European Cluster Excellence Scoreboard

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1 European Cluster Observatory European Cluster Excellence Scoreboard Pilot Version September 0 Enterprise and Industry

2 The views expressed in this report, as well as the information included in it, do not necessarily reflect the opinion or position of the European Commission and in no way commit the institution. Extension of the European Cluster Observatory, Promoting better policies to develop world-class clusters in Europe Contract N 7/PP/ENT/CIP//N0C0 European Cluster Excellence Scoreboard Pilot Version Authors: Laurent Probst, Erica Monfardini, Laurent Frideres, and Nuray Unlu Bohn, PwC Luxembourg. Coordination: Enterprise and Industry Directorate-General, Directorate D SMEs and Entrepreneurship, Unit D SMEs: Clusters & Emerging Industries Coordination: Enterprise and Industry Directorate-General, Directorate D SMEs and Entrepreneurship, Unit D SMEs: Clusters & Emerging Industries. European Union, July 0. This work is part of a service contract for the Enterprise and Industry Directorate-General of the European Commission. This report is financed under the Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme (CIP) which aims to encourage the competitiveness of European enterprises.

3 Executive summary Executive summary The European Cluster Excellence Scoreboard Pilot Version applies the scoreboard methodology for measuring regional strength in emerging industries developed under the European Cluster Observatory to three emerging industries in the fields of creative industries, eco industries and mobile services. The pilot scoreboard is composed of three key elements: the strength of the regional business environment (framework conditions), firm strength, and effective business support services (part of cluster management excellence). Empirical results for the scoreboard were compiled through a questionnaire survey with 7 respondents (of which 68 are from firms) across 0 identified regional hotspots, namely: Berlin, Catalonia (Barcelona), North Holland (Amsterdam) and Inner London for creative industries; the Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen), Lombardy (Milan) and Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille) for eco industries; and Attiki (Athens), South Finland (Helsinki) and Vienna for mobile services. According to the survey results, the three most important factors boosting the regional strength of emerging industries are the market knowledge and innovation capacity of firms, their human capital, and their entrepreneurial nature. As far as the regional business environment is concerned, financial and knowledge factors are viewed most important. Business support services are, overall, less important compared to the regional business environment and the strength of firms. Of the different business support services assessed, support for finding external collaboration partners, support for access to finance and support for internationalisation are rated highest. Significant weaknesses in the regional business environments can be observed across the 0 regions. Most notable is the lack of available financing. Stakeholders in all regions rated financing as insufficient. Lombardy, Catalonia and Attiki (Athens) rank lowest for this factor. Regulatory and policy as well as support framework conditions also score overwhelmingly negatively. Only the Capital Region of Denmark and South Finland have slightly positive scores for these two factors. The outlook on the market is also negative overall. North Holland, Inner London, Berlin, South Finland and Vienna score slightly positively for this factor but all of the southern European regions surveyed have a negative outlook on their markets. The three factors deemed most important for the strength of firms market knowledge and innovation capacity, human capital and entrepreneurship are also rated highest in terms of their availability. There is, however, a significant gap between importance and availability for these and for the other factors. Internationalisation and access to finance score the lowest amongst the factors measuring the strength of firms. The northern European regions score better in terms of firm strength compared to the southern regions included in the survey. Effective business support services are lacking across all the regions included in the survey with most stakeholders stating that there is insufficient availability of effective services in their region. The two factors where firm strength was rated lowest are also those where corresponding business support services are widely unavailable: support for access to finance and support for internationalisation. The two regions with the most significant gaps for this element are Catalonia and Attiki (Athens). This pilot scoreboard is part of a number of reports prepared in the framework of the extension of the European Cluster Observatory. The methodology applied by this scoreboard to measure regional strength in emerging industries is described in more detail in a separate methodology report. The definitions of emerging industries are detailed in the methodology report for the classification of the most active, significant and relevant new emerging industrial sectors. Emerging industries can be defined as the establishment of an entirely new industrial value chain, or the radical reconfiguration of an existing one, driven by a disruptive idea (or convergence of ideas), leading to turning these ideas/opportunities into new products/services with higher added value. The scoreboard results are complemented by three case studies on industry-specific framework conditions for the development of world-class clusters in creative industries, eco industries and mobile services. The methodology for the case studies is described in a separate report on the identification and benchmarking of ideal framework conditions. Furthermore, a policy roadmap prepared by the European Forum for Clusters in Emerging Industries (EFCEI) introduces recommendations for actions for new linkages to promote the development of emerging industries through clusters in Europe. All reports together with further maps by country, industry and indicators can be found at and PwC

4 Table of Contents Table of contents. Introduction 7.. Analytical framework 7.. Methodology 8.. Evidence base 8.. Respondent profiles 9... Firms 9... Policy makers, government agencies and regional development agencies... Cluster management organisations... Business support organisations... Investors..6. Research, academia or technology transfer organisations 8.. Analytical structure of the pilot scoreboard 9. Factors boosting the strength of emerging industries 0.. The importance of the strength of the regional business environment (framework conditions) 0.. The importance of the strength of firms.. The importance of the availability of business support services.. Summary of findings 6. Characteristics of the regional business environment (framework conditions) 7.. Comparing emerging industries: the strength of regional business environments 8... Creative industries: regional business environment scores by region 0... Eco industries: regional business environment scores by region... Mobile services: regional business environment scores by region.. Comparing the strength of regional business environments: regional rankings by factor.. Summary of findings 6. Indicators of firm strength 7.. Comparing emerging industries: firm strength in the different regions 8... Creative industries: firm strength scores by region 0... Eco industries: firm strength scores by region... Mobile services: firm strength scores by region.. Comparing firm strength: regional rankings by factor.. Summary of findings. Effective business support services 6 PwC

5 Table of Contents.. Comparing emerging industries: the availability of effective business support services 7... Creative industries: availability of effective business support services scores by region 9... Eco industries: availabilty of effective business support services scores by region 0... Mobile services: availabilty of effective business support services scores by region.. Comparing the availability of effective business support services: regional rankings by type of service.. Summary of findings 6. Firm performance (output indicators) Comparing emerging industries: firm performance Creative industries: firm performance scores by region Eco industries: firm performance scores by region Mobile services: firm performance scores by region Comparing firm performance indicators: scores by region Comparing cluster firms with non-cluster firms Summary of findings Aggregate scores and indicators Regional rankings for the different elements measuring regional strength in emerging industries Rankings based on availability scores Rankings based on composite indicators measuring both importance and availability Scores measuring regional strength of emerging industries Importance scores for different factors by region Availability scores for different factors by region Composite indicators assessing importance and availability of different factors by region Comparing composite indicator scores and firm performance Conclusions 79 Appendix A. - Scorecard for creative industries in Berlin 80 A.. Dimensions of strength in emerging industries 80 A.. Composite indicators 8 Appendix B. - Scorecard for creative industries in Catalonia (Barcelona) 8 B.. Dimensions of strength in emerging industries 8 B.. Composite indicators 8 Appendix C. - Scorecard for creative industries in North Holland (Amsterdam) 8 C.. Dimensions of strength in emerging industries 8 C.. Composite indicators 8 Appendix D. - Scorecard for creative industries in Inner London 86 PwC

6 Table of Contents D.. Dimensions of strength in emerging industries 86 D.. Composite indicators 87 Appendix E. - Scorecard for eco industries in the Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) 88 E.. Dimensions of strength in emerging industries 88 E.. Composite indicators 89 Appendix F. - Scorecard for eco industries in Lombardy (Milan) 90 F.. Dimensions of strength in emerging industries 90 F.. Composite indicators 9 Appendix G. - Scorecard for eco industries in Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille) 9 G.. Dimensions of strength in emerging industries 9 G.. Composite indicators 9 Appendix H. - Scorecard for mobile services in Attiki (Athens) 9 H.. Dimensions of strength in emerging industries 9 H.. Composite indicators 9 Appendix I. - Scorecard for mobile services in South Finland (Helsinki) 96 I.. Dimensions of strength in emerging industries 96 I.. Composite indicators 97 Appendix J. - Scorecard for mobile services in Vienna 98 J.. Dimensions of strength in emerging industries 98 J.. Composite indicators 99 PwC 6

7 DIMENSIONS Introduction. Introduction.. Analytical framework The objective of the pilot version of the European Cluster Excellence Scoreboard is to measure regional strength in emerging industries in order to assess and identify in what way clusters can provide support for the development of emerging industries. This pilot scoreboard focuses on a selection of hotspots, i.e. regions which are in an advanced stage of development for a given emerging industry. In order to obtain results that are comparable across industries, the scoreboard focuses on general indicators that apply to all emerging industries, with no particular focus on a specific emerging industry. The scoreboard indicators measure three key elements of regional strength in emerging industries (Figure ): regional business environment (framework conditions), firm strength, and business support services (part of cluster management excellence). Effective business support services when provided by a cluster management organisation are one aspect of cluster management excellence but it should be noted that there are additional benchmarking indicators for cluster management excellence that are not included in the scoreboard. The three key elements will be assessed along seven different dimensions: finance, industrial, market, cultural (including human capital and entrepreneurship), knowledge, regulatory & policy, support, and output & performance. Figure : Typology of indicators to measure regional strength in emerging industries KEY ELEMENTS Regional business environment (framework conditions) Firm strength Business support services (part of cluster management excellence) Finance Financial framework conditions Access to funding access to finance Industrial Industrial framework conditions National and international partnerships Internationalisation internal partnership initialisation with external partners internationalisation Market Market framework conditions Cultural Cultural framework conditions Human capital Entrepreneurship talent search and retention entrepreneurship Knowledge Knowledge framework conditions Market knowledge and innovation capacity research, development and innovation (RDI) Regulatory & policy Regulatory and policy framework conditions Support Support framework conditions Output & performance Profitability and productivity The indicators are focused primarily on enablers or inputs for regional strength. Output is measured at the firm level in terms of profitability and productivity. Output at the regional or emerging industry level is assessed by aggregating firm-level output data at the level of a given region or emerging industry. Business support services See for further details. PwC 7

8 Introduction are measured in terms of the availability of excellent services at the regional level and, in the case of clusters, in terms of the quality of services provided by the cluster management organisation to the cluster participants... Methodology The methodology for the European Cluster Excellence Scoreboard (ECES) is detailed in depth in the scoreboard methodology report. A survey-based approach was proposed in the methodology report in order to collect very specific, targeted and timely data on the key indicators and critical success factors for measuring the strength of regions in each emerging industry. The stakeholder groups targeted by the survey include firms, policy makers, cluster management organisations, business support organisations, investors and academia. The questionnaire survey for the scoreboard included five main sections: (a) a profile or the respondent and organisation, (b) factors boosting the strength of emerging industries, (c) characteristics of the regional business environment, (d) indicators of firm strength, (e) effective business support services, and (f) firm performance indicators. The specific questions asked for each set of indicators are listed at the start of the relevant chapter analysing the results... Evidence base The pilot survey for the ECES was conducted between February and April 0. Based on the recommendations of experts at the third meeting of the European Forum for Clusters in Emerging Industries (EFCEI) in November 0, the number of hotspots surveyed for the pilot scoreboard was reduced to 0 in order to increase the number of respondents per hotspots and thus reliability and representativeness of the survey results. To increase reliability, the survey was also restricted to three of the seven identified emerging industries, namely: creative industries, eco industries and mobile services. Potential respondents were approached by and asked to fill in an online questionnaire made available in five languages: English, German, French, Italian and Spanish. Two reminders were sent to follow up on the initial invitation. The response rate varied between different regions and stakeholder groups. Overall it reached around 0 percent of the targeted population. The final number of respondents significantly exceeds the estimated 0-0 responses proposed in the scoreboard methodology (Table ). Available at: b9cd-d-a6fb-0da7fe80e;id= PwC 8

9 Mobile services Eco industries Creative industries Introduction Table : Number of respondents per region and stakeholder group Region Firms Policy CMOs Business support Investors Academia Total Berlin Catalonia (Barcelona) 60 7 North Holland (Amsterdam) 8 6 Inner London 8 6 Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) 6 Lombardy (Milan) 6 7 Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille) 7 Attiki (Athens) 8 06 South Finland (Helsinki) 0 6 Vienna 7 7 Total Respondent profiles... Firms The vast majority of firm respondents represent small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and nearly three quarters SMEs with fewer than 0 employees (Figure ). Seven percent of respondents are from start-ups (0- years) and % from young firms (- years) see Figure. The majority of surveyed firms have been established for more than 0 years. Family and/or privately owned or initiated businesses make up nearly three quarters of responses (Figure ). Start-ups established from another firm make up % of respondents. Most surveyed firms are in a more advanced phase of business development with 6% developed within the national market, % within the European market and 7% internationally recognised (Figure ). PwC 9

10 Introduction Figure : Firm size Figure : Length of establishment of the firm 7% 7% 9% 9% 7% % % % < < Figure : Source of establishment of firms % % % % 0% 0 - years - years 6-0 years 0 - years > years Figure : Business phase of firms % % % % 7% 8% 7% % 6% Family and/or privately owned/initiated business Start-up formed at an incubator Start-up formed from another company Spin-off from a university/research institute Public-private entity A public entity Other Start-up/spin-off Under development Developed within the national market Developed within the European market Internationally recognised Other PwC 0

