Coaching Course Workbook

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1 Coaching Course Workbook PROJECT COORDINATOR Pat Richardson, MEd EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Katie Wilson, PhD, SNS National Food Service Management Institute The University of Mississippi 2015

2 National Food Service Management Institute The University of Mississippi Building the Future Through Child Nutrition The National Food Service Management Institute was authorized by Congress in 1989 and established in 1990 at The University of Mississippi in Oxford and is operated in collaboration with The University of Southern Mississippi in Hattiesburg. The Institute operates under a grant agreement with the United States Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service. PURPOSE The purpose of the National Food Service Management Institute is to improve the operation of child nutrition programs through research, education and training, and information dissemination. MISSION The mission of the National Food Service Management Institute is to provide information and services that promote the continuous improvement of child nutrition programs. VISION The vision of the National Food Service Management Institute is to be the leader in providing education, research, and resources to promote excellence in child nutrition programs. This project has been funded at least in part with Federal funds from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service through an agreement with the National Food Service Management Institute at The University of Mississippi. The contents of this publication do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. government. The University of Mississippi is an EEO/AA/TitleVI/Title IX/Section 504/ADA/ADEA Employer. In accordance with Federal law and U.S. Department of Agriculture policy, this institution is prohibited from discriminating on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, age, or disability. To file a complaint of discrimination, write USDA, Director, Office of Civil Rights; Room 326-W, Whitten Building, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC or call (202) (voice and TDD). USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer. 2015, National Food Service Management Institute, The University of Mississippi Except as provided below, you may freely use the text and information contained in this document for non-profit or educational use with no cost to the participant for the training providing the following credit is included. These materials may not be incorporated into other websites or textbooks and may not be sold. Suggested Reference Citation: National Food Service Management Institute. (2015). Coaching course workbook. University, MS: Author. The photographs and images in this document may be owned by third parties and used by The University of Mississippi under a licensing agreement. The University cannot, therefore, grant permission to use these images. For more information, please contact ii

3 Table of Contents Course Checklist.. 1 Lesson Objectives. 3 Lesson 1: What is Coaching? Lesson 2: The Effective Coach Lesson 3: Coaching Models Appendix Activity Answer Keys...43 References.53 iii

4 Course Checklist Instructions: In the blanks provided, you can make a check by each assignment as it is completed. Introduction Prepare for your class by setting a date and time to take the course, download the course workbook, and have supplies (pen and paper) ready. Lesson 1: What is Coaching? 1. Lesson 1 Pre-Quiz 2. Key Principles of Coaching Handout 3. Benefits of Effective Coaching Handout 4. Comparing Coaching and Mentoring Handout 5. Coaching or Mentoring Activity 6. Lesson 1 Post-Quiz Lesson 2: The Effective Coach 1. Lesson 2 Pre-Quiz 2. Roles of a Coach Handout 3. Characteristics of an Effective Coach Handout 4. Effective Coaching Skills and Techniques Handout 5. Tips for Open Communication Handout 6. Types of Effective Questions Handout 7. The Art of Active Listening Handout 8. Tips for Providing Effective Feedback Handout 9. Reflection Activity 10. Lesson 2 Post-Quiz 1

5 Lesson 3: Coaching Models 1. Lesson 3 Pre-Quiz 2. Setting S.M.A.R.T. Goals Handout 3. S.M.A.R.T. Goal Setting Activity 4. Coaching Models Handout 5. Case Study Activities 6. Lesson 3 Post-Quiz Signature Date 2

6 Lesson Objectives Lesson 1 1. Define coaching. 2. Discuss four key principles of coaching. 3. Describe the benefits of effective coaching. 4. Identify the similarities and differences of coaching and mentoring Lesson 2 1. Describe the roles of an effective coach. 2. List four characteristics of an effective coach. 3. Apply coaching skills and techniques to facilitate an effective training. 4. Discuss active listening. Lesson 3 1. Discuss two models of coaching. 2. Explain S.M.A.R.T. Goals. 3. Identify some similarities of the five models of coaching. 4. Recognize two ways coaching can be used as a leadership style. 5. Discuss four steps managers can use to develop a positive relationship with their staff. 3

