GCE AS and A Level. Chemistry. AS exams 2009 onwards A2 exams 2010 onwards. Unit 2: Specimen mark scheme. Version 1.1

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1 GCE AS and A Level Chemistry AS exams 2009 onwards A2 exams 2010 onwards Unit 2: Specimen mark scheme Version 1.1

2 Version 1.1: 07/07 abc General Certificate of Education Chemistry 2420 CHEM2 Chemistry In Action Mark Scheme Specimen Paper

3 Mark schemes are prepared by the Principal Examiner and considered, together with the relevant questions, by a panel of subject teachers. The specimen assessment materials are provided to give centres a reasonable idea of the general shape and character of the planned question papers and mark schemes in advance of the first operational exams. It must be stressed that a mark scheme is a working document, in many cases further developed and expanded on the basis of candidates reactions to a particular paper. Assumptions about future mark schemes on the basis of one year s document should be avoided; whilst the guiding principles of assessment remain constant, details will change, depending on the content of a particular examination paper. Copyright 2007 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT AQA retains the copyright on all its publications. However, registered centres for AQA are permitted to copy material from this booklet for their own internal use, with the following important exception: AQA cannot give permission to centres to photocopy any material that is acknowledged to a third party even for internal use within the centre. Set and published by the Assessment and Qualifications Alliance. The Assessment and Qualifications Alliance (AQA) is a company limited by guarantee registered in England and Wales (company number 64472) and a registered charity (registered charity number 1074). Registered address: AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX Dr Michael Cresswell Director General

4 Question 1 The enthalpy change when 1 mol of a compound is completely burnt in oxygen under standard conditions, or 298K and 100kPA (i) C 2 H 6 + ½O 2 2CO 2 + H 2 O (ii) ΔH = 2 ΔH (CO 2 ) + ΔH (H 2 O) ΔH (C 2 H 6 ) = ( 85) = 1561 kj mol (c) moles methane = = kj evolved = = joules = (mc)δt ΔT = = 46.4 K Question 2 Peak lower and moved to right start at the origin and curve crosses once only (i) (Rate of reaction) increases (At a higher temperature) more molecules/particles have the minimum energy needed to react/have activation energy/have successful collisions Mark CE if incorrect effect given (ii) (Rate of reaction) increases lowers activation energy so that more molecules are able to react Mark CE if incorrect effect given

5 Question Low temperature Reaction is exothermic Low T reduces effect of heat evolved or heat evolved opposes the change in temperature High pressure mol gas 1 mol gas High p favours fewer moles by lowering p or forward reaction reduces volume and lowers p High T gives a low yield but Low T gives a low rate compromise increases reaction rate/catalyst surface contact Question 4 Gain of electrons (i) (+)5 or V or N 5+ (+)4 or IV or N 4+ (ii) (+)2 or II or N 2+ Reduction 4H + + NO + e ( ) NO + 2H 2 O (iii) 2H + + NO + e ( ) NO 2 + H 2 O (iv) Cu + 4H NO Cu H 2 O + 2NO 2 species balanced If electrons included, mark CE if these are not balanced 4

6 Question 5 (i) 2CuCO + C 2Cu + CO 2 (ii) Charcoal /carbon /C (i) Iron is more reactive / iron ore needs much more heat to extract the iron Carbon monoxide (c) stage 1: TiO 2 + 2C + Cl 2 TiCl 4 + 2CO (2) (C + Cl 2 in incorrect equation gains 1 mark) allow equations with + C CO 2 stage 2: TiCl 4 + 4Na (or 2Mg) 4NaCl (or 2MgCl 2 ) + Ti (2) (d) (Na or Mg in unbalanced equation gains 1 mark) Extraction: form metal oxide Or metal oxide implied reduce or react with suitable reducing agent Consequential on formation of metal oxide Pollution problems: SO 2 or oxides of S not SO alone (allow any sensible and correct reducing agent identified) any mention of acid rain or H 2 SO 4 or erosion caused by acid rain or correct problem due to acid rain 5