11 Introduction... Policy makers, government agencies and regional development agencies Amongst the policy maker, government agency or regional development agency respondents about half are involved in policy making and/or implementation at the regional and national levels, two in five at the EU/supranational level and one in four at the local level (Figure 6). Two thirds of the policy stakeholders reported that there are interim evaluations in place in their region (Figure 7). The figure is at about half for expost and ex-ante evaluations. Figure 6: Level(s) of involvement in policy making and/or implementation Percentage of respondents involved in policy making at each level Figure 7: Evaluation processes in place in the region Percentage of respondents indicating that their region has the given evaluation processes in place Regional level % Interim evaluations 6% National level % EU/supranational level 9% Ex-post evaluations % Local level 6% Ex-ante evaluations % 0% 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% 0% 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% The participation of different regional stakeholders is part of the policy making process for 78% of respondents (Figure 8). The level of regional autonomy and the speed at which the policy process can support market access and the global competitiveness of SMEs is a less common characteristic at %. It is worth highlighting that only half of the respondents considered the policy making process in their region to be flexible enough to adapt to the changing needs of emerging industries. Figure 8: Characteristics of the policy making process that respondents are involved in Percentage of respondents indicating that the policy making process in their region displays the following characteristics Includes the participation of different regional stakeholders (academia, investors, industry etc) 78% Based on the results of customer/market analysis and needs (demand driven) 7% Flexible enough to adapt according to the changing needs of emerging industry sectors/customers % Relatively autonomous at the regional level, allowing for the adaptation of policies to market needs % Sufficiently quick to support market access and the global competitiveness of SMEs % 0% 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% The vast majority of respondents reported that there are comprehensive or partial policy in place for cluster development, internationalisation, access to finance, innovation for goods and services, entrepreneurship, PwC

12 Introduction market access and human capital development (Figure 9). The most comprehensive policies are for cluster development and internationalisation. Figure 9: Policies currently in place in the region Percentage of respondents indicating that there are currently policies in place their region for the following Cluster development Internationalisation Access to finance Innovation for goods and services Entrepreneurship Market access Human capital development 0% 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% Yes, comprehensive. Yes, partial No, none.... Cluster management organisations The cluster management organisations (CMOs) surveyed have all been established for at least years (Figure 0). Most of the clusters are assessed as being in the developing phase and about one quarter as mature (Figure ). Self-financing (e.g. membership fees, services provided, own financial resources) is the most common form of financing (Figure ). Public financing accounts for around a quarter of surveyed CMOs. Figure 0: Length of establishment of the CMO Figure : Life cycle of the cluster 8% 9% % 6% % 7% - years ago 6-0 years ago > years ago Developing Mature World-class PwC

13 Introduction Figure : Financing structure of the CMO 9% % 6% % % Self-financing Public Financing Regional Public Financing National Private Financing (excluding membership fees) Other The governance characteristics for around two thirds of surveyed CMOs include the involvement of stakeholders in the identification of cluster strategies and performance monitoring based on key performance indicators (Figure ). Only a small percentage has a scientific advisory committee and representatives of other clusters on the board. Figure : Governance characteristics of the surveyed CMOs Percentage of respondents indicating that the following governance characteristics apply to their organisation Involvement of stakeholders in the identification of cluster strategies Performance monitoring is based on objectives and key performance indicators Feedback from the board and advisory committees is integrated into the cluster strategy Representatives of regional authorities and policy makers on the board Presence of an Advisory Committee composed of industry representatives 7% 7% 6% 9% 9% Representatives of investors on the board 9% Presence of a Scientific Advisory Committee composed representatives from academia Representatives from other regional/national clusters on the board for boosting collaboration 8% 8% 0% 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% Lack of support for financing is the most significant challenge identified by the CMOs (Figure ). Additional challenges that were identified are to secure the long-term involvement of both public and private partners and to ensure sufficient staffing levels. PwC

14 Introduction Figure : Major challenges identified by the surveyed CMOs Percentage of respondents indicating that their organisation is facing the following major challenges Lack of regional/national/supra-national support for financing and development of the organisation Difficulties in assessing cluster performance (due to e.g. a lack of commonly agreed methods) Lack of involvement of cluster stakeholders in strategy development and implementation Difficulties in collaborating with other clusters (nationally and/or internationally) Lack of private funding for the development of the organisation and stragegy implementation Other % 8% 8% % 7% % 0% 0% 0% 60% 80% 00%... Business support organisations The business support organisations surveyed include business incubators, accelerators, coworking spaces, techno parks, business networks, business associations and other business support organisations. The majority of the surveyed organisations have fewer than 0 employees and almost 9 in 0 have fewer than 0 employees (Figure ). Around half of the organisations have been established for more than 0 years (Figure 6). Selffinancing accounts for % of the financing structures of the organisations and 7% receive public financing at the regional or national levels (Figure 7). Figure : Organisation size % 9% % % < < Figure 6: Length of establishment of the organisation 6% % % 8% 8% 0 - years - years 6-0 years 0 - years > years PwC

15 Introduction Figure 7: Financing structure of the organisation 9% % % % 6% Self-financing Public Financing Regional Public Financing National Private Financing (excluding membership fees) Other... Investors Just over half of the surveyed investors are from venture capital firms with smaller shares of business angels, commercial banks and investment/development agencies (Figure 8). The majority of surveyed investors are investing in the creative industries (Figure 9). One third is investing in mobile services and one quarter in eco industries. Other industries targeted include traditional manufacturing and fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG). Figure 8: Investor profiles 7% % % % 6% Venture capital firm Business angel Commercial bank Regional Investment/Development Agency Other Figure 9: Share of surveyed investors currently investing in each emerging industry Creative industries Mobility industries Mobile services Experience industries Eco industries Personalised medicine Maritime industries Others 8% % % % % % 6% 8% 0% 0% 0% 60% 80% Prior experience investing in a particular industry is the most important prerequisite for investors (Figure 0). High returns on investment are also important. The level of risk for a particular industry is not determinant factor for the surveyed investors. The potential for high growth and growth in sales was amongst other reasons cited. PwC

16 Introduction Figure 0: Reasons for investing in particular industries Percentage of respondents indicating that they are investing in particular industries for the following reasons Due to previous experiences in these industries 79% High returns on investment % Attendance at investors' awareness Low levels of risk for a particular industry Others % 8% % 0% 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% The preferred stages for investment are the initial growth stage as well as the internationalisation and commercialisation stages of innovative products and services (Figure ). The research, development and innovation and pilot test stages are less popular. Figure : Preferred stage(s) of the company life cycle for investment Percentage of respondents indicating a preference for investing in the following stages of the company life cycle Internationalisation of innovative products/services Initial growth stage Commercialisation of innovative products/services 0% 0% 6% Marketing of innovative products/services Manufacturing of innovative products Incubation Research, Development and Innovation Pilot testing of innovative products/processing/services Other % % % 7% 8% 8% 0% 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% The single most critical factor when investing in a company, identified by all of the surveyed investors, is the quality of the entrepreneur and top management (Figure ). The market knowledge of the entrepreneur and top management is also seen as critical by two thirds of respondents. The uniqueness of the technology or business concept is seen as critical by half. Less critical are the involvement of a company in a cluster and supportive regional and national policies. PwC 6

17 Introduction Figure : Most critical factors when investing in a company Percentage of respondents indicating that the following factors are the most critical when investing in a company Quality of the entrepreneur / top management Market knowledge of the entrepreneur / top management Uniqueness of the technology or business concept 0% 6% 00% Solidity of the intellectual property % Reputation of the company Maturity of the company % % Involvement in a cluster Supportive regional and national policies Other % % 8% The most important skills and qualities sought for in an entrepreneur are leadership and vision as well as market knowledge (Figure ). A global vision for internationalisation, communication and collaboration skills, and a successful track record in a related business area are also important. Less sought after are a successful track record in a business of similar maturity and financial skills. Figure : Skills and qualities sought for in an entrepreneur 0% 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% Percentage of respondents indicating that the following skills and qualities are what they are most looking for in an entrepreneur Leadership and vision Market knowledge (market access, market needs, etc) Global vision for internationalisation Communication and collaborative skills Successful track record in a related business area Management skills % % 6% % 7% 67% Analytical skills Successful track record in a business of similar maturity Financial skills (fund raising, fund management, etc) % % % 0% 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% PwC 7

18 Introduction..6. Research, academia or technology transfer organisations Around two thirds of the respondents for academia stakeholders are currently working for a university and one fifth for a research centre or institute (Figure ). Other educational institutions make up 6% of respondents and technology transfer organisations %. Figure : Institutional representation 6% % 6% % 6% University Research Centre/Institute Educational Institution Technology Transfer Organisation (TTO) Other In terms of collaboration activities, joint RDI with other institutions is rated highest in terms of intensity by the respondents, followed by joint projects and joint publications (Figure ). Joint ventures with industry are less significant in terms of intensity. Figure : Intensity of different types of collaboration activities (average scores) Joint RDI with universities, research institutions or industry Joint projects (e.g. FP7 projects) Joint publications with other institutions Joint ventures with industry.... very low very high The research agendas of the respondents are mostly, although not completely, aligned with different development targets and focus areas, with average alignment scores above three on a five point scale (Figure 6). The scores are higher for global, EU and national targets compared to objectives at the cluster level and regional economic development priorities. PwC 8

19 Introduction Figure 6: Extent to which research agendas are aligned with different targets, focus areas, objectives and priorities (average scores) Global societal, environmental and/or energy targets Research focus areas identified at the EU level National development priorities and targets The strategic vision and objectives of your regional cluster(s) Priority areas identified in the regional economic development strategy.... not at all.. Analytical structure of the pilot scoreboard completely Chapter presents the results for the importance of different factors for boosting the strength of emerging industries. These factors relate to the three key elements covered by the scoreboard: the strength of the regional business environment, the strength of firms, and the importance of the availability of business support services. Results are presented for each element for all emerging industries combined, as separate scores for the three emerging industries, and for firm and non-firm respondents. Chapter investigates the strength of regional business environments in terms of the availability of different underpinning components. Availability is assessed for the three different emerging industries and as perceived by firm and no-firm stakeholders. Results are presented in the form of spider charts reporting the scores for all factors by region and as ranked bar charts for comparing the strength of different framework conditions across regions. Chapters and provide the same assessment on the availability of different factors as chapter but focused on the two other elements focused on indicators of firm strength and effective business support services. Chapter 6 deals with the output indicators for firm performance. The latter is measured as growth in employment, annual revenues, output, profits, and the number of innovative products and services. Results are presented using stacked bar charts showing the percentage of firms having experienced a decrease, no change or increases (slight, moderate or significant) for the five performance indicators over the three year period prior to the survey. Firm performance is compared for the different indicators by region and for the same indicators between regions. This chapter also includes a comparative analysis of the performance of firms participating in a cluster initiative with the performance of firms not participating in a cluster initiative. Chapter 7 presents aggregate importance and availability scores and composite indicators for the different elements and factors boosting the strength of emerging industries. It provides regional rankings based on availability scores and based on composite indicators (measuring both importance and availability) for the three key elements of the scoreboard. This chapter also includes tables listing all the importance scores, availability scores, and composite indicator scores for the different elements and factors by region. The final section focuses on comparing the indicator scores for regional business environments and business support services with firm performance scores. The appendices consist in two-page scorecards for each of the 0 hotspots. The scorecards regroup the key charts measuring the strength in emerging industries for each regional hotspot on the first page and provide a brief summary and recommendations. The second page of each scorecard graphically presents the scores for the composite indicators, summarising the strength of each regional hotspot for the three key elements as well as overall for the three elements combined. PwC 9

20 Factors boosting the strength of emerging industries. Factors boosting the strength of emerging industries This chapter investigates the importance of different factors for boosting the strength of emerging industries including: (i) the strength of regional business environments (framework conditions), (ii) the strength of firms, and (iii) the availability of business support services. All the graphs in this chapter measure importance on a scale of to, where is the least important and is the most important... The importance of the strength of the regional business environment (framework conditions) The importance of different dimensions of strength of regional business environments or framework conditions was assessed with the following question: How would you rate the importance of the following factors for the strength of your regional business environment? Respondents were asked to rate the importance of the following factors on a scale of to, where is the least important and is the most important. Financial presence of actors providing funds to support firms, the availability of funds meeting the specific funding needs of your industry, the ease with which funds can be accessed Industrial critical mass of other companies in your industry and related industries, well established support structure like incubators and accelerators, communications and transport infrastructure Market a critical mass of consumers, a consumer driven market, ease of exchanging goods and services, the level of collaboration and competition, ease of establishing and running a business Cultural - a set of shared attitudes, values, goals and practices in the region, an entrepreneurial culture, a strong regional labour force with qualified workers for a range of skills Knowledge higher education and research institutions in industry specific fields, technology transfer organisations and shared technology platforms, sector specific courses or training Regulatory and policy presence of a favourable regulatory environment, alignment of different policies to support the growth of specific industries, public consultations in the policy making process Support presence of measures to boost the growth of specific industries through training, business and legal advice, supporting knowledge transfer, access to finance, internationalisation, etc. Financial and knowledge factors are deemed most important for the strength of regional business environments (Figure 7). The scores for all dimensions are above, indicating that overall, they are seen as important. Support is rated as least important. PwC 0