7 What is Coaching? Lesson 1 4

8 Key Principles of Coaching The following are some key principles of coaching. Listening and Communication It is more important for the coach to listen and understand the needs of the coachee than it is for the coach to speak. An effective coach will listen to help the coachee overcome their fears, will not judge or influence the coachee on their actions or feelings, and will give their undivided attention and support. Listening is a two way communication. The speaker (coachee) must be able to convey the content of their message so the listener can understand. The listener (coach) must be able to interpret and reflect back what they heard and convey that they understood the content of the message. To do this, the listener should repeat in their own words the message they heard the speaker say. Repeating back what the listener heard will help to remove any barriers and misunderstandings. This type of communication will help to develop an effective coaching relationship. Motivation A coach must understand what motivates the coachee. Building a good rapport with the coachee is vital to the relationship between the coach and coachee. The coach should ask questions and inspire the coachee to generate ideas and unlock their potential to create solutions. As the coachee generates ideas and suggestions, the coach provides support. Observing and providing feedback will encourage the success and motivation of the coachee to achieve their goals. One technique a coach can use to help the coachee evaluate and improve their ideas is by asking questions. This technique encourages the coachee to establish responsibility and accountability for their actions and decisions. Build Self-Esteem A coach does not criticize or form an opinion of decisions made or actions taken by the person being coached. The coach is to help the coachee see a clear picture and understand the outcome of the decisions they make. Once the coachee understands the outcome, they can either move forward or step back to see if there are other avenues to take. The coach can give specific positive feedback to describe desired results, which builds confidence and self-esteem in the coachee. The coachee will develop self-esteem when given the opportunity to learn through making mistakes and achieving goals. Supporting the coachee with encouragement and the recognition of above standard performance helps them to realize they are capable of high achievement and helps to build self-esteem. Focus on Solutions A coach must always provide support; however, he should not provide the answers to questions. This principle is based on treating people with respect. Asking coachees to identify their own solutions shows respect for them and indicates the 5

9 coach values their ideas. The coach can expand on the ideas by asking open-ended questions. The coach and coachee develop equal roles in analyzing the problem. As the coachee focuses on possible solutions, the problem becomes manageable. Challenge Coaching is about change. The challenge is the coachee s willingness to change. A coach can help the coachee with changes by encouraging him/her to look for new perspectives. Coaching can help coachees become aware of other options which will lead to the coachee taking action and experiencing a behavioral change. Everyone is capable of achieving more. The coach must open the coachee s eyes to help them see their potential. Achieving Results Achieving results is an ongoing process. Coaching allows the coachee to discover new perspectives which leads to more options. With more options the coachee can take action and make changes. It is through coaching that people move forward, achieve their goals, and make changes. Coachees begin to take responsibility for their decisions and learn from their mistakes. The coach offers encouragement and support and acknowledges the successes of the coachee. 6

10 Benefits of Effective Coaching Coaching offers many benefits beginning with the relationship that is developed between the coach and coachee, and continues when the coachee is on the job, making decisions and taking action on those decisions. The following lists some of the benefits of coaching: improves and strengthens job-related skills. allows better customer service, improves communication, identifies problem areas and helps to correct them, recognizes coachee s strengths and gives them feedback they need to succeed, team coaching helps those working together get on the same level, builds the confidence of an individual to become a team player. improves performance. increases competence and professional development by helping the individual assess their strengths and weaknesses, promotes individual and team excellence, develops a commitment to common goals, produces valuable leaders, boosts productivity, improves retention, motivates to improve skills, and builds valuable job-related skills and knowledge. 7

11 Comparing Coaching and Mentoring Coaching and mentoring are often used interchangeably; however, they are not the same. Both coaching and mentoring involve a relationship between a coach/mentor and a coachee/mentee. Coaching focuses on building skills and competencies, but mentoring focuses on teaching organizational and developmental skills. Below are some similarities and differences of coaching and mentoring. Both Coaching and Mentoring: facilitate the exploration of the needs, motivation, desires, skills, and thought processes to assist the individual in making real and lasting change. use questioning techniques to facilitate the coachee s (mentee s) thought process in order to identify solutions and actions rather than take a direct approach. have a coach (mentor) who observes, listens, and asks questions to understand the coachee s (mentee s) situation. encourage and develop lasting personal growth and change. maintain a positive attitude for the coachee (mentee), which means that the coach (mentor) is supportive and non-judgmental of the coachee s (mentee s) view points and decisions. encourage the coachee (mentee) to continually improve competencies and create new developmental alliances where necessary to achieve their goals. involve good listening skills from the coach (mentor). rely on trust, confidence, and openness and should offer an opportunity for the individual to speak, clarify thoughts, and put things in perspective. involve one-on-one active, ongoing participation between a coach (mentor) and coachee (mentee) in a partnership. Coaching: builds a relationship based on choices not advice. is an ongoing process to help the coachee gain confidence and overcome barriers to improve performance. involves a change in behavior. is designed to move a person from one place to another in their professional and personal life. focuses on how things are done; not what things are done. guides a person through a process that will lead to improved performance. helps to reinforce and improve on-the-job performance. is used to resolve problems. 8

