Percentage Categories *American Council on Exercise Classification Women Men Essential 10-12% 2-4% Athletest 14-20% 6-13% Fitness 21-24% 14-17% Acceptable 25-31% 18-25% Plus 32% plus 25% plus

4 Percentage by Sport Sport Male Female Baseball 12-15% 12-18% Basketball 6-12% 20-27% 27% Cycling 5-15% 15-20% Field & Ice Hockey 8-15% 12-18% Rowing 6-14% 12-18% Swimming 9-12% 14-24% Track-Runners 8-10% 12-20% Track-Jumpers 7-12% 10-18% Track-Throwers 14-20% 20-28% Triathlon 5-12% 10-15%

5 EVERY DAY EATING! 3 Out of 4 Student Athletes May NOT be Getting Enough to EAT! Hinton, P et al 345 women and men involved in competitive sports. She found that 70% of the women and 73% of the men were not getting enough total calories, only 81% of the women and 90% of the men were consuming enough carbohydrates, and just 68% of the women and 81% of the men were eating enough protein based on USDA guidelines. Intakes of salt, total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol often exceeded recommendations, even in diets deficient in major components. Many students felt they needed to lose weight, and sub-clinical eating disorders were common.

6 Challenge the Meaning of % Body Fat Don t just look at Body Fat percentage!!! Review how much lean mass an athlete has Is it enough or is it too much?

7 BEFORE CASE STUDY: Football-Linebacker FOLLOW-UP Body Fat 12.2% Male, 16yo, 5 11, 195 lb 184lb lean weight 12.8% body fat 170lb of lean weight 5800kcals/day 3500kcal/day Outcome: Linebacker Gained 15lb Lean Goals: Mass Increase 40 yd dash Increased 40yd dash from seconds from Gain 20 lbs of lean mass seconds Get t a Football Offered a Full-Ride Scholarship Scholarship over the summer!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

8 Assists in the type of Fuel Mixture an Athlete t Needs Higher Body Fat 45-50% Cho, 25% Protein, and 25-30% Healthy Fat Lower metabolism 1 in 4 NFL Players Classified as Extremely Obese WebMD Medical News 7/1756_54621 Lower Body Fat 55-60% Cho, 18-25% Protein, 15-25% Healthy Fat Higher Metabolism

9 Measurement Tool for Strength Training & Sports Nutrition Implementation lb Age % Body Fat 24.2lb Fat Weight 130.5lb Lean Weight Finished 6 th in State Previous Year Needs to Gain Lean tissue, finish strong, and increase speed NUTRITION & EXERCISE SCHEDULE Only eating ~2000kcal a day 5am Swim 1 ½hr Breakfast: Sausage Sandwich Lunch: Pizza, Fries, Juice 3pm Swim 2 hrs, 1/2 hr lifting 3x wk Dinner: Meat, Vegetables, Grain Snack: Juice or fruit

10 # Month Follow up 10lb on the scale 19.9lb total of lean mass gained 2 sec faster off back stroke

11 Injury and Rehabilitation Return to Play Pre Season (Aug) Male Basketball Player 233lb 18% body fat 42lb Body Fat 191lb of Lean Weight 5 months ACL Rehab Happened 1 month into season 240lb 25% Body Fat 60lb of Body Fat 180lb Lean Weight

12 Freshman Athletes--Collegiate Many Female athletes gain weight during the first year due to weight training Female athletes are more vulnerable to developing an eating disorder (Kirk, Singh, & Getz, 2001). Measuring body composition can reassure them they are gaining the right weight Example: University Female Soccer team Only an athlete for a short part of their life

13 High School Athlete I knew last year the varsity basketball team was counting on me to play the point this year so I knew I had to get stronger, faster and gain some weight so I wouldn t get pushed around by older opponents. When basketball season started, I jumped on the scales again and discovered that I had gained 10 pounds! With another visit to the Bod Pod, Dawn figured out that 8 ½ of those pounds were lean muscle! I couldn t have been happier! I not only was stronger and faster, but I had put on enough muscle to be able to play at the varsity level without getting g pushed around! I can t thank her enough and my plans are to work with Dawn again during the offseason to add some additional lean weight. Thanks Dawn and SN2Go, Devin Beasley

14 Disordered Eating Have info the whole time in program Thompson & Gabriel, 2004 for reports of equivalent rates of eating disordered d d behavior in both athletes and non-athletes. Weight same and body fat up Body fat drops to fast Proof to the athlete that she/he can not deny

15 TOOL FOR ATC s: The FAST Score The Female Athlete Screening Tool Useful tool for identifying eating pathology and triggering timely interventions J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108:

16 CASE STUDY: Women s Basketball BEFORE FOLLOW-UP Female, Female 19yo, 6 0, 20yo, , lb lb 25.7% body fat 11.1% 1% body fat 128.2lb of lean weight 127.8lb of lean 44.4lb of body fat weight Aug 15 th lb Body Fat April 21 st, 2006

17 Female Athletic Triad--Tri Athlete More about Calories Prior 2100kcal/day No menstrual cycle Body Fat 18% Post kcal/day Menstrual Cycle in two months 2-3 pound wt gain and stabilized Body Fat %18.2 PR

18 Ways to measure Hydrostatic weighing Bod Pod Dexa Scan Skin folds Lange Syndex MUST BE ACCURATE!!!!

19 Opens up dialogue with Nutritionist Recommend Nutritionist i t does the testst Just athlete/atc/no coaches (maybe) If body composition is 18% or below, ask if normal menstrual cycle Female athletic triad Bone loss Immune system Able to explain test and answer questions Don t always have to tell them the number Recommend at least 2x a year---optimal 4x a year

20 Thank You! Dawn Weatherwax-Fall, RD, CSSD, LD, ATC, CSCS Sports Nutrition 2Go

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