21 Factors boosting the strength of emerging industries Figure 7: Importance of different factors for the strength of the regional business environment (framework conditions): all emerging industries Financial Knowledge Market Cultural Regulatory and policy Industrial Support.... least important most important There are some variations between the three emerging industries in terms of how stakeholders view the importance of different factors for the strength of the regional business environment (Figure 8). For the creative industries, the cultural factors rank highest overall, followed by market and financial factors. Regulatory and policy factors are seen as less important for the creative industries. For the eco industries, on the other hand, regulatory and policy ranks higher as the second most important factor after financial. Figure 8: Importance of different factors for the strength of the regional business environment (framework conditions): scores by emerging industry Financial Industrial Market Cultural Knowledge Regulatory and policy Support.... least important most important Creative industries Eco industries Mobile services A comparison of the ratings assigned by firm and non-firm respondents shows that non-firm respondents rated all seven factors as more important compared to firm respondents (Figure 9). The most significant differences can be observed for the industrial, regulatory and policy and support factors. PwC

22 Factors boosting the strength of emerging industries Figure 9: Importance of different factors for the strength of the regional business environment (framework conditions): scores for firm and non-firm respondents Financial Industrial Market Cultural Knowledge Regulatory and policy Support.... least important most important Firms Non-firm respondents.. The importance of the strength of firms The importance of different dimensions of the strength of firms was assessed with the following question: How would you rate the importance of the following factors for the successful growth and sustainable development of your firm? Respondents were asked to rank the importance of the following factors on a scale of to, where is the least important and is the most important. Access to funding National and international partnerships Internationalisation (exports to and/or presence in other countries) Human capital (employees with experience and expertise) Entrepreneurship Market knowledge and innovation capacity Market knowledge and innovation capacity, human capital and entrepreneurship all received average scores above, indicating that these three factors are very important for the strength of firms (Figure 0). Access to funding, partnerships and internationalisation ranked lower with most respondents rating their importance for firm strength at around.6. PwC

23 Factors boosting the strength of emerging industries Figure 0: Importance of different factors for firm strength: all emerging industries Market knowledge and innovation capacity Human Capital Entrepreneurship Access to funding Partnerships Internationalisation.... least important most important Overall, the ratings for the importance of firm strength factors are quite consistent (Figure ). Access to funding and internationalisation are more important for the eco industries compared to mobile services and the creative industries. Partnerships are more important for mobile services compared to the other two emerging industries. There is little difference in the way in which different emerging industry stakeholders rated market knowledge and innovation capacity. Figure : Importance of different factors for firm strength: scores by emerging industry Access to funding Partnerships Internationalisation Human Capital Entrepreneurship Market knowledge and innovation capacity.... least important most important Creative industries Eco industries Mobile services Market knowledge and innovation capacity are rated somewhat higher by firms compared to non-firm respondents (Figure ). The importance of human capital and entrepreneurship was rated similarly. A notable difference can be observed for access to funding, which non-firm respondents rated significantly higher PwC

24 Factors boosting the strength of emerging industries compared to firm respondents. Internationalisation and partnerships are also seen as more important by nonfirm stakeholders. Figure : Importance of different factors for firm strength: scores for firm and non-firm respondents Access to funding Partnerships Internationalisation Human Capital Entrepreneurship Market knowledge and innovation capacity.... least important most important Firms Non-firm respondents.. The importance of the availability of business support services The importance of different dimensions of the strength of firms was assessed with the following question: How would you rate the importance of the following business support services being available in your region? Respondents were asked to rank the importance of the following factors on a scale of to, where is the least important and is the most important. Support for access to funding Support for information exchanges and matchmaking amongst firms in the region Support for collaborative R&D and/or technology transfer Support for human resource development Support for entrepreneurship development Support for and finding external cooperation partners Support for internationalisation Business support services are seen as important overall as all types of services rank above. Support for external, access to finance and internationalisation are the business support services that are rated as most important for all emerging industries (Figure ). Support for internal and support for HR development are viewed as less important. PwC

25 Factors boosting the strength of emerging industries Figure : Importance of the availability of different business support services for all emerging industries external access to finance internationalisation entrepreneurship collaborative RDI internal HR development.... least important most important There are some differences in the importance attached to different types of business support services by stakeholders from different emerging industries (Figure ). Business support services appear to be most important for the eco industries, for which stakeholders rated all except one type of service higher than the other emerging industries. These services are least important for the creative industries. The differences are most significant for support for collaborative RDI and for support for access to finance, which are more important for the eco industries compared to the other two emerging industries. Figure : Importance of business support services: scores by emerging industry access to finance internal external internationalisation HR development entrepreneurship collaborative RDI.... least important most important Creative industries Eco industries Mobile services PwC

26 Factors boosting the strength of emerging industries Non-firm respondents rated all types of business support services as more important compared to firm respondents (Figure ). The biggest differences are for supporting access to finance and supporting collaborative RDI. Figure : Importance of business support services: scores for firm and non-firm respondents access to finance internal external internationalisation HR development entrepreneurship collaborative RDI.... least important most important Firms Non-firm respondents.. Summary of findings The importance of three different elements for boosting the strength of emerging industries was assessed for the pilot scoreboard: the strength of the regional business environment, the strength of firms and the availability of business support services. All the factors rated for the different elements received average scores above on a scale of to, indicating that they are seen as important for the strength of emerging industries. Overall, the importance of factors for the strength of firms was rated highest for market knowledge and innovation capacity, human capital and entrepreneurship, all of which received average scores above. Financial and knowledge factors are most important for the strength of the regional business environment. The importance of business support services was rated lowest overall. Support for external and for internationalisation as well as support for access to finance were rated highest amongst the different types of business support services. There is a degree of consistency in the way in which different emerging industries rate the importance of different elements and factors although some notable differences can be observed. One noteworthy difference in rating is for regulatory and policy, which is significantly more important for eco industries. Business support services are also more important overall for the eco industries compared to the two other emerging industries. With only a couple of exceptions, non-firm respondents rated the importance of the different factors higher compared to firm respondents, with the most significant difference being observed for business support services. PwC 6

27 Characteristics of the regional business environment (framework conditions). Characteristics of the regional business environment (framework conditions) This chapter investigates the availability of different factors that underpin the strength of regional business environments (framework conditions). All the graphs in this chapter measure availability on a scale of to. Values below indicate that stakeholders disagreed that a given factor was available within the region and values above indicate that it was available. Respondents were asked to rate their level of agreement with a series of statements related to the different dimensions of strength of regional business environments. The questions were as follows: For all the statements on this page, please rate on a scale of to, where is strongly disagree and is strongly agree. Financial characteristics In your region, there are sufficient funds available to companies. In your region, funding can be accessed in good time and with ease. In your region, there are effective support systems for accessing different types of funding (business plan development support, signposting of funding opportunities, etc.). Industrial characteristics Your region has a critical mass of companies in our sector or related sectors. Your region has well established technology parks, co-working spaces, incubators and/or accelerators to boost the development of the industrial base. Your region has a good infrastructure (communication, energy, transport, etc.). Market characteristics In your region, it is straightforward and not too costly to establish and run a business. In your region, there is a critical mass of customers and demand in your industry and the market is consumer-driven. In your region, facilities are available for pre-commercial testing. Cultural characteristics Your region has a qualified labour force and workers are available for a range of skills (managerial, commercial, research, engineering, ICT). Your region provides incentives for boosting entrepreneurship and attracting and retaining talents (financial resources, support programmes, etc.). Your region has an entrepreneurial culture. Knowledge characteristics In your region, there are universities and/or research institutions undertaking research, development and innovation activities related to your industry. In your region, there are established technology transfer organisations, design centres and similar organisations. In your region, there are institutions providing relevant industry-specific training and coaching (including vocational training). Regulatory and policy characteristics Your region has a favourable regulatory environment. Your region has policies that favour the emergence and transformation of industries and that are aligned with national and European policies. Your region undertakes public and industrial consultations as part of the policy making process. Support characteristics PwC 7

28 Characteristics of the regional business environment (framework conditions) In your region, a sufficiently wide range of measures is available to support the development and internationalisation of companies. In your region, a regional innovation and/or development agency with an established track record is assisting firms effectively in fundraising and business development. In your region, adequate industry specific support measures have been put in place. In your region, support is available for entrepreneurs in the crucial phases of the business lifecycle... Comparing emerging industries: the strength of regional business environments Financial, support and regulatory and policy factors rank lowest in terms of availability for all three emerging industries (Figure 6). The ratings for these three factors as well as for the market factor are unfavourable with score below. Industrial, knowledge and cultural factors are rated favourably although with relatively low score overall. Figure 6: Availability of different factors for the strength of regional business environments (framework conditions) by emerging industry Financial Industrial Market Cultural Knowledge Regulatory and policy Support.... disagree agree Creative industries Eco industries Mobile services Firm respondents rated the strength of regional business environments lower for all dimensions compared to non-firm respondents (Figure 7). The margin between the views of these different stakeholders is particularly wide for the knowledge and support dimensions. PwC 8

29 Characteristics of the regional business environment (framework conditions) Figure 7: Availability of different factors for the strength of regional business environments (framework conditions) according to firm and non-firm respondents Financial Industrial Market Cultural Knowledge Regulatory and policy Support.... disagree agree Firms Non-firm respondents The following spider charts present the results for the availability scores of the regional business environment for all factors by regions grouped into the three emerging industries for which they were identified as a hotspot. The charts for Catalonia (Barcelona) and Attiki (Atthens) show that their business environments are viewed as the least homogenous regional business environments with some factors such as financial and regulatory and policy factors representing particular weaknesses compared to other factors that are viewed stronger. PwC 9

30 Characteristics of the regional business environment (framework conditions)... Creative industries: regional business environment scores by region Figure 8: Berlin Figure 9: Catalonia (Barcelona) Financial Financial Support Industrial Support Industrial Regulatory and policy Market Regulatory and policy Market Knowledge Cultural Knowledge Cultural Figure 0: North Holland (Amsterdam) Financial Figure : Inner London Financial Support Industrial Support Industrial Regulatory and policy Market Regulatory and policy Market Knowledge Cultural Knowledge Cultural PwC 0

31 Characteristics of the regional business environment (framework conditions)... Eco industries: regional business environment scores by region Figure : Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) Regulatory and policy Support Financial Industrial Market Figure : Lombardy (Milan) Regulatory and policy Support Financial Industrial Market Knowledge Cultural Knowledge Cultural Figure : Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur Financial Regulatory and policy Support Industrial Market Knowledge Cultural PwC

32 Characteristics of the regional business environment (framework conditions)... Mobile services: regional business environment scores by region Figure : Attiki (Athens) Financial Figure 6: South Finland (Helsinki) Financial Support Industrial Support Industrial Regulatory and policy Market Regulatory and policy Market Knowledge Cultural Knowledge Cultural Figure 7: Vienna Financial Support Industrial Regulatory and policy Market Knowledge Cultural PwC

33 Characteristics of the regional business environment (framework conditions).. Comparing the strength of regional business environments: regional rankings by factor The following graphs rank the regional scores for the different dimensions of strength in regional business environments. The Capital Region of Denmark achieves the highest score for four of the framework conditions (industrial, cultural, regulatory and policy and support). South Finland is in the top three for all except the cultural framework conditions. Attiki ranks consistently in the bottom two and Catalonia in the bottom three. Figure 8: Financial framework conditions Vienna Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille) South Finland (Helsinki) Inner London Berlin Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) North Holland (Amsterdam) Average (all regions) Lombardy (Milan) Attiki (Athens) Catalonia (Barcelona).... disagree agree Figure 9: Industrial framework conditions Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) North Holland (Amsterdam) South Finland (Helsinki) Inner London Berlin Vienna Average (all regions) Lombardy (Milan) Catalonia (Barcelona) Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille) Attiki (Athens).... disagree agree PwC

34 Characteristics of the regional business environment (framework conditions) Figure 0: Market framework conditions Inner London North Holland (Amsterdam) South Finland (Helsinki) Vienna Berlin Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) Average (all regions) Lombardy (Milan) Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille) Catalonia (Barcelona) Attiki (Athens).... disagree agree Figure : Cultural framework conditions Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) Lombardy (Milan) Berlin Inner London South Finland (Helsinki) North Holland (Amsterdam) Average (all regions) Vienna Catalonia (Barcelona) Attiki (Athens) Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille).... disagree agree PwC

35 Characteristics of the regional business environment (framework conditions) Figure : Knowledge framework conditions Berlin Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) South Finland (Helsinki) Vienna Lombardy (Milan) North Holland (Amsterdam) Average (all regions) Inner London Catalonia (Barcelona) Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille) Attiki (Athens).... disagree agree Figure : Regulatory and policy framework conditions Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) South Finland (Helsinki) North Holland (Amsterdam) Inner London Berlin Vienna Average (all regions) Lombardy (Milan) Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille) Attiki (Athens) Catalonia (Barcelona).... disagree agree PwC