12 enables learning and development to occur, thus improving performance. unlocks the coachee s potential to maximize their own performance. is non-directive. allows the coachee to set the agenda, not the coach. focuses on helping the coachee reach their desired goals. is appropriate when an individual has the knowledge and ability to do a job, but their performance is low, and they do not meet expectations. allows the coachee to reflect, think through the options clearly, and determine a course of action that they feel motivated to follow. has a definite purpose with a start and end time. allows coachees to get out of their comfort zone to explore more of their potential. is solution focused and results-oriented to enhance the work performance and selfdirected learning of the coachee. is often short-term and assigned. Mentoring: can be considered a model for coaching. is typically a one-on-one program with an established, experienced mentor working closely with the mentee so the mentor can share his/her knowledge, skills, perceptions, experiences, and advice with the mentee to build a relationship. is often not bound by a set agenda and is designed to show the mentee the internal procedures of the organization. helps a less experienced mentee develop and grow in their career. is a long-term commitment with a broad range, including guidance toward professional education and career choices. is a subject-matter expert who takes a novice to guide and inspire him throughout his growth. 9

13 Coaching or Mentoring Activity Instructions: Read each of the scenarios and decide if it is coaching, mentoring, or both. 1. Tom has been working with Sue for about two months. Sue comes to Tom with a problem that she cannot figure out. She asks for his help in making a decision. Instead of telling her how to solve the problem, he asks her several questions to open her thought process so she can determine how to solve the problem. A. Coaching B. Mentoring C. Both 2. Sally s supervisor introduces her to Sam, an expert in Sally s field. The supervisor explains to Sally that Sam will be working with her, advising her, and sharing his experiences and knowledge about the job. If Sally has any questions about anything, she is to ask Sam. A. Coaching B. Mentoring C. Both 3. Joe has worked for ABC Technology as a technician for three years. Lately, his supervisor has noticed that Joe s work is not up to his usual standards. Concerned about Joe and his work, Joe s supervisor asks Steve, a senior technician, to work with Joe to determine if the problem may be work-related. Steve is not to judge Joe on his work or the decisions he makes but is to help Joe work with any problems or barriers he may encounter. A. Coaching B. Mentoring C. Both 10

14 4. Peggy, a manager in one of the local school nutrition programs, has several new staff members this year and wants them to feel at ease while learning a new job. She assigns experienced staff to the new staff members to show them around the kitchen, indicate where the recipes are kept demonstrate how to use the equipment, and review procedures for recording the food production records, inventory procedures, and serving on the line. A. Coaching B. Mentoring C. Both 5. Jane, a school nutrition director, has hired two new managers, Mary and Bill. Mary, one of the new hires, was promoted in the child nutrition program, and Jane expects that Mary will do a great job. Mary had worked with one of Jane s best managers to learn the job of a manager. Jane knew she would need to work with both of the new managers but decided to work with Bill first since he was fresh out of college. She knew Bill would have many questions and might need encouragement to build self-confidence. The first week with Bill went very well. Jane listened to Bill s suggestions on how he thought they could increase participation for breakfast and lunch. He understood many of the processes and procedures required of the child nutrition program. After observing Bill for a week, Jane was pleased with his progress and suggested they plan a time to sit down and talk about his ideas for the child nutrition program. A. Coaching B. Mentoring C. Both 6. Paula, a seasoned cook at a high school, has been asked to work with Sara, a new employee, to show her how things are done in their child nutrition program. Sara has never worked in a school cafeteria or any kitchen before. The lack of experience presents a challenge for Paula. She decides to make a plan and start at the beginning by sharing the knowledge, skills, and experiences she has developed over the years. Because Sara has no experience, Paula knows this will be a long-term relationship but is willing to do her best and offer the guidance and advice Sara will need to become a child nutrition professional. A. Coaching B. Mentoring C. Both 11

15 Lesson 1 Pre- and Post-Quiz 1. What is coaching? a. Coaching is an on-going process of learning and developing skills and knowledge. b. Coaching is the same as training and mentoring. c. Coaching is telling the coachee what to do. d. Coaching is the coach taking responsibility, accountability, and authority of the outcomes of the coachee. 2. Coaching a. focuses on the judgment and opinions of the coach. b. focuses on solutions, not answers, and the coachee s willingness to change. c. focuses on the coach and the changes a coach can encourage the coachee to make. d. focuses on the coachee listening to the coach s needs. 3. Coaching can provide many benefits. Which of the following is NOT a benefit of coaching? a. It gives the coachee a way to connect and learn from others. b. It allows the coachee to build professional and personal development. c. It discourages open communication with everyone except the coach. d. It helps the coachee gain confidence, improve job performance, and competence. 4. The coach can help build the coachee s self-esteem by a. forming an opinion about the decisions and actions taken by the coachee. b. encouraging the coachee to move forward with a wrong or bad decision. c. instructing the coachee what decisions to make and the actions to take on that decision. d. providing positive feedback to encourage the coachee to look at all options available. 5. Coaching and mentoring can be used interchangeably. a. True b. False 6. There are many principles of coaching. Some of the key principles are a. challenge, confidence, and communication. b. listening, motivation, and low self-esteem. c. commitment, motivation, and focus on answers. d. achieving results, challenge, and focus on solutions. 7. Coaching and mentoring are similar in many ways, but they are also different. Which of the following is one way they are different? a. Involves good listening skills and relies on trust, confidence, and openness. b. Uses questioning techniques to identify solutions and actions to take. c. An individual s maximum potential is unlocked. d. Encourages and develops lasting personal growth and change. 12