7 Question 6 Trend: increases Wrong trend CE=0 and in Reason: More electron shells OR implies more shell / subshells / levels Trend: decreases Explanation: Metallic bonds weaker OR weaker attraction between ions (or nuclei) & delocalised electrons Atoms (ions) larger This mark is only scored if previous mark given. CE if mention molecules, intermolecular forces ionic bonding (c) (d) Trend: increases Equation for magnesium: Mg + H 2 O MgO + H 2 Equation for strontium: Sr +2 H 2 O Sr(OH) 2 + H 2 Formula: BaSO 4 Use: Test for sulfate ion OR Pigment, for xrays, barium meal, paint 6

8 Question 7 (i) M4 arrow :Br H C H arrow M1 C H C H H Br arrow M2 H C + C H CH M carbocation (4) If wrong carbocation, lose structure mark If wrong alkene, lose structure mark Can still score ¾ i.e. penalise M Penalise M2 if polarity included incorrectly no bond between H and Br bond is shown as or (ii) CH CH CH credit secondary carbocation here if primary carbocation has been used in (i) : Ignore attack on this carbocation by Br (i) Structure: OH H C CH CH insist on C OH bond Name: propan2ol Not 2hydroxypropane (ii) Name of mechanism: nucleophilic substitution (both words) (NOT S N 1 or S N 2) Mechanism: M1 arrow Br H C CH CH CH CH(OH)CH + Br : (2) HO: arrow from (M2) lone pair penalise incorrect polarity on CBr (M1) Credit the arrows even if incorrect haloalkane If S N 1, both marks possible (c) (i) (ii) elimination base OR proton acceptor NOT nucleophile 7

9 Question 8 Mark Range The marking scheme for this part of the question includes an overall assessment for the Quality of Written Communication (QWC). There are no discrete marks for the assessment of QWC but the candidates QWC in this answer will be one of the criteria used to assign a level and award the marks for this part of the question Descriptor an answer will be expected to meet most of the criteria in the level descriptor claims supported by an appropriate range of evidence good use of information or ideas about chemistry, going beyond those given in the question argument well structured with minimal repetition or irrelevant points accurate and clear expression of ideas with only minor errors of grammar, punctuation and spelling claims partially supported by evidence good use of information or ideas about chemistry given in the question but limited beyond this the argument shows some attempt at structure the ideas are expressed with reasonable clarity but with a few errors of grammar, punctuation and spelling valid points but not clearly linked to an argument structure limited use of information or ideas about chemistry unstructured errors in spelling, punctuation and grammar or lack of fluency Kills bacteria / prevents bacterial diseases QWC Chlorine is a toxic substance Cl 2 +H 2 O HCl + HClO Cl 2 (aq) to Br (aq); yelloworange or yellowred or QWC yellowbrown solution 2Br + Cl 2 2Cl + Br 2 or molecular equation C1 2 (aq) to I (aq); brown/black solution formed or QWC black/brown/grey ppt/solid 2I + Cl 2 2Cl or molecular equation (c) Bromide: Brown/orange fumes 8

10 Bromine produced Sulphur dioxide produced Iodide: Purple fumes or black/brown/grey solid QWC or smell of bad eggs Iodine produced SO 2, S, H 2 S produced (one mark each) () Halfequations 2Br Br 2 + 2e OR 21 I 2 + 2e H 2 SO 4 +2e +2H + SO 2 + 4H 2 O OR H 2 SO 4 +6e +6H + S + 4H 2 O OR H 2 SO 4 +8e +8H + H 2 S + 4H 2 O Overall equation Any correct equation based on halfequations QWC Question 9 Allow 1 mark each for any correctly drawn primary, secondary and tertiary alcohol of molecular formula C 4 H 8 O Tertiary alcohol cannot be oxidised () Region cm 1 exact match to spectrum of known compound (c) A CH CH 2 CH 2 OH CH CH 2 O CH or CH CH(OH)CH B C one alkene e.g. CH 2= CH CH 2CH 2CH D one cycloalkane e.g. CH (6) CH CH = CH CH CH 2 (CH ) C = CHCH 2 H 2C = C(CH )CH 2CH etc 9 CH CH 2 CH CH

11 E CH CH 2 CHO CH COCH F 10

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