36 Characteristics of the regional business environment (framework conditions) Figure : Support framework conditions Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) South Finland (Helsinki) Vienna North Holland (Amsterdam) Inner London Berlin Lombardy (Milan) Average (all regions) Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille) Catalonia (Barcelona) Attiki (Athens).. Summary of findings.... disagree Knowledge, industrial and cultural factors are rated as slight strengths in the regional business environments surveyed for the pilot scoreboard. Regulatory and policy, support, market and financial factors are rated as weaknesses with average scores below. Industrial factors are rated stronger for the creative industries and for the market factor there is a particular weakness for the eco industries. Aside from these two aspects for the creative and eco industries, the strength of the regional business environment is rated fairly similarly by stakeholders across all three emerging industries. Non-firm respondents rate the strength of regional business environments consistently higher than firm respondents. The difference is particularly marked for knowledge, support, and regulatory and policy factors. There are significant differences in the strength of regional business environments across the 0 regions surveyed. No region ranks favourably for all factors. Financial framework conditions are the weakest, scoring unfavourable in all regions and very low for Catalonia and Attiki. Support framework conditions and regulatory and policy framework conditions are also unfavourable in all but two regions (the Capital Region of Denmark and South Finland). The highest scores are obtained for industrial and knowledge framework conditions. There is a particularly notable difference in market framework conditions between the northern and southern regions. Attiki, Catalonia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur and Lombardy have weak market scores below the average for all regions. Inner London, North Holland, South Finland, Vienna and Berlin on the other hand have positive, although only slightly positive, market scores. agree PwC 6

37 Indicators of firm strength. Indicators of firm strength This chapter investigates the availability of different factors that underpin the strength of firms. All the graphs in this chapter measure availability on a scale of to. Values below indicate that stakeholders disagreed that a given factor was available within the region and values above indicate that it was available. Respondents were asked to rate their level of agreement with a series of statements related to the different dimensions of firm strength. Respondents rated the extent to which a given characteristic applies to their firm (or firms in their region). The questions were as follows: For all the statements on this page, please rate on a scale of to, where is strongly disagree and is strongly agree. Access to funding Your firm reinvests a significant share of its revenues into its activities. Your firm has sufficient access to public funding. Your firm has sufficient access to private funding. Your firm is able to raise funds in an acceptable time frame. National and international contracts Your firm has established contracts with other firms or institutions in the region or within the cluster. Your firm has contracts with companies in different sectors. Your firm has contracts with companies based in other countries. Internationalisation Your firm has been successful in attracting foreign investment. Your firm has been successful in exporting its products and/or services to several foreign countries. Your firm is benefitting from having established operations in several other countries. Human Capital Your firm has been able to attract and retain talents. Your firm takes advantage of the experience and expertise of its employees. Your firm offers attractive wages adapted to the local cost of living. Entrepreneurship Your firm s leadership team has a strong track record in raising funds. Your firm s leadership team includes one or several serial entrepreneurs. Your firm s leadership regularly reviews and adapts its strategic plans based on changing customer needs. Market knowledge and innovation capacity Your firm identifies and seizes market opportunities and manages new market entries effectively. Your firm is effective at transforming ideas and innovations into products and services. Your firm invests into the development of new products and services addressing global markets. PwC 7

38 Indicators of firm strength.. Comparing emerging industries: firm strength in the different regions The main firm strengths identified are human capital and market knowledge and innovation capacity (Figure ). Entrepreneurship and national and international agreements are also rated somewhat favourably. Internationalisation, which was rated as the least important of the factors for firm strength, also ranks lowest in terms of availability with an unfavourable rating for all three emerging industries. Access to funding is judged neither as strength nor as a weakness of firms. Overall, the scores between different industries are quite similar. National and international agreements and internationalisation rank more favourable for mobile services and the eco industries respectively. Figure : Availability of different factors for the strength of firms by emerging industry Access to funding National and international agreements Internationalisation Human Capital Entrepreneurship Market knowledge and innovation capacity.... disagree agree Creative industries Eco industries Mobile services Firm respondents assess the strengths of firms more favourably overall compared to non-firm respondents (Figure 6). The difference is most significant for human capital and it is also notable for entrepreneurship and market knowledge and innovation capacity. For internationalisation, firms identified this as a weakness whereas other stakeholders saw this factor as a slight strength for firms in their region. PwC 8

39 Indicators of firm strength Figure 6: Availability of different factors for the strength of firms according to firm and nonfirm respondents Access to funding National and international agreements Internationalisation Human Capital Entrepreneurship Market knowledge and innovation capacity.... disagree agree Firms Non-firm respondents The following spider charts present the results for the firm strength for all factors by regions grouped into the three emerging industries for which they were identified as a hotspot. The charts show that, overall, the assessment of firm strengths is rather positive across all regions, while access to finance and internationalisation show in general as the least positive factors. PwC 9

40 Indicators of firm strength... Creative industries: firm strength scores by region Figure 7: Berlin Figure 8: Catalonia (Barcelona) Access to funding Access to funding Market knowledge and innovation capacity National and international agreements Market knowledge and innovation capacity National and international agreements Internationalisation Entrepreneurship Internationalisation Entrepreneurship Human Capital Figure 9: North Holland (Amsterdam) Market knowledge and innovation capacity Access to funding National and international agreements Human Capital Figure 60: Inner London Market knowledge and innovation capacity Access to funding National and international agreements Internationalisation Entrepreneurship Internationalisation Entrepreneurship Human Capital Human Capital PwC 0

41 Indicators of firm strength... Eco industries: firm strength scores by region Figure 6: Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) Market knowledge and innovation capacity Access to funding National and international agreements Figure 6: Lombardy (Milan) Market knowledge and innovation capacity Access to funding National and international agreements Internationalisation Entrepreneurship Internationalisation Entrepreneurship Human Capital Human Capital Figure 6: Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur Market knowledge and innovation capacity Access to funding National and international agreements Internationalisation Entrepreneurship Human Capital PwC

42 Indicators of firm strength... Mobile services: firm strength scores by region Figure 6: Attiki (Athens) Market knowledge and innovation capacity Access to funding National and international agreements Figure 6: South Finland (Helsinki) Market knowledge and innovation capacity Access to funding National and international agreements Internationalisation Entrepreneurship Internationalisation Entrepreneurship Human Capital Human Capital Figure 66: Vienna Market knowledge and innovation capacity Access to funding National and international agreements Internationalisation Entrepreneurship Human Capital PwC

43 Indicators of firm strength.. Comparing firm strength: regional rankings by factor The following graphs rank the regional scores for the different dimensions of firm strength. Inner London scores best across all dimensions ranking top for national and international agreements, human capital and entrepreneurship and second for internationalisation and market knowledge and innovation capacity. The Capital Region of Denmark and Vienna are the two other regions occupying the top of the rankings. Provence- Alpes-Côte d Azur, Catalonia and Lombardy score the lowest for at least one factor. These three regions, however, also score in the top four on some of the rankings: Lombardy for access to funding, internationalisation and market knowledge and innovation capacity; Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur and Catalonia for entrepreneurship. Figure 67: Access to funding Vienna Lombardy (Milan) South Finland (Helsinki) Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) Inner London Berlin Average (all regions) Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille) North Holland (Amsterdam) Attiki (Athens) Catalonia (Barcelona) Figure 68: National and international agreements Inner London Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) South Finland (Helsinki) Attiki (Athens) North Holland (Amsterdam) Average (all regions) Vienna Lombardy (Milan) Berlin Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille) Catalonia (Barcelona) disagree agree disagree agree PwC

44 Indicators of firm strength Figure 69: Internationalisation Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) Inner London Lombardy (Milan) North Holland (Amsterdam) Attiki (Athens) Average (all regions) Vienna South Finland (Helsinki) Catalonia (Barcelona) Berlin Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille) disagree agree Figure 70: Human capital Inner London Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) South Finland (Helsinki) Berlin Vienna Average (all regions) Attiki (Athens) Catalonia (Barcelona) Lombardy (Milan) North Holland (Amsterdam) Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille) disagree agree PwC

45 Indicators of firm strength Figure 7: Entrepreneurship Inner London Vienna Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille) Catalonia (Barcelona) Berlin Average (all regions) Attiki (Athens) South Finland (Helsinki) Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) North Holland (Amsterdam) Lombardy (Milan) disagree agree Figure 7: Market knowledge and innovation capacity Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) Inner London Berlin Lombardy (Milan) Vienna Attiki (Athens) Average (all regions) North Holland (Amsterdam) South Finland (Helsinki) Catalonia (Barcelona) Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille).. Summary of findings disagree Human capital, market knowledge and innovation capacity, entrepreneurship and national and international agreements are rated favourably for firm strength, although the scores are only slightly favourable. Internationalisation is rated as a weakness with average scores below for all three emerging industries. Access to funding is rated neither as a strength nor as a weakness overall. The differences in scores between regions are less marked for firm strength compared to the scores for the strength of the regional business environment. The differences are strongest for national and international agreements as well as for internationalisation. agree PwC

46 Effective business support services. Effective business support services This chapter investigates the availability of effective business support services in a given industry and region. These are any organised efforts to enhance the competitiveness of the regional economy involving private business, public bodies and/or academic institutions within a regional and sectoral system. Firms that indicated that they are participating in a cluster initiative were asked to rate the services provided by the cluster organisation managing the cluster. All other respondents were asked to rate business support services available to companies in their industry and region. Effective business support services are one aspect of cluster management excellence. The scoreboard indicators for business support services thus measure include a All the graphs in this chapter measure availability on a scale of to. Values below indicate that stakeholders disagreed that an effective business support service was available within the region and values above indicate that it was available. The availability of services was assessed with the following question: Please rate on a scale of to, where is strongly disagree and is strongly agree. There are effective business support services available in the region for [or The cluster organisation provides an effective service for for firms participating in a cluster organisation ]: The acquisition of third party funding (e.g. public funding) Information, matchmaking and exchange of experience among cluster participants (internal ) Matchmaking and with external cooperation partners and/or the promotion of the cluster location The internationalisation of cluster participants The development of human resources (e.g. training and education, recruitment) The development of entrepreneurship Collaborative technology development or technology transfer or R&D (without third party funding) PwC 6

47 Effective business support services.. Comparing emerging industries: the availability of effective business support services Business support services in general are assessed as rather ineffective for all emerging industries with ratings mostly below (Figure 7). The only favourable scores are for supporting internal and supporting external for eco industries and, by a fraction, support for HR development for mobile services. Overall, business support services in the creative industries are least effective. access to finance and supporting internationalisation rate the lowest. Figure 7: Availability of effective business support services by emerging industry access to finance internal external internationalisation HR development entrepreneurship collaborative RDI.... disagree agree Creative industries Eco industries Mobile services Firm respondents consistently rated the availability of effective business support services lower compared to other stakeholders (Figure 7). The difference is most marked for supporting collaborative RDI, supporting internationaliastion and supporting access to finance. Further, amongst firms, the different services are all rated as ineffective whereas other stakeholders viewed at least some of the services somewhat positively. PwC 7

48 Effective business support services Figure 7: Availability of effective business support services according to firm and non-firm respondents access to finance internal external internationalisation HR development entrepreneurship collaborative RDI.... disagree agree Firms Non-firm respondents The following spider charts present the results for the availability of effective business support for all factors by regions grouped into the three emerging industries for which they were identified as a hotspot. The charts for Catalonia (Barcelona) and Attiki (Atthens) show that the business support services that are available in their regions are viewed more critically across the bord than in the other regions. PwC 8

49 Effective business support services... Creative industries: availability of effective business support services scores by region Figure 7: Berlin Figure 76: Catalonia (Barcelona) access to finance access to finance collaborative RDI internal collaborative RDI internal entrepreneurship external entrepreneurship external HR development international -isation HR development international -isation Figure 77: North Holland (Amsterdam) collaborative RDI access to finance internal Figure 78: Inner London collaborative RDI access to finance internal entrepreneurship external entrepreneurship external HR development international -isation HR development international -isation PwC 9

50 Effective business support services... Eco industries: availabilty of effective business support services scores by region Figure 79: Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) collaborative RDI entrepreneurship access to finance internal external Figure 80: Lombardy (Milan) collaborative RDI entrepreneurship access to finance internal external HR development international -isation HR development international -isation Figure 8: Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur collaborative RDI entrepreneurship access to finance internal external HR development international -isation PwC 0

51 Effective business support services... Mobile services: availabilty of effective business support services scores by region Figure 8: Attiki (Athens) collaborative RDI access to finance internal Figure 8: South Finland (Helsinki) collaborative RDI access to finance internal entrepreneurship external entrepreneurship external HR development international -isation HR development international -isation Figure 8: Vienna access to finance collaborative RDI internal entrepreneurship external HR development international -isation PwC

52 Effective business support services.. Comparing the availability of effective business support services: regional rankings by type of service The following graphs rank the regional scores for availability of effective business support services. The Capital Region of Denmark, Lombardy and South Finland rank most favourably for business support services. Their scores are nevertheless on average borderline unfavourable for all the services. The regions having the weakest business support services are Attiki and Catalonia. Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur has the lowest score for support for entrepreneurship development even though it ranks in the top three for entrepreneurship as a factor in firm strength. Figure 8: access to finance South Finland (Helsinki) Berlin Lombardy (Milan) Vienna Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) North Holland (Amsterdam) Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille) Inner London Average (all regions) Attiki (Athens) Catalonia (Barcelona).... disagree agree Figure 86: Support for information exchanges and matchmaking amongst firms in the region Lombardy (Milan) Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) North Holland (Amsterdam) South Finland (Helsinki) Berlin Vienna Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille) Average (all regions) Inner London Attiki (Athens) Catalonia (Barcelona).... disagree agree PwC