16 8. Coaching and mentoring are similar in many ways. Which of the following is a way coaching and mentoring are similar? a. Both encourage and develop lasting personal growth and change. b. Both facilitate the exploration of the needs, motivation, desires, skills, and thought processes to assist the individual in making real and lasting change. c. Both are long-term commitments. d. Both involve good listening skills and using questioning techniques. 13

17 The Effective Coach Lesson 2 14

18 Roles of a Coach Coaching is built upon a trusting relationship between the coach and coachee. There are five main roles of an effective coach. 1. The coach as an advisor builds trust focuses on raising the coachee s awareness and self-knowledge by asking questions focuses on solutions and not problems must be someone the coachee can trust with any personal problems or issues the coachee has 2. The coach must be a supporter who is a strong ally, who encourages the coachee when needed who to help the coachee unlock their potential by inspiring new ideas and encouraging creativity who prepares the coachee for the future by building lasting personal strengths to be successful 3. The coach must be a trusted friend who must deal with sensitive issues that are only appropriate for a trusted friend to address who listens to help the coachee develop a positive attitude through open communication 4. The coach as a facilitator must focus on managing the coaching process observe, listen, and ask questions guide the coachee, with encouragement, and empowerment by giving the confidence needed to complete and achieve his goals serve as a good listener, and devote time when the coachee needs to work through a problem or situation to form a conclusion inspire, asks questions, summarize, paraphrase, and reflect on what the coachee has said to help the coachee achieve the desired results 15

19 5. Who has final consent or approval? The coach is in control of the coaching process. The coachee is in control of the content. It is the coachee s responsibility to take ownership of their decisions. The coach s role is to guide or facilitate the coachee through any experiences without telling them what to do or without making any judgments on their decisions. 16

20 Characteristics of an Effective Coach Successful and effective coaches continually learn from their experiences and study coaching seriously. They care about the person they are coaching and want them to be successful. The following are some characteristics of an effective coach. How many of these characteristics do you possess? An effective coach is clear. An effective coach is focused. An effective coach is goal-oriented. An effective coach is supportive. An effective coach is truthful. An effective coach is trusting. An effective coach is respectful. An effective coach is observant. An effective coach is resourceful. An effective coach is patient. An effective coach is positive. An effective coach is enthusiastic. What other characteristics can you think of that an effective coach should possess? In the space below, write as many characteristic as you can. During this course you may think of others; when you do, return to this page, and add them to this list. 17

21 Effective Coaching Skills and Techniques The coach should possess specific skills and incorporate various techniques for the coaching process to be successful. The coach s focus is the coachee and the coachee s success. The following lists are not inclusive, but are important skills and techniques an effective coach should have and use. Skills A coach must be able to Build a trusting relationship with the coachee. Show an interest in the coachee. Value the opinions and suggestions of the coachee. Work with the coachee to set goals, make plans to achieve those goals, and challenge the coachee when appropriate. Create awareness for better decision making and problem solving. Communicate clear and direct dialogue. The coach has the opportunity to express his expectations of the coachee and the coachee has the opportunity to express concerns. Give the coachee positive and encouraging reinforcement. Be supportive. Give the coachee undivided attention. Be patient. Listen to hear what the coachee is saying. Watch the coachee for non-verbal communication such as body language and facial expressions. Ask a question, then give the coachee time to answer the question. Ask open-ended questions to give the coachee an opportunity to explore new ideas. Ask questions for clarification and understanding without influencing the coachee. Hold the coachee accountable for decisions made without putting the coachee on the defensive. Be open-minded, non-judgmental, and provide constructive feedback. Techniques The following are some techniques that coaches have used and found effective in the coaching process: Open communication between the coach and coachee allows both to be honest when presenting ideas and suggestions. It helps to develop a trusting relationship. Active listening is a technique used for effective communication. The coach must be prepared to listen intently to what the coachee says without forming an opinion. Be objective. Listen without interrupting. 18