53 Effective business support services Figure 87: Support for and finding external cooperation partners Lombardy (Milan) Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) South Finland (Helsinki) Vienna North Holland (Amsterdam) Average (all regions) Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille) Berlin Inner London Catalonia (Barcelona) Attiki (Athens).... disagree agree Figure 88: Support for internationalisation Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) Lombardy (Milan) South Finland (Helsinki) North Holland (Amsterdam) Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille) Vienna Average (all regions) Inner London Berlin Catalonia (Barcelona) Attiki (Athens).... disagree agree PwC

54 Effective business support services Figure 89: Support for human resource development Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) South Finland (Helsinki) Inner London North Holland (Amsterdam) Vienna Lombardy (Milan) Average (all regions) Berlin Attiki (Athens) Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille) Catalonia (Barcelona).... disagree agree Figure 90: Support for entrepreneurship development Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) South Finland (Helsinki) North Holland (Amsterdam) Lombardy (Milan) Berlin Inner London Vienna Average (all regions) Catalonia (Barcelona) Attiki (Athens) Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille).... disagree agree PwC

55 Effective business support services Figure 9: Support for collaborative R&D and/or technology transfer South Finland (Helsinki) Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) Lombardy (Milan) Vienna North Holland (Amsterdam) Average (all regions) Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille) Berlin Inner London Attiki (Athens) Catalonia (Barcelona).. Summary of findings.... disagree The general assessment is that there is a lack of effective business support services in all the regions surveyed. There are differences in the effectiveness of business support services across the three emerging industries. The ratings for the eco industries are higher overall although they remain unfavourable for most services. Effective business support services are most lacking in the creative industries. There is a significant difference in the perceived effectiveness of available business support services between firm and non-firm respondents. Firms assessed all business support services as being weaker compared to nonfirm stakeholders. The biggest difference between these stakeholder groups is for supporting collaborative RDI, supporting internationalistion and supporting access to finance. There are differences in the availability ratings across the regions for nearly all the services that were assessed. Support for access to finance is weak for all regions but Attiki and Catalonia have particularly low availability scores for this type of service. These two regions also rank below the average for all regions for all services and, along with Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur, they have consistent unfavourable ratings for all services. Southern Finland and the Capital Region of Denmark have marginally favourable ratings for five of the seven types of services but even in these two regions the services are assessed as lacking significantly in effectiveness. agree PwC

56 Firm performance (output indicators) 6. Firm performance (output indicators) This chapter focuses on output indicators rating the performance of firms in terms of change in employment, change in annual revenues, change in output, change in profits, and change in the number of new products and/or services introduced. Change for these indicators is assessed over the year period prior to the survey, i.e. the first quarter of 00 to the first quarter of 0. The graphs in this chapter measure performance on a five point scale, where () is decreased, () is stayed the same, () is increased slightly (<% annually), () is increased moderately (-0% annually), and () is increased significantly (>0% annually). The firm performance questions were only put to stakeholders representing firms. Using the above-mentioned five point scale, respondents were asked the following: Over the past years, the number of employees of the firm has: Over the past years, annual revenues of the firm have: Over the past years, the output (manufacturing and/or services) of the firm has: Over the past years, profits of the firm have: Over the past years, the number of new products and services introduced by the firm has: These firm performance scores, by virtue of being derived from a survey, only present a snapshot of the performance of firms for the selected emerging industry in each region. The number of responses also varies by region but there was a high willingness of firms to share this information with over 80 percent of respondents providing the output data for their firms. PwC 6

57 Firm performance (output indicators) 6.. Comparing emerging industries: firm performance The surveyed firms in the creative industries experienced the least growth in terms of employment, annual revenues, output and profits (Figure 9, Figure 9, Figure 9 and Figure 9). The eco industries performed best overall for these performance indicators. Around half of the firms in the three emerging industries increased the number of their employees between 00 and 0. Annual revenues increased for 60% of firms in the eco industries and for mobile services and for 0% of firms in the creative industries. Firm performance was worst in terms of profits, with at least one in five firms seeing a decline in their profits and one in three in the creative industries. Output in terms of the number of new products and services on the other hand increased for firms in all emerging industries (Figure 96). The creative industries have the highest share of innovative firms with more than 80% of firms increasing their innovation output. Around a quarter of firms increased their innovation output significantly. Figure 9: Change in the number of employees of firms by emerging industry, 00-0 Creative industries 0% 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% Figure 9: Change in annual revenues of firms by emerging industry, 00-0 Creative industries 0% 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% Eco industries Eco industries Mobile services Mobile services () Decreased () Stayed the same () Increased by <% annually () Increased by -0% annually () Increased by >0% annually Figure 9: Change in the output of firms by emerging industry, 00-0 Creative industries 0% 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% () Decreased () Stayed the same () Increased by <% annually () Increased by -0% annually () Increased by >0% annually Figure 9: Change in profits of firms by emerging industry, 00-0 Creative industries 0% 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% Eco industries Eco industries Mobile services Mobile services () Decreased () Stayed the same () Increased by <% annually () Increased by -0% annually () Increased by >0% annually () Decreased () Stayed the same () Increased by <% annually () Increased by -0% annually () Increased by >0% annually Figure 96: Change in the number of new products and services introduced by firms by emerging industry, % 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% Creative industries Eco industries Mobile services () Decreased () Stayed the same () Increased slightly () Increased moderately () Increased significantly PwC 7

58 Firm performance (output indicators) 6... Creative industries: firm performance scores by region Figure 97: Berlin Number of employees 0% 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% Figure 98: Catalonia (Barcelona) Number of employees 0% 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% Annual revenues Annual revenues Output Output Profits Profits Innovation Innovation () Decreased () Stayed the same () Increased by <% annually () Increased by -0% annually () Increased by >0% annually N = 7 Figure 99: North Holland (Amsterdam) 0% 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% Number of employees () Decreased () Stayed the same () Increased by <% annually () Increased by -0% annually () Increased by >0% annually N = Figure 00: Inner London 0% 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% Number of employees Annual revenues Annual revenues Output Output Profits Profits Innovation Innovation () Decreased () Stayed the same () Increased by <% annually () Increased by -0% annually () Increased by >0% annually N = () Decreased () Stayed the same () Increased by <% annually () Increased by -0% annually () Increased by >0% annually N = 8 PwC 8

59 Firm performance (output indicators) 6... Eco industries: firm performance scores by region Figure 0: Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) Number of employees N = 9 Annual revenues Output Profits Innovation 0% 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% () Decreased () Stayed the same () Increased by <% annually () Increased by -0% annually () Increased by >0% annually Figure 0: Lombardy (Milan) 0% 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% Number of employees Annual revenues Output Profits Innovation () Decreased () Stayed the same () Increased by <% annually () Increased by -0% annually () Increased by >0% annually N = 9 Figure 0: Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur 0% 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% Number of employees Annual revenues Output Profits Innovation () Decreased () Stayed the same () Increased by <% annually () Increased by -0% annually () Increased by >0% annually N = PwC 9

60 Firm performance (output indicators) 6... Mobile services: firm performance scores by region Figure 0: Attiki (Athens) Number of employees 0% 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% Figure 0: South Finland (Helsinki) Number of employees 0% 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% Annual revenues Annual revenues Output Output Profits Profits Innovation Innovation () Decreased () Stayed the same () Increased by <% annually () Increased by -0% annually () Increased by >0% annually N = 7 () Decreased () Stayed the same () Increased by <% annually () Increased by -0% annually () Increased by >0% annually N = 8 Figure 06: Vienna 0% 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% Number of employees Annual revenues Output Profits Innovation () Decreased () Stayed the same () Increased by <% annually () Increased by -0% annually () Increased by >0% annually N = 6 PwC 60

61 Firm performance (output indicators) 6.. Comparing firm performance indicators: scores by region The following graphs rank the regional scores for availability for firm performance based on the percentage of firms that reported an increase in output for the given indicator (i.e covering answers, and represented by the orange and both green colours). This combined percentage figure of firms reporting an increase is also indicated at the end each figure for every region. No regional hotspot performs consistently strongly for all indicators. Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur ranks top for growth in employment but only average on revenues, output and profits. The Capital Region of Denmark ranks top for growth in annual revenues but only average for growth in employment. Berlin is in the top three for growth in employment and in the bottom three for revenues, output and profits. Catalonia, Attiki and Lombardy are in the bottom four for employment, revenue, output and profit growth. There is a clear divide in terms of innovation performance between the different emerging industries. The three regions surveyed for eco industries have the lowest firm innovation performance scores. The top three slots for innovation performance are taken by creative industries hotspots. Figure 07: Change in the number of employees of firms by region, % 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur Inner London Berlin Vienna South Finland (Helsinki) Capital Region of Denmark North Holland (Amsterdam) Lombardy (Milan) Attiki (Athens) Catalonia (Barcelona) Increase (%) 60,9% 60.%.%.% 0.0% 8.% 8.%.9%.%.% () Decreased () Stayed the same () Increased by <% annually () Increased by -0% annually () Increased by >0% annually PwC 6

62 Firm performance (output indicators) Figure 08: Change in annual revenues of firms by region, % 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) South Finland (Helsinki) Vienna North Holland (Amsterdam) Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille) Inner London Lombardy (Milan) Berlin Attiki (Athens) Catalonia (Barcelona) Increase (%) 7.9% 68.% 6.9% 6.9% 60.9% 60.% 9.0% 7.8%.9% 0.6% () Decreased () Stayed the same () Increased by <% annually () Increased by -0% annually () Increased by >0% annually Figure 09: Change in the output of firms by region, % 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% North Holland (Amsterdam) Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) South Finland (Helsinki) Vienna Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille) Inner London Attiki (Athens) Lombardy (Milan) Berlin Catalonia (Barcelona) Increase (%) 7.% 69.0% 67.% 67.% 6.6% 6.%.% 7.9%.7%.% () Decreased () Stayed the same () Increased by <% annually () Increased by -0% annually () Increased by >0% annually PwC 6

63 Firm performance (output indicators) Figure 0: Change in profits of firms by region, % 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% Inner London Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) Vienna South Finland (Helsinki) North Holland (Amsterdam) Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille) Attiki (Athens) Lombardy (Milan) Berlin Catalonia (Barcelona) Increase (%) 6.8% 6.% 60.0%.%.% 0.0% 8.6% 7.% 7.0% 7.6% () Decreased () Stayed the same () Increased by <% annually () Increased by -0% annually () Increased by >0% annually Figure : Change in the number of new products and services introduced by firms by region, % 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% North Holland (Amsterdam) Inner London Berlin Attiki (Athens) Vienna Catalonia (Barcelona) South Finland (Helsinki) Lombardy (Milan) Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille) Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) Increase (%) 8.7% 8% 8.0% 8.9% 76.% 7.% 7.% 7.% 69.6% 67.9% () Decreased () Stayed the same () Increased slightly () Increased moderately () Increased significantly PwC 6

64 Firm performance (output indicators) 6.. Comparing cluster firms with non-cluster firms Amongst the firms responding to the questionnaire survey around one in five indicated that they participate in a cluster initiative managed by a cluster management organisation (6 firms in total). The number and share of surveyed firms participating in a cluster initiative does, however, vary significantly by region (Figure and Figure ). Lombardy and Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur have participation rates of close to 0% and 6% respectively amongst the surveyed firms. For both Catalonia and Inner London only a single firm participated in a cluster initiative. Figure : Number of surveyed firms participating in a cluster initiative by region Figure : Share of surveyed firms participating in a cluster initiative by region 0% 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% Berlin Catalonia (Barcelona) North Holland (Amsterdam) Inner London Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) Lombardy (Milan) Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille) Attiki (Athens) South Finland (Helsinki) Vienna Firms participating in a cluster initiative All regions Berlin Catalonia (Barcelona) North Holland (Amsterdam) Inner London Capital Region of Denmark Lombardy (Milan) Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur Attiki (Athens) South Finland (Helsinki) Vienna Firms participating in a cluster initiative Firms not participating in a cluster initative A comparison of the performance of firms participating in a cluster initiative with that of firms not participating in a cluster initiative was performed but based on the different sampling rates the results need to be interpreted with caution. The analysis also includes different emerging industries with different characteristics and different regions with different strengths and differences in firm performance. The results show that amongst the surveyed firms, firms participating in cluster initiatives outperform firms not participating in cluster initiatives. A higher share of the firms participating in cluster initiatives significantly increased the number of their employees (Figure ), their annual revenues (Figure ), their output (Figure 6), their profits (Figure 7), and the number of new products and/or services introduced (Figure 8) and a smaller share saw in decrease for these same output indicators. The results are perhaps not surprising considering previous findings on the innovative performance of firms in clusters but they should nevertheless only be seen as indicative of a possible link to be investigated further. In order to further explore and validate these findings, the response and sampling rates would need to be significantly increased. The empirical evidence gathered in a larger dataset would also need to balance responses and response rates between cluster and non-cluster firms at both the regional level and at industry level. See for example: 006 Innobarometer on cluster s role in facilitating innovation in Europe, available at PwC 6