22 Keep an open mind. Hold all questions until the coachee has finished speaking. Brainstorming is a technique a coach can use to challenge the coachee. The challenge is to maximize the coachee s potential and provide them the opportunity to expand their thinking and look at a situation with a new perspective. Effective questions are used to explore new ideas and possibilities. Ask open-ended questions to encourage the coachee to learn more and challenge him. Ask questions that are clear and will not influence the coachee s judgment or decision making. Ask questions for clarification and understanding. Providing feedback is an important technique in coaching. If handled wrong, it can destroy the trusting relationship the coach has developed with the coachee. Constructive feedback should be specific and descriptive. Feedback should focus on the behaviors the coachee can change. Feedback should be done in a timely manner, but when the coachee is ready to receive it. The feedback should be clear and understood by the coachee. Reflecting is a technique used to validate that the coach is listening to what the coachee said. The coach will repeat back to the coachee his exact words. The coach does not have to agree with what the coachee said. Reflecting clarifies any misunderstandings or misconceptions the coach may have. Reflecting creates a good rapport with the coachee because it shows that the coach is listening. 19

23 Tips for Open Communication Open communication is when two or more people freely exchange ideas. It creates a trusting relationship between the coach and coachee. Open communication helps the coach and coachee better understand problems or situations that may occur and can improve decision making and problem solving. The following are tips and techniques that can be used in an open communication environment: The coach should encourage an open exchange of ideas and information to let the coachee know their ideas will be respected and not overlooked. Open interactions help to build a stronger relationship. Help the coachee feel comfortable expressing honest opinions and ideas. Communication between the coach and coachee is very effective for problem-solving because of the free exchange of ideas. The coach should make eye contact with the coachee. The coach should watch their body language. It is better to stand with your hands clasped in front of you. Never stand with your hands on your hips or cross your arms. Do not interrupt while the coachee is speaking. A coach should always wait until the coachee is finished speaking before they respond. The coach should speak clearly and concisely. Check with the coachee for understanding and make sure what you said is clear. When the coachee is finished speaking, repeat what was just said to make sure it was understood. Be patient. Give the coachee time to communicate any issues or problems they are having. When the coach focuses on what the coachee is saying it will give the coachee assurance the coach is willing to assist with any issues. The coach should follow up on issues or problems the coachee has. This action will let the coachee know the coach is concerned and committed. It also creates a sense of loyalty and confidence. 20

24 Types of Effective Questions Asking questions is a very important part of coaching. The technique is not the question the coach asks, but how he asks the question. Coaches use questions to establish communication with the coachee to open the coachee s mind to knowledge and understanding, obtain clarifying information, begin a conversation, test for understanding, and show interest in what the coachee says. There are many types of questions coaches can ask, but the following are the most useful types of questions: Open-ended/learning questions are designed to encourage the coachee to think and express their knowledge and explore new ideas. They encourage the coachee to express an answer in more than one or two words. Open-ended questions give the coachee a sense of trust which makes it easier for them to open up and answer questions. The coachee is more at ease talking about problems they have encountered. What are some characteristics of open-ended/learning questions? They develop a sense of trust. They require the coachee to think and reflect. The coachee will give their opinion and feelings. The coachee is in the control of the conversation. Closed questions can usually be answered with one or two words. Closed questions are designed to retrieve specific information or to obtain facts. This type of question gives the person asking the questions control of the conversation or discussion. Although asking the coachee questions is an opportunity for them to think, express their feelings, and encourage open conversation, closed questions can be used to focus the conversation on a specific topic to ensure the answers are clear and concise. Afterward, the coach can use open-ended questions to gather more information or to encourage the coachee to explore the topic. What are some characteristics of closed questions? They require the coachee to give you facts. They are easy for the coachee to answer. They allow the coachee to give quick answers. They give control of the conversation to the coach. 21

25 Reflective questions permit the coachee to think about what they will say before responding. A reflective question is asked when more information or knowledge is needed. Using reflective questions allows the coach to build on what the coachee already knows, is currently doing, what they have done, and how the coaching process has helped them. What are some characteristics of reflective questions? They create awareness of what the coachee knows and understands. They allow the coachee to explore the actions of what they are currently doing or actions that have already happened. They allow the coachee to reflect on the possible outcomes of the actions currently being taken or reflect on the outcomes of actions that have been taken. They give the coachee the opportunity to reflect on how the coaching process helped them. They can help the coachee evaluate the coaching relationship and the complete process. Power questions are questions that only the coachee knows the answers. These questions are asked of the coachee to gather evidence about their solutions or ways of handling difficult situations that have worked for them. Often the solutions are unique ways the coachee used to handle a difficult situation. When a coach actively listens to the coachee discuss their solutions, the coach is building a trusting relationship with the coachee. This relationship increases the coachee s awareness of their strengths and skills. Power questions allow the coach to tap into the coachee s potential by giving the coachee a sense of ownership of their skills and abilities. What are some characteristics of power questions? They are often unique solutions developed by the coachee. They generate answers that only the coachee knows. They help to build a trusting relationship between the coach and coachee. They increase awareness of the coachee s strengths and skills and gives a sense of ownership of their skills and abilities. Leading questions can influence the coachee to answer the question in a certain way. They are directional and can either include the answer or direct the coachee to the answer. Leading questions are not a good choice because they might result in misleading conclusions or false information. A coach using leading question is directing the coachee to think the coach s way and this is not the purpose of coaching. 22

26 What are some characteristics of leading questions? They can be influential to how the coachee thinks. They are directional. They are usually closed, but can be open-ended. They are not desirable in a coaching situation. 23

27 The Art of Active Listening Active listening is one of the most important techniques of coaching. It focuses the coach s full attention on the coachee. The coach does not have to agree with what the coachee says, but it is important that the coach listens and restates what the coachee said. The following are some active listening skills that are important for an effective coach to use. As you read them, you will notice how they work together for a positive effect in the coaching process. Clarifying a process used to correct or make clear a wrong interpretation, to get more information, to help the coachee see other points of view, and to identify what was said. Clarifying is a combination of clearly articulating by asking questions or making suggestions of what you have heard. This skill is used to clarify and reflect to reduce and avoid any confusion about what the other person said. Encouragement the use of positive prompts to keep the conversation going and show the coachee that the coach is listening. The coach can state two or three specific strategies that are working for the coachee. The strategies may be actions the coachee has taken to stop a situation from deteriorating. The coach encourages the coachee to continue doing what is working. If there is a pattern of solutions provided by the coachee, the coach may recognize this as a positive characteristic of the coachee. Feedback provides details to the coachee about what the coach s thoughts are on a particular situation. The coach will share information, observations, and insights with the coachee. Before giving feedback, the coach may pause for a minute or two to think about what to say. The pause or silence allows the coach and coachee to reflect on what needs to happen next. It helps if the message is delivered in a friendly atmosphere, giving the coachee a sense that the feedback will be helpful and useful. Feedback can greatly influence future performance. It should highlight the positive progress the coachee has made, including honesty, encouragement of others, determination, and enthusiasm or any other characteristics that have been displayed. Receiving positive recognition will motivate many coachees. Paraphrasing signals active listening on the part of the coach. There are two types that can be used: (1) acknowledge and clarify the coach acknowledges feelings and clarifies the content, and (2) summarize and organize the coach asks questions to separate confusing or unclear issues. The coach will restate the message using fewer words or repeat the message in their own words. Paraphrasing is used to test for understanding. Pausing gives emphasis at key points to tell the coachee, This is very important, you need to listen. Active listening is about patience; pauses and short periods of silence 24

28 should be accepted. Listeners should not be tempted to interject with questions or comments every time there are a few seconds of silence. Active listening involves giving the other person time to explore their thoughts and feelings. Probing asking questions to get the coachee to speak more freely and articulately. This skill is used to help focus the coachee s thinking by reducing vague references to situations. Reflecting is a process in which the coach offers feedback to the coachee stating an understanding of what the coachee said. The coach can reflect back to the coachee the key elements of their responses. The coach often paraphrases the message of the coachee using their own words and expresses feelings to communicate an understanding of what the coachee said. This is a very useful skill because: (1) the coach can check his understanding of the message, (2) the coachee receives feedback, (3) it shows that the coach respects the coachee and has an interest in what he has to say, and (4) it demonstrates the coach s understanding of the coachee s ideas. It is used to show that the coach understands what the coachee experienced and allows the coachee to evaluate their feelings after hearing them expressed by the coach. Restating shows the coachee that the coach is listening when ideas are repeated using the words of the coachee. Restating what was heard does not mean the coach agrees with the coachee, but understands what was said. Silence encourages coachees to think for themselves. It is often easier for the coach to advise, guide, and tell than it is to ask, facilitate, and support. The coach who allows silence is enabling the coachee to develop new skills skills for making decisions, analyzing and judging situations, and utilizing their abilities. Doing this shows respect for the coachee. Silence sometimes slows down the pace or the exchange of ideas. It gives a person time to think while talking. Silence is an important part of the coach s conversation with the coachee. It allows for reflection and learning on the part of the coachee and the coach. Sharing the silence supportively can be a powerful and productive experience. Summarizing is a check for understanding by reviewing the facts and any information necessary to understand a problem. It is pulling together, organizing, and integrating the major aspects of a message. The coach uses summarizing to give a sense of movement and accomplishment, to establish a basis for further discussion, and pull together major ideas, facts, and feelings without adding new ideas. 25

29 Validation confirms or acknowledges the coachee s problems, issues, and feelings. The coach listens openly and responds, showing an interest in what the coachee said. Validation verifies the coach s perceptions and is used to give and receive feedback. 26