65 Firm performance (output indicators) Figure : Change in the number of employees for cluster and non-cluster firms, 00-0 Increased by >0% annually 8.%.% Increased by -0% annually.%.8% Increased by <% annually.%.% Stayed the same.%.% Decreased 6.%.6% 0.0%.0% 0.0%.0% 0.0%.0% 0.0%.0% Firms participating in a cluster initiative Firms not participating in a cluster initative Figure : Change in annual revenues for cluster and non-cluster firms, 00-0 Increased by >0% annually 8.%.% Increased by -0% annually.9% 8.% Increased by <% annually 0.% 0.% Stayed the same.%.9% Decreased 7.%.0% 0.0%.0% 0.0%.0% 0.0%.0% 0.0%.0% Firms participating in a cluster initiative Firms not participating in a cluster initative PwC 6

66 Firm performance (output indicators) Figure 6: Change in output for cluster and non-cluster firms, 00-0 Increased by >0% annually.9%.% Increased by -0% annually.% 9.% Increased by <% annually.%.8% Stayed the same.% 6.7% Decreased.% 6.8% 0.0%.0% 0.0%.0% 0.0%.0% 0.0%.0% Firms participating in a cluster initiative Firms not participating in a cluster initative Figure 7: Change in profits for cluster and non-cluster firms, 00-0 Increased by >0% annually.% 9.6% Increased by -0% annually 7.%.8% Increased by <% annually 0.% 9.9% Stayed the same 6.% 8.7% Decreased.% 7.% 0.0%.0% 0.0%.0% 0.0%.0% 0.0%.0% Firms participating in a cluster initiative Firms not participating in a cluster initative PwC 66

67 Firm performance (output indicators) Figure 8: Change in the number of new products and services introduced for cluster and noncluster firms, 00-0 Increased significantly 7.6%.% Increased moderately.%.6% Increased slightly.% 0.% Stayed the same.% 9.9% Decreased.0%.% 0.0%.0% 0.0%.0% 0.0%.0% 0.0%.0% Firms participating in a cluster initiative Firms not participating in a cluster initative The overall assessment of firms participating in cluster initiatives is favourable towards these initiatives (Figure 9). Participants are, on average, inclined towards recommending participation in the cluster initiative to other firms. Cluster organisations are also seen as provided added value to the development of the regional industrial base. Firms participating in cluster initiatives, however, neither agree nor disagree on whether they have benefitted significantly from the services of the cluster organisation. Firms not participating in a cluster initiative also tended to agree, although not particularly strongly, that additional efforts to enhance a cluster in their region would add value to the development of the regional industrial base. Figure 9: Overall assessment of cluster initiatives I would recommend participation in the cluster initiative to other firms. Your cluster organisation is providing added value to the development of the regional industrial base. My firm has benefitted significantly from the services of the cluster organisation. Firms not participating in a cluster: Additional organised efforts to enhance the competitiveness of a cluster in your region would add value to the development of the regional industral base..... strongly disagree strongly agree PwC 67

68 Firm performance (output indicators) 6.. Summary of findings There are differences in firm performance between the three emerging industries for the employment, annual revenues, output and profits indicators although these differences are less pronounced than the differences in firm performance between regions. Firms in the eco industries performed best overall in terms of increases in employment, annual revenues, output and profits. Firms in the creative industries showed the highest innovation performance. There are significant differences in the performance of firms between the different regions with no region ranking consistently near the top for the different performance indicators. Inner London and the Capital Region of Denmark performed best overall being ranked three times in the top three regions based on the percentage of firms having increased their output. Catalonia and Lombardy had the lowest performance scores overall being ranked in the bottom three for four of the five indicators. There is a regional divide in terms of innovation performance related to the different emerging industries. The three regions surveyed for eco industries have the lowest firm innovation performance scores. The top three slots for innovation performance are taken by creative industries hotspots. The analysis conducted to compare the performance of firms participating in cluster initiatives with the performance of firms not participating in cluster initiatives suggests that the former outperform the latter on all output indicators. These results should, however, be interpreted with caution given the different sampling rates, different levels of participation in cluster initiatives and different characteristics of the surveyed regions. PwC 68

69 Aggregate scores and indicators 7. Aggregate scores and indicators This chapter presents aggregate importance and availability scores and composite indicators for the different elements and factors boosting the strength of emerging industries. The scores and indicators in this chapter are assessed on a scale of 0 to 00, where scores below 0 indicate that the factor in question is less important, unavailable or unfavourable and scores above 0 indicating that the factor in question is seen as more important, available or favourable. The importance scores are based on the results from the questions on the importance of different factors for boosting the strength in emerging industries displayed in chapter. The importance scores were obtained by transforming the importance rating variables for the different factors from a scale of to to a scale of 0 to 00. The availability scores are based on the results from the questions on the availability of different factors that underpin the strength of regional business environments (framework conditions) listed at the beginning of chapter, the results from the questions on the availability of different factors that underpin the strength of firms listed at the start of chapter, and the results from the questions on the availability of effective business support services listed in the introduction of chapter. The availability scores were obtained by transforming the availability rating variables for the different factors from a scale of to to a scale of 0 to 00. The composite indicators aggregate the importance and availability scores in a single composite score. They are calculated by multiplying the relative importance of each factor by its availability. In other words, the relative importance scores are used to add a weighting to the availability scores in order to create a composite indicator measuring both importance and availability. PwC 69

70 Aggregate scores and indicators 7.. Regional rankings for the different elements measuring regional strength in emerging industries 7... Rankings based on availability scores The following graphs rank the aggregate scores for the availability of the three elements boosting the strength of emerging industries at regional level: the regional business environment (Figure 0), firm strength (Figure ), and business support services (Figure ). A ranking of the average availability score for all three elements is shown in Figure. The scores are assessed on a scale of 0 to 00, where scores below 0 indicate that availability for the element in question is unfavourable and scores above 0 indicate that it is favourable. Figure 0: Availability score for regional business environment (framework conditions) by region South Finland (Helsinki) Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) Vienna Berlin North Holland (Amsterdam) Inner London Average (all regions) Lombardy (Milan) Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille) Catalonia (Barcelona) Attiki (Athens) Figure : Availability score for firm strength by region Inner London Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) Vienna Lombardy (Milan) South Finland (Helsinki) Average (all regions) Attiki (Athens) North Holland (Amsterdam) Berlin Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille) Catalonia (Barcelona) PwC 70

71 Aggregate scores and indicators Figure : Availability score for business support services by region Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) South Finland (Helsinki) Lombardy (Milan) North Holland (Amsterdam) Vienna Berlin Average (all regions) Inner London Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille) Attiki (Athens) Catalonia (Barcelona) Figure : Availability score for all three elements (average) by region Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) South Finland (Helsinki) Inner London Vienna North Holland (Amsterdam) Lombardy (Milan) Berlin Average (all regions) Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille) Catalonia (Barcelona) Attiki (Athens) PwC 7

72 Aggregate scores and indicators 7... Rankings based on composite indicators measuring both importance and availability The following composite indicators take into account both importance and availability of the different elements boosting the strength of emerging industries. The following graphs rank the composite indicator scores for the three elements boosting the strength of emerging industries at regional level: the regional business environment (Figure ), firm strength (Figure ), and business support services (Figure 6). A ranking of the composite indicator score for all three elements is shown in Figure 7. The composite indicator scores are assessed on a scale of 0 to 00, where scores below 0 are unfavourable in terms of importance and availability and scores above 0 are favourable. Figure : Composite indicator for regional business environment (framework conditions) by region Vienna Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) South Finland (Helsinki) North Holland (Amsterdam) Berlin Inner London Average (all regions) Lombardy (Milan) Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille) Catalonia (Barcelona) Attiki (Athens) Figure : Composite indicator for firm strength by region Inner London Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) Berlin South Finland (Helsinki) Average (all regions) Attiki (Athens) Lombardy (Milan) North Holland (Amsterdam) Vienna Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille) Catalonia (Barcelona) PwC 7

73 Aggregate scores and indicators Figure 6: Composite indicator for business support services by region Lombardy (Milan) South Finland (Helsinki) Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) Vienna North Holland (Amsterdam) Average (all regions) Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille) Inner London Berlin Catalonia (Barcelona) Attiki (Athens) Figure 7: Composite indicator for all elements by region Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) South Finland (Helsinki) Inner London Vienna Berlin North Holland (Amsterdam) Lombardy (Milan) Average (all regions) Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille) Catalonia (Barcelona) Attiki (Athens) PwC 7

74 Berlin Catalonia (Barcelona) North Holland (Amsterdam) Inner London Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) Lombardy (Milan) Provence-Alpes- Côte d Azur (Marseille) Attiki (Athens) South Finland (Helsinki) Vienna Average (all regions) Aggregate scores and indicators 7.. Scores measuring regional strength of emerging industries The three tables in this section report the importance scores (Table ), the availability scores (Table ) and the composite indicator scores (Table ) for the different factors measuring strength in emerging industries by region. Although a composite indicator score is provide for the overall regional strength in emerging industries, the results for the individual composite indicators for the three key elements and for its individual factors should be foremost reviewed in order to identify areas that hold back the performance of the overall eco-system Importance scores for different factors by region The scores in Table are assessed on a scale of 0 to 00, where scores below 0 indicate that stakeholders assessed the factor as less important and scores above 0 as more important. Table : Importance scores for different factors measuring strength in emerging industries Regional business environment (Framework conditions) Financial Industrial Market Cultural Knowledge Regulatory and policy Support Aggregate score Firm strength Access to funding Partnerships Internationalisation Human Capital Entrepreneurship Market knowledge and innovation capacity Aggregate score Business support services access to finance internal external internationalisation HR development entrepreneurship collaborative RDI Aggregate score PwC 7

75 Berlin Catalonia (Barcelona) North Holland (Amsterdam) Inner London Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) Lombardy (Milan) Provence-Alpes- Côte d Azur (Marseille) Attiki (Athens) South Finland (Helsinki) Vienna Average (all regions) Aggregate scores and indicators 7... Availability scores for different factors by region The scores in Table assessed on a scale of 0 to 00, where scores below 0 indicate that availability for the factor in question is unfavourable and scores above 0 indicate that it is favourable. Table : Availability scores for different factors measuring strength in emerging industries Regional business environment (Framework conditions) Financial Industrial Market Cultural Knowledge Regulatory and policy Support Aggregate score Firm strength Access to funding Partnerships Internationalisation Human Capital Entrepreneurship Market knowledge and innovation capacity Aggregate score Business support services access to finance internal external internationalisation HR development entrepreneurship collaborative RDI Aggregate score PwC 7

76 Berlin Catalonia (Barcelona) North Holland (Amsterdam) Inner London Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) Lombardy (Milan) Provence-Alpes- Côte d Azur (Marseille) Attiki (Athens) South Finland (Helsinki) Vienna Average (all regions) Aggregate scores and indicators 7... Composite indicators assessing importance and availability of different factors by region The composite indicator scores in Table are assessed on a scale of 0 to 00, where scores below 0 are unfavourable in terms of importance and availability and scores above 0 are favourable. Table : Composite indicator scores for factors measuring strength in emerging industries Regional business environment (Framework conditions) Financial Industrial Market Cultural Knowledge Regulatory and policy Support Aggregate score Firm strength Access to funding Partnerships Internationalisation Human Capital Entrepreneurship Market knowledge and innovation capacity Aggregate score Business support services access to finance internal external internationalisation HR development entrepreneurship collaborative RDI Aggregate score Composite indicators Regional Business Environment Firm Strength Business Support Services Composite indicator for regional strength in emerging industries PwC 76

77 Percentage of firms reporting an increase in output Aggregate scores and indicators 7.. Comparing composite indicator scores and firm performance The following graphs compare the composite indicator scores for regional business environment and for business support services for the 0 regions to the performance of firms in these regions. The performance scores for these graphs correspond to the percentage of firms in each region reporting an increase for the relevant indicator (as reported in the figures in section 6.). The scores for the change in firm revenues, output, number of employees and profits thus refer to the combined percentage of firms reporting an increase. There appears to be some correlation between the composite indicator scores for regional business environment and the performance of firms in terms of change in annual revenues and change in output for the surveyed regions (Figure 8). The two regions with the lowest regional business environment scores, Catalonia and Attiki, also have lower firm performance. Regions with higher composite indicator scores also score higher in terms of firm performance. The most significant outlier in Figure 8 is Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur, which in spite of a lower composite indicator score for regional business environment has firms performing rather well in terms of the percentage of firms reporting increases in annual revenues and output. Figure 8: Composite indicator scores for regional business environment compared to change in annual revenues and change in output Vienna 7.7 North Holland (Amsterdam). Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) Catalonia (Barcelona). Attiki (Athens) 8.7 Inner London.7 South Finland (Helsinki) Provence-Alpes-Côte.9 d Azur (Marseille) 9. Lombardy (Milan) Berlin Percentage of firms reporting an increase in annual revenues Creative industries Eco industries Mobile services PwC 77