30 Tips for Providing Feedback Providing feedback is an important element of coaching. Feedback is designed to reinforce good behavior, change unsatisfactory behavior, or inform the coachee where they need to improve. The following tips are guidelines for effective feedback. Be descriptive without judging. Be specific and describe the actual behavior. Focus on a behavior that can change. Give feedback often and in a timely manner. Be clear when giving feedback and check for understanding. Avoid a tone of voice that shows frustration, disappointment, or sarcasm. Focus on behaviors. Identify elements of success. Continue to support positive behavior and results. Reinforce what the coachee has done by showing support and confidence. Remain focused on the coachee and the goals set for them to accomplish. Present challenges when appropriate. Provide positive feedback. Although no one likes to hear negative feedback, it is necessary. State it without judgment or bias. Focus on future events when giving feedback. Avoid blame and accusations. 27

31 Reflection Activity Instructions: When you are facilitating a training or working with an employee, are you using coaching skills and techniques? Using the handout, Effective Coaching Skills and Techniques, list the skills and techniques you used then list new ones you have learned about in this lesson that you will try in the future. There may be some skills and techniques you used that are not listed. List those as well. There are no right or wrong answers to this activity. Skills Techniques New Skills New Techniques 28

32 Lesson 2 Pre- and Post-Quiz 1. An effective coach can help the coachee accomplish goals by a. keeping the coachee focused on the challenging goals set by the coach. b. correcting the mistakes the coachee makes. c. recognizing issues the coachees has and asking the right questions to get back on track. d. identify goals, tell the coachee how to attain those goals, and teach the coachee the skill to obtain the goals 2. An effective coach must possess certain skills to be effective. What are some of those skills? a. be supportive, accountable, and judgmental b. develop a good rapport and trusting relationship c. keep sensitive information confidential and provide advice for problems incurred d. create awareness and influence decisions made by the coachee 3. There are two important skills of coaching. What are these two skills? a. judging the decisions made by the coachee and providing solutions to problems b. questioning and listening c. good rapport and direct communication d. accountability and questioning 4. Coaches use techniques through activities in their coaching process. What are two of these techniques? a. brainstorming and reflecting b. feedback and advising c. open communication and judging d. accountability and questioning 5. Why do coaches ask questions of coachees? a. to clarify information or begin a conversation b. to interrupt the conversation c. to mislead the coachee d. to guide the coachee to think the same way as the coach 29

33 6. What is active listening? a. The coach listens actively and agrees with everything the coachee says. b. The coachee listens actively and agrees with everything the coach says. c. Active listening focuses the coach s full attention on what the coachee is saying. d. None of the above. 7. There are several characteristics of an effective coach. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic? a. Goal-oriented and supportive b. Closed minded and observant c. Resourceful and enthusiastic d. Truthful and trusting 8. Open communication helps the coach and coachee better understand problems or situations that may occur and can improve decision-making and problem solving. a. True b. False 30

34 Coaching Models Lesson 3 31

35 Setting S.M.A.R.T Goals A critical aspect of management is to develop and set goals. Think about the last goal you set for yourself, either personally or professionally. Was the goal specific, measurable, achievable or attainable, realistic, and time-based? If it was, you developed a S.M.A.R.T. Goal. Too often we may set a goal we think is good without realizing it could be a better defined goal. The acronym S.M.A.R.T. represents S Specific M Measurable A Achievable or Attainable R Realistic T Time-based Specific goals should be written simply, well-defined, and focused. They should help emphasize what is to happen. How, what, and why are words that can be used to establish specific goals. An example might be Schools will make healthful meals. This is a good goal, but it needs to be more specific. Schools will make healthful meals by meeting USDA required sodium and saturated fat levels during the present school year." This goal describes how the meals can be made healthier. Goals should be measurable. The entire goal statement might have several short-term goals that are measurable. These short-term goals will measure the progress of the project, help keep it on track, and give the individual or team a sense of accomplishment. Achievable or attainable goals should be important enough to keep the individual or team motivated to accomplish them. The goal should be challenging enough to push the coachee, but not so challenging they cannot meet the challenge. Once the goal is set, devise a plan to make that goal achievable. Realistic goals should be challenging and represent an objective that the individual or team are willing and able to work towards. Set the goal high, but not so high that achieving the goal is unrealistic. Make sure the goal represents achieved progress. Time-based is exactly as it sounds. Set a date or time in which to accomplish the goal, with a realistic time frame. Sometimes unavoidable things or events happen and the deadline cannot be met. Simply set a new date and stay on track. 32