78 Percentage o firms reporting an increase in profits Aggregate scores and indicators There is less of a correlation between the composite indicator scores for business support services and firm performance in terms of growth in employment and growth in profits (Figure 9). The two regions with the lowest composite indicator scores for business support services, Catalonia and Attiki, however do again score lowest for firm performance. The region with the highest composite indicator score, the Capital Region of Denmark, scores well for growth in profits but less well for growth in employment. The three regions with the highest percentages of firms reporting growth in employment, Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur, Inner London and Berlin all have unfavourable composite indicator scores for business support services. On the other hand, Lombardy has a favourable composite indicator score but ranks in the bottom three in terms of the two firm performance scores. Figure 9: Composite indicator scores for business support services compared to change in employment and change in profits Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen). Vienna 7.0 Inner London North Holland (Amsterdam) 8.9 Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille) South Finland (Helsinki).6 Attiki (Athens).9 Catalonia (Barcelona). Lombardy (Milan) 0.9 Berlin Percentage of firms reporting an increase in number of employees Creative industries Eco industries Mobile services PwC 78

79 Conclusions 8. Conclusions The European Cluster Excellence Scoreboard has been designed as a tool to measure and assess the strengths and weaknesses of regional business environments, firms, and business support services. As this pilot version of the scoreboard has shown, the proposed survey-based methodology can be applied effectively in practice in order to obtain specific, relevant and timely information on the current state of regional business ecosystems. It offers comprehensive, concrete and actionable evidence that can be used to design policy tools to address specific weaknesses and needs that have been identified at the level of firms, regions or industries. The majority of respondents surveyed for the scoreboard were entrepreneurs but other key stakeholders were also included. It was essential to gather the views and inputs and capture the perceptions of all stakeholders in order to provide a balanced assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the different ecosystems. The outputs of the scoreboard, likewise, provide relevant insights for all the contributing stakeholders including entrepreneurs, policy makers, cluster management organisations, investors and academics. The uptake and response rate for the scoreboard questionnaire exceeded expectations and showed that there is both a need for and a strong interest in the type of assessment and analysis that it provides. In order to better understand the industry-specific framework conditions relevant for the development of world-class cluster in emerging industries, further work has been carried to complement the analysis and results of the European Cluster Excellence Scoreboard. Three case study reports have been prepared for the emerging industries that were also selected for the analysis of the European Cluster Excellence Scoreboard, namely creative industries, eco industries and mobile services industries. The case studies will be available for download at: PwC 79

80 Scorecard for creative industries in Berlin Appendix A. - Scorecard for creative industries in Berlin A.. Dimensions of strength in emerging industries () Regional business environment () Firm strength Financial Access to funding Regulatory and policy Support Industrial Market Market knowledge and innovation capacity Internationalisation Entrepreneurship National and international agreements Knowledge Cultural Human Capital () Business support services () Firm performance access to finance 0% 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% Number of employees collaborative RDI internal Annual revenues Output entrepreneurship external Profits Innovation () Decreased () Stayed the same HR development international -isation () Increased by <% annually () Increased by -0% annually () Increased by >0% annually Summary and recommendations Knowledge characteristics, entrepreneurial culture and a critical mass of companies in related sectors are noted as strong points of the regional business environment for creative industries in Berlin. Market knowledge and human capital are considered important individual firm strengths. Business support services are the weakest element of the ecosystem. Firms scored very well overall in terms of their innovation performance but this is not matched by a similar performance for the other indicators, with growth in profits being particularly sluggish. The results of the scoreboard survey for the Berlin cluster are positive overall. Future policy efforts would be best geared towards the improvement of current business support mechanisms, with a particular emphasis on promoting the internationalisation of SMEs. PwC 80

81 Scorecard for creative industries in Berlin A.. Composite indicators () Regional business environment () Firm strength (6) () (7) () () () () () 9.6 (6) ().6. () () () () Financial () Industrial () Market () Cultural () Knowledge (6) Regulatory and policy (7) Support () Access to funding () Partnerships () Internationalisation () Human Capital () Entrepreneurship (6) Market knowledge & innovation () Business support services () Regional strength in emerging industries: overall score for all three elements (, & ) (6) (7) () () () () 7. () ().9 (). () 0.0 () access to finance () internal () external () internationalisation () HR development (6) entrepreneurship (7) collaborative RDI () Regional Business Environment () Firm Strength () Business Support Services How to read these graphs These composite indicators measure the importance and availability of different elements of regional strength in emerging industries. The inner ring of each graph shows the composite indicator scores for the different dimensions or elements. These scores add up to the total score in the middle of each graph. The outer ring indicates the maximum possible scores for each element or dimension based on its relative importance, as assessed by stakeholders of the region. The aggregate scores for all regions surveyed for the pilot scoreboard are shown on the right: () Regional business environment, () Firm strength, () Business support services, () Regional strength in emerging industries (overall score). () () () () PwC 8

82 Scorecard for creative industries in Catalonia (Barcelona) Appendix B. - Scorecard for creative industries in Catalonia (Barcelona) B.. Dimensions of strength in emerging industries () Regional business environment () Firm strength Financial Access to funding Regulatory and policy Support Industrial Market Market knowledge and innovation capacity Internationalisation Entrepreneurship National and international agreements Knowledge Cultural Human Capital () Business support services () Firm performance access to finance 0% 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% Number of employees collaborative RDI internal Annual revenues Output entrepreneurship external Profits Innovation () Decreased () Stayed the same HR development international -isation () Increased by <% annually () Increased by -0% annually () Increased by >0% annually Summary and recommendations The regional business environment in Catalonia is weak overall and inhomogeneous with the financial situation being particularly poor. The market, regulatory and policy and support dimensions are also rated very unfavourably. Catalonia performs best for the firm strength component although internationalisation and access to financing are weak points. Business support services are the weakest element with insufficient availability for all types of services. The performance of firms was in general viewed as negative, with a large percentage of respondents indicating poor business performance. Profits and annual revenues fared worst with over half of the surveyed firms reporting a decrease for those indicators over the previous three years. There are a number of fundamental weaknesses in the regional ecosystem for the creative industries in Catalonia. Access to finance, in particular, is a significant issue that needs to be addressed. The weakest elements are business support services where more effective services are required across the board. PwC 8

83 Scorecard for creative industries in Catalonia (Barcelona) B.. Composite indicators () Regional business environment () Firm strength (7)... () (6) () (6) () () () () ().. ().6 () () 8.7 () Financial () Industrial () Market () Cultural () Knowledge (6) Regulatory and policy (7) Support () Access to funding () Partnerships () Internationalisation () Human Capital () Entrepreneurship (6) Market knowledge & innovation () Business support services () Regional strength in emerging industries: overall score for all three elements (, & ) (6).7 (7) () () () () ()..8.. () 8. ().8 () access to finance () internal () external () internationalisation () HR development (6) entrepreneurship (7) collaborative RDI.7 () () Regional Business Environment () Firm Strength () Business Support Services How to read these graphs These composite indicators measure the importance and availability of different elements of regional strength in emerging industries. The inner ring of each graph shows the composite indicator scores for the different dimensions or elements. These scores add up to the total score in the middle of each graph. The outer ring indicates the maximum possible scores for each element or dimension based on its relative importance, as assessed by stakeholders of the region. The aggregate scores for all regions surveyed for the pilot scoreboard are shown on the right: () Regional business environment, () Firm strength, () Business support services, () Regional strength in emerging industries (overall score). () () () () PwC 8

84 Scorecard for creative industries in North Holland (Amsterdam) Appendix C. - Scorecard for creative industries in North Holland (Amsterdam) C.. Dimensions of strength in emerging industries () Regional business environment () Firm strength Financial Access to funding Regulatory and policy Support Industrial Market Market knowledge and innovation capacity Internationalisation Entrepreneurship National and international agreements Knowledge Cultural Human Capital () Business support services () Firm performance access to finance 0% 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% Number of employees collaborative RDI internal Annual revenues Output entrepreneurship external Profits Innovation () Decreased () Stayed the same HR development international -isation () Increased by <% annually () Increased by -0% annually () Increased by >0% annually Summary and recommendations The industrial environment is well rated suggesting that there is a critical mass and strength of companies and related industries with a pretty well shaped regional environment. The financial situation within the region was however considered not sufficient to meet the needs of the industrial sector. Firms in the creative industries have been performing well with regards to output and innovation although the smaller share of firms experiencing increases in annual revenues and profits suggests that margins are being squeezed. Policy targets for the region should seek to encourage the influx of potential funding bodies into the region. The composite indicator suggests that support services to companies e.g. provided by cluster organisations could be improved, especially as far as support to access to finance and internationalisation are concerned. PwC 8

85 Scorecard for creative industries in North Holland (Amsterdam) C.. Composite indicators () Regional business environment () Firm strength (6) () (7) () () () () () 8.0 (6) () 8.0. () (). () () Financial () Industrial () Market () Cultural () Knowledge (6) Regulatory and policy (7) Support () Access to funding () Partnerships () Internationalisation () Human Capital () Entrepreneurship (6) Market knowledge & innovation () Business support services () Regional strength in emerging industries: overall score for all three elements (, & ) (6). 7. (7) () () () () () () 0.8 ().7 () access to finance () internal () external () internationalisation () HR development (6) entrepreneurship (7) collaborative RDI () 7. () Regional Business Environment () Firm Strength () Business Support Services How to read these graphs These composite indicators measure the importance and availability of different elements of regional strength in emerging industries. The inner ring of each graph shows the composite indicator scores for the different dimensions or elements. These scores add up to the total score in the middle of each graph. The outer ring indicates the maximum possible scores for each element or dimension based on its relative importance, as assessed by stakeholders of the region. The aggregate scores for all regions surveyed for the pilot scoreboard are shown on the right: () Regional business environment, () Firm strength, () Business support services, () Regional strength in emerging industries (overall score). () () () () PwC 8

86 Scorecard for creative industries in Inner London Appendix D. - Scorecard for creative industries in Inner London D.. Dimensions of strength in emerging industries () Regional business environment () Firm strength Financial Access to funding Regulatory and policy Support Industrial Market Market knowledge and innovation capacity Internationalisation Entrepreneurship National and international agreements Knowledge Cultural Human Capital () Business support services () Firm performance access to finance 0% 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% Number of employees collaborative RDI internal Annual revenues Output entrepreneurship external Profits Innovation () Decreased () Stayed the same HR development international -isation () Increased by <% annually () Increased by -0% annually () Increased by >0% annually Summary and recommendations Respondents indicated that there is a strong industrial basis in the region with a critical mass of firms operating in the creative sector. Strength of the firms is perceived to be more than satisfactory, despite the slight weakness of business services provided to companies. The funding aspect and the internationalisation support appear to be the point of major attention to be developed within the firms of the region. These aspects are also visible from the composite indicator scoring, and, along with the access to talents, should be supported by the organisations providing services to the companies. PwC 86

87 Scorecard for creative industries in Inner London D.. Composite indicators () Regional business environment () Firm strength (6) () (7) () () () 7. (6) () () () () () () () Financial () Industrial () Market () Cultural () Knowledge (6) Regulatory and policy (7) Support () Access to funding () Partnerships () Internationalisation () Human Capital () Entrepreneurship (6) Market knowledge & innovation () Business support services () Regional strength in emerging industries: overall score for all three elements (, & ) (6) (7) () () () () () (). () 6.9 () 8. () access to finance () internal () external () internationalisation () HR development (6) entrepreneurship (7) collaborative RDI () Regional Business Environment () Firm Strength () Business Support Services How to read these graphs These composite indicators measure the importance and availability of different elements of regional strength in emerging industries. The inner ring of each graph shows the composite indicator scores for the different dimensions or elements. These scores add up to the total score in the middle of each graph. The outer ring indicates the maximum possible scores for each element or dimension based on its relative importance, as assessed by stakeholders of the region. The aggregate scores for all regions surveyed for the pilot scoreboard are shown on the right: () Regional business environment, () Firm strength, () Business support services, () Regional strength in emerging industries (overall score). () () () () PwC 87

88 Scorecard for eco industries in the Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) Appendix E. - Scorecard for eco industries in the Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) E.. Dimensions of strength in emerging industries () Regional business environment () Firm strength Financial Access to funding Regulatory and policy Support Industrial Market Market knowledge and innovation capacity Internationalisation Entrepreneurship National and international agreements Knowledge Cultural Human Capital () Business support services () Firm performance access to finance 0% 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% Number of employees collaborative RDI internal Annual revenues Output entrepreneurship external Profits Innovation () Decreased () Stayed the same HR development international -isation () Increased by <% annually () Increased by -0% annually () Increased by >0% annually Summary and recommendations Responses to the survey suggest that the financial situation is poorly viewed in the Copenhagen region. The regional ecosystem is overall perceived to be good especially in terms of critical mass of companies, access to research and entrepreneurial culture. Firms look like being well armed and ready to go international, and Copenhagen is one of the few regions where nearly all firm strength factors are more than satisfactory. Business support services are considered to be overall satisfactory. An encouraging statistic is that few firms performed poorly, and that impact of the crisis on the profit was perceived only on a limited number of firms. The recommendation for future policy for this region would be to continue help drive market demand for eco industries. PwC 88