36 Tips for setting S.M.A.R.T. Goals Think about the goal. Is it something that you really want and are willing to commit to over a period of time? Look at the goal; think about it from beginning to end. Then, make a plan for how to accomplish the goal. Keep it simple. Within a large goal, set short-term goals to measure the progress. There is a sense of accomplishment and self-confidence each time a short-term goal is met. To stay motivated, remind yourself why the goal is important and why you are working towards the goal. Write the goal in a positive way. Avoid any negative terms. Do not be afraid to ask for help from co-workers, family, friends, or your boss. Write the goal in as much detail as possible and measure the accomplishment of shortterm goals. If you are struggling to reach the time frame set for the goal, extend the date. When setting the finished date for the goal, think it through. Do not set it early to impress others or set it so far in advance that you will lose interest. Write down goals and make sure they are set high, but not so high they are unreachable. 33

37 S.M.A.R.T. Goal Setting Activity Instructions: Read the scenario and determine if the goals are S.M.A.R.T. Goals. If they are not, use the space provided to rewrite the goals into S.M.A.R.T. Goals. Scenario: The school nutrition director of a local school district and a manager of one of the schools in the district met one morning to discuss the new school year. This year will be the director s second in this district, but he has 14 years of experience in a previous district. The manager has been in this school district for 10 years, beginning as a dish washer and working her way up through the ranks. She is a first-year manager. The superintendent has asked the director to develop some goals for the district and each of the schools in the district. The director is meeting with each manager one at a time to talk about their specific school. One of the goals the director and manager agreed on for the school was To increase the breakfast and lunch participation in the school. The director thought this was a good goal to set and decided to use the same goal for the district. To increase the breakfast and lunch participation in the district. If you think these goals are not S.M.A.R.T. Goals, use the following steps to make them S.M.A.R.T. Goals. Specific: Measurable: Achievable/Attainable: Realistic: 34

38 Time-based: New S.M.A.R.T. Goals: School goal: District goal: 35

39 Coaching Models There are five models of coaching discussed in this lesson. The following highlights each of the models. Performance Coaching Model is a one-on-one relationship where the coach supports a coachee to improve their performance at work or their work-and-life balance. It is an ongoing process that can help identify a person s growth and develop new skills. The Performance Coaching process goes through these steps. Identify and describe the problem or issue Solve the problem or issue Discuss the causes of the problem or issue Identify possible solutions and resources needed Develop a plan of action Set a follow-up date Success (T)GROW Coaching Model is probably the most common model used today. The key to this model is to help the coachee identify and define specific goals. The coach uses questions instead of directions to facilitate the coaching session. The acronym (T)GROW stands for Topic indicates the area that needs work. The coachee may have more than one area to work on. Goal identifies the desired goals that need to be achieved. Questions are used to facilitate the discussion in the meetings. Reality explores or assesses the coachee s current situation. It is important that the coach spend time with the coachee to determine their needs. Questions are asked to start the coachee thinking outside the box, raise their awareness, and empower them to begin the process of change. Options is about brainstorming. The coach asks the coachee questions to determine a wide range of possibilities for reaching the coachee s goals. It s important for the coach to guide the coachee in the right direction without making any decisions for the coachee. Will is the last stage. It involves the coachee making decisions. At the point, the coachee is confident, motivated, and is able to commit to the decisions made and take responsibility for the changes that need to be made. Coaching Feedback Model is based on the (T)GROW Model. The concept behind the Coaching Feedback Model is for the coachee to give themselves feedback before or instead of the coach. The coachee should think about their strengths and what they do well, not focus on the negative. One question the coach might ask the coachee is, What would you do differently if given the opportunity? 36

40 Solution Focused Coaching Model is based on an ethical process that is guided by certain beliefs and values. This model guides the coachee to what they can and will do. The approach used in this model has been described as brief. Some reasons why this approach is considered brief are It focuses on what is happening now. The coach and coachee develop clear, specific, and attainable goals. The coach takes an active part in the coaching process. The coachee makes a commitment to work on their desired goals between meetings. OSKAR Coaching Model is an adaptation of the Solution Focused Model. The OSKAR Model focuses on what works and on solutions, not problems. The acronym OSKAR stands for Outcome which is not just the goal of the coachee; it is the difference the coachee want to see as a result of the coaching session. The coach establishes a foundation for the coaching session clarifying what the coachee wants to achieve and if the coaching session we helpful and how it was helpful. A Scale is developed for the Outcome Stage to determine where the coachee is now in terms of achieving a desired goal. Once the coachee understands what the desired outcome is, they can see on the scale where they are and where they want to be. Know-how establishes what is happening with the coachee now. The coach helps the coachee identify what is being done well and compare the current knowledge and skills with successful handling of current challenges. Affirm and Action affirms the positive qualities of the coachee which are observed throughout the coaching session. The coach provides positive reinforcement, reflecting on positive comments, strengths, and attributes the coachee has displayed. Action is identifying small, actionable steps to be taken next. These small actions are built on what works, giving the coachee motivation to try new actions with confidence. In the Review, the coach and coachee look at the progress the coachee has made. They reflect on what is better, what the coachee did to make things better, and what happened to move things in the right direction. 37

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