89 Scorecard for eco industries in the Capital Region of Denmark (Copenhagen) E.. Composite indicators () Regional business environment () Firm strength (6). () (7) () 6. () () () () 6.8 (6) () () ().7 () () Financial () Industrial () Market () Cultural () Knowledge (6) Regulatory and policy (7) Support () Access to funding () Partnerships () Internationalisation () Human Capital () Entrepreneurship (6) Market knowledge & innovation () Business support services () Regional strength in emerging industries: overall score for all three elements (, & ) (7) () () () (6) (). 7.6 () ().. () () access to finance () internal () external () internationalisation () HR development (6) entrepreneurship (7) collaborative RDI () 7.0 () Regional Business Environment () Firm Strength () Business Support Services How to read these graphs These composite indicators measure the importance and availability of different elements of regional strength in emerging industries. The inner ring of each graph shows the composite indicator scores for the different dimensions or elements. These scores add up to the total score in the middle of each graph. The outer ring indicates the maximum possible scores for each element or dimension based on its relative importance, as assessed by stakeholders of the region. The aggregate scores for all regions surveyed for the pilot scoreboard are shown on the right: () Regional business environment, () Firm strength, () Business support services, () Regional strength in emerging industries (overall score). () () () () PwC 89

90 Scorecard for eco industries in Lombardy (Milan) Appendix F. - Scorecard for eco industries in Lombardy (Milan) F.. Dimensions of strength in emerging industries () Regional business environment () Firm strength Financial Access to funding Regulatory and policy Support Industrial Market Market knowledge and innovation capacity Internationalisation Entrepreneurship National and international agreements Knowledge Cultural Human Capital () Business support services () Firm performance access to finance 0% 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% Number of employees collaborative RDI internal Annual revenues Output entrepreneurship external Profits Innovation () Decreased () Stayed the same HR development international -isation () Increased by <% annually () Increased by -0% annually () Increased by >0% annually Summary and recommendations The survey suggests that there is a good access to research and technologies for eco industries in the region, a critical-mass of firms, as well as a good local business culture and skilled workers. Yet, respondents indicated that the financial situation is critical, and that the regulations and policies along with the regional support systems still need to meet the demand of the respondents. Access to market is perceived to be a point of further development. These relatively low rankings for some aspects of the regional environment might be explained by the difficulty a large number of companies in the eco-tech field had to generate profit during this period of financial downturn. The policy recommendations based on the results of this survey would be that future policies and regulations should aim at easing firms access to funding, and at developing the access of the region to the eco-tech market, which by definition is heavily regulated, and characterised by an important global potential. Given the decrease in profits that some of the firms have experienced, a clear identification and prioritisation of most promising technologies and markets would be important. PwC 90

91 Scorecard for eco industries in Lombardy (Milan) F.. Composite indicators () Regional business environment () Firm strength (7)..0.. () (6) () (6) () () () () () 0.0. () () () () Financial () Industrial () Market () Cultural () Knowledge (6) Regulatory and policy (7) Support () Access to funding () Partnerships () Internationalisation () Human Capital () Entrepreneurship (6) Market knowledge & innovation () Business support services () Regional strength in emerging industries: overall score for all three elements (, & ) (7) () ().6..8 () (6) () () ()..0 () () access to finance () internal () external () internationalisation () HR development (6) entrepreneurship (7) collaborative RDI 6.6 () () Regional Business Environment () Firm Strength () Business Support Services How to read these graphs These composite indicators measure the importance and availability of different elements of regional strength in emerging industries. The inner ring of each graph shows the composite indicator scores for the different dimensions or elements. These scores add up to the total score in the middle of each graph. The outer ring indicates the maximum possible scores for each element or dimension based on its relative importance, as assessed by stakeholders of the region. The aggregate scores for all regions surveyed for the pilot scoreboard are shown on the right: () Regional business environment, () Firm strength, () Business support services, () Regional strength in emerging industries (overall score). () () () () PwC 9

92 Scorecard for eco industries in Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille) Appendix G. - Scorecard for eco industries in Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille) G.. Dimensions of strength in emerging industries () Regional business environment () Firm strength Financial Access to funding Regulatory and policy Support Industrial Market Market knowledge and innovation capacity Internationalisation Entrepreneurship National and international agreements Knowledge Cultural Human Capital () Business support services () Firm performance access to finance 0% 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% Number of employees collaborative RDI internal Annual revenues Output entrepreneurship external Profits Innovation () Decreased () Stayed the same HR development international -isation () Increased by <% annually () Increased by -0% annually () Increased by >0% annually Summary and recommendations The regional business environment and support services are rated unfavourably for eco industries in the region. Particular weaknesses are market, regulatory and policy factors, and support measures. The scores for firm strength are more positive. Human capital and entrepreneurship are seen as strengths although internationalisation is one notable weakness for firms. Firms in the region are performing quite well overall with over three in five firms having increased their employment, revenues and output over the last years. Given the weakness of the regional market for eco industries and the low score for internationalisation of firms, a good starting point for supporting firms more effectively in the region would be to introduce further measures to assist firms in the region to access national and international markets. PwC 9

93 Scorecard for eco industries in Provence-Alpes-Côte d Azur (Marseille) G.. Composite indicators () Regional business environment () Firm strength (7) () (6) () (6) () () () () ().. (). () () 8. () Financial () Industrial () Market () Cultural () Knowledge (6) Regulatory and policy (7) Support () Access to funding () Partnerships () Internationalisation () Human Capital () Entrepreneurship (6) Market knowledge & innovation () Business support services () Regional strength in emerging industries: overall score for all three elements (, & ) (7) () ()... () (6) ()..8 ().8.8 () () 7. () 9. () access to finance () internal () external () internationalisation () HR development (6) entrepreneurship (7) collaborative RDI () Regional Business Environment () Firm Strength () Business Support Services How to read these graphs These composite indicators measure the importance and availability of different elements of regional strength in emerging industries. The inner ring of each graph shows the composite indicator scores for the different dimensions or elements. These scores add up to the total score in the middle of each graph. The outer ring indicates the maximum possible scores for each element or dimension based on its relative importance, as assessed by stakeholders of the region. The aggregate scores for all regions surveyed for the pilot scoreboard are shown on the right: () Regional business environment, () Firm strength, () Business support services, () Regional strength in emerging industries (overall score). () () () () PwC 9

94 Scorecard for mobile services in Attiki (Athens) Appendix H. - Scorecard for mobile services in Attiki (Athens) H.. Dimensions of strength in emerging industries () Regional business environment () Firm strength Financial Access to funding Regulatory and policy Support Industrial Market Market knowledge and innovation capacity Internationalisation Entrepreneurship National and international agreements Knowledge Cultural Human Capital () Business support services () Firm performance access to finance 0% 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% Number of employees collaborative RDI internal Annual revenues Output entrepreneurship external Profits Innovation () Decreased () Stayed the same HR development international -isation () Increased by <% annually () Increased by -0% annually () Increased by >0% annually Summary and recommendations The regional business environment for mobile services in Attiki is very weak for all of the relevant factors and particularly for access to finance and in terms of support measures. In contrast, firm strength is favourable overall with human capital and market knowledge and innovation capacity being rated strongly. There is also a significant lack of all types of business support services. Firm performance is weak as over a third of firms saw their revenues and profits decline over the past three years. The strength of firms and their innovation output suggests that there is significant potential in the mobile services industry in the Attika region. Access to funding is their weakest point which is clearly reflected in the very low rating assigned to the availability of finance in the region. If access to finance could be improved and better supported for accessing international markets be provided, firms could potentially harness more of their potential and improve their overall performance. PwC 9

95 Scorecard for mobile services in Attiki (Athens) H.. Composite indicators () Regional business environment () Firm strength (7) () (6) ().. (6) () () () ()..0. ().. () () () () Financial () Industrial () Market () Cultural () Knowledge (6) Regulatory and policy (7) Support () Access to funding () Partnerships () Internationalisation () Human Capital () Entrepreneurship (6) Market knowledge & innovation () Business support services () Regional strength in emerging industries: overall score for all three elements (, & ) (6).. (7) ().7.. () () () ()..7.. (). () () () access to finance () internal () external () internationalisation () HR development (6) entrepreneurship (7) collaborative RDI () Regional Business Environment () Firm Strength () Business Support Services How to read these graphs These composite indicators measure the importance and availability of different elements of regional strength in emerging industries. The inner ring of each graph shows the composite indicator scores for the different dimensions or elements. These scores add up to the total score in the middle of each graph. The outer ring indicates the maximum possible scores for each element or dimension based on its relative importance, as assessed by stakeholders of the region. The aggregate scores for all regions surveyed for the pilot scoreboard are shown on the right: () Regional business environment, () Firm strength, () Business support services, () Regional strength in emerging industries (overall score). () () () () PwC 9

96 Scorecard for mobile services in South Finland (Helsinki) Appendix I. - Scorecard for mobile services in South Finland (Helsinki) I.. Dimensions of strength in emerging industries () Regional business environment () Firm strength Financial Access to funding Regulatory and policy Support Industrial Market Market knowledge and innovation capacity Internationalisation Entrepreneurship National and international agreements Knowledge Cultural Human Capital () Business support services () Firm performance access to finance 0% 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% Number of employees collaborative RDI internal Annual revenues Output entrepreneurship external Profits Innovation () Decreased () Stayed the same HR development international -isation () Increased by <% annually () Increased by -0% annually () Increased by >0% annually Summary and recommendations South Finland has a relatively strong regional business environment for mobile services with a critical mass of companies and an established knowledge base. Access to finance is rated somewhat unfavourably at the regional level although as a measure of firm strength it has a slight positive ranking. Human capital and market knowledge and strong points for firms whereas internationalisation is the weakest. Business support services are rated marginally favourably but there is no indication that there are particularly effective services available to firms. Firms in South Finland have been performing well in terms of growth in revenues and output. Growth in employment and profits has been less pronounced. The business environment for mobile services and the strength of firms in South Finland have favourable ratings overall. The performance of the ecosystem and firms could be further improved by facilitating access to finance and the internationalisation of firms. PwC 96

97 Scorecard for mobile services in South Finland (Helsinki) I.. Composite indicators () Regional business environment () Firm strength (6). () (7) (). () () () () 7. (6) () 8.6. () ().8 () () Financial () Industrial () Market () Cultural () Knowledge (6) Regulatory and policy (7) Support () Access to funding () Partnerships () Internationalisation () Human Capital () Entrepreneurship (6) Market knowledge & innovation () Business support services () Regional strength in emerging industries: overall score for all three elements (, & ) (6). 7. (7) () () () () () ().7.6 () () access to finance () internal () external () internationalisation () HR development (6) entrepreneurship (7) collaborative RDI 7. () () Regional Business Environment () Firm Strength () Business Support Services How to read these graphs These composite indicators measure the importance and availability of different elements of regional strength in emerging industries. The inner ring of each graph shows the composite indicator scores for the different dimensions or elements. These scores add up to the total score in the middle of each graph. The outer ring indicates the maximum possible scores for each element or dimension based on its relative importance, as assessed by stakeholders of the region. The aggregate scores for all regions surveyed for the pilot scoreboard are shown on the right: () Regional business environment, () Firm strength, () Business support services, () Regional strength in emerging industries (overall score). () () () () PwC 97

98 Scorecard for mobile services in Vienna Appendix J. - Scorecard for mobile services in Vienna J.. Dimensions of strength in emerging industries () Regional business environment () Firm strength Financial Access to funding Regulatory and policy Support Industrial Market Market knowledge and innovation capacity Internationalisation Entrepreneurship National and international agreements Knowledge Cultural Human Capital () Business support services () Firm performance access to finance 0% 0% 0% 60% 80% 00% Number of employees collaborative RDI internal Annual revenues Output entrepreneurship external Profits Innovation () Decreased () Stayed the same HR development international -isation () Increased by <% annually () Increased by -0% annually () Increased by >0% annually Summary and recommendations The regional business environment in Vienna for mobile services is favourable with particular strengths being the knowledge base and the presence of other firms in the same and related industries. The scores for the regulatory and policy and for the support factors are marginally unfavourable. Firm strengths include human capital and entrepreneurship. Vienna has the highest score for access to funding as a measure of firm strength amongst all the regions included in the pilot scoreboard. For internationalisation on the other hand it ranks below the average. Business support services are the weakest element overall. Support for internationalisation has the lowest availability rating amongst all the services. Firms in Vienna have been performing reasonably well in terms of output, particularly in terms of the growth of annual revenues. Business support services are the weakest of the three elements for mobile services in Vienna and should be strengthened. In particular, providing more effective business support services for internationalisation could increase the level of internationalisation of firms and further increase their strength. PwC 98

99 Scorecard for mobile services in Vienna J.. Composite indicators () Regional business environment () Firm strength (6) () (7) () () () () () 8.8 (6) () 7.9. () () 6.0 () () Financial () Industrial () Market () Cultural () Knowledge (6) Regulatory and policy (7) Support () Access to funding () Partnerships () Internationalisation () Human Capital () Entrepreneurship (6) Market knowledge & innovation () Business support services () Regional strength in emerging industries: overall score for all three elements (, & ) (6). 6. (7) () () () () 8. () () 0. ().. () () access to finance () internal () external () internationalisation () HR development (6) entrepreneurship (7) collaborative RDI () Regional Business Environment () Firm Strength () Business Support Services How to read these graphs These composite indicators measure the importance and availability of different elements of regional strength in emerging industries. The inner ring of each graph shows the composite indicator scores for the different dimensions or elements. These scores add up to the total score in the middle of each graph. The outer ring indicates the maximum possible scores for each element or dimension based on its relative importance, as assessed by stakeholders of the region. The aggregate scores for all regions surveyed for the pilot scoreboard are shown on the right: () Regional business environment, () Firm strength, () Business support services, () Regional strength in emerging industries (overall score). () () () () PwC 99

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