CONNECTING LESSONS NGSS STANDARD

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2 3-5-ETS1-1 2 ENGINEERING DESIGN 3-5-ETS1-1 Define a simple design problem reflecting a need or a want that includes specified criteria for success and constraints on materials, time, or cost. Students are explicit about the need or want being designed for, and call it such, as well as criteria for success and constraints of materials, time, cost etc. that they re willing to work within. All Open Challenges: Hack Your Classroom, Invent for Good, Invent a Chain Reaction Contraption, Hack Your Habits Grades 3-5 W.5.7 Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic. MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. MP.4 Model with mathematics. W.5.8 Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work, and provide a list of sources. MP.5 Use appropriate tools strategically. 3-5.OA Operations and Algebraic Thinking W.5.9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

3 3-5-ETS1-2 3 ENGINEERING DESIGN 3-5-ETS1-2 Generate and compare multiple possible solutions to a problem based on how well each is likely to meet the criteria and constraints of the problem. Students explicitly compare multiple solutions on the basis of the success and criteria constraints. All Open Challenges: Hack Your Classroom, Invent for Good, Invent a Chain Reaction Contraption, Hack Your Habits Grades 3-5 RI.5.1 Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. RI.5.1 Draw on information from multiple print or digital sources, demonstrating the ability to locate an answer to a question quickly or to solve a problem efficiently. W.5.8 Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work, and provide a list of sources. W.5.9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. RI.5.9 Integrate information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably. MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. W.5.7 Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic. MP.4 Model with mathematics. MP.5 Use appropriate tools strategically. 3-5.OA Operations and Algebraic Thinking

4 3-5-ETS1-3 4 ENGINEERING DESIGN 3-5-ETS1-3 Plan and carry out fair tests in which variables are controlled and failure points are considered to identify aspects of a model or prototype that can be improved. All challenges will allow students to test their prototypes and make improvements. Set all but one variable as fixed, and change the amount of just one parameter in attempts to maximize the agreed-upon criterion for success. Students may also be allowed to borrow the best aspects from one another s designs during this process. All Guided Challenges: Invent a Self-Driving Car, Invent an Art Machine, Invent a Throwing Arm, Invent a Security Device All Open Challenges: Hack Your Classroom, Invent for Good, Invent a Chain Reaction Contraption, Hack Your Habits Grades 3-5 W.5.7 Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic. MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. MP.4 Model with mathematics. W.5.8 Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work, and provide a list of sources. MP.5 Use appropriate tools strategically. W.5.9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

5 3-PS2-2 5 MOTION AND STABILITY 3-PS2-2 Make observations and/or measurements of an object s motion to provide evidence that a pattern can be used to predict future motion. ART MACHINE Systematically categorize some quality of the motions (for this age, these could be drawings or pictures, or even a way to categorize the scribble itself) and how this quality changes e.g. when the pulse is changed systematically. THROWING ARM Take time lapse pictures of the ball from the side and note similarities of motion, even under different conditions. The following lessons can be extended to meet this standard: Invent an Art Machine, Invent a Throwing Arm Grade 3 W.3.7 Conduct short research projects that build knowledge about a topic. W.5.8 Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories.

6 4-PS3-1 6 ENERGY 4-PS3-1 Use evidence to construct an explanation relating the speed of an object to the energy of that object. SELF-DRIVING CAR: Systematically categorize the energy of the car for different settings of the slide dimmer by adding a Number Bit in VALUE or VOLTS mode to the circuit. Students intuitive ideas about how to define the car s energy are appropriate for this grade. ART MACHINE: Systematically categorize the energy of various pulse settings on a basis they systematically categorize (for this age, these could be drawings or pictures, or even a way to cut out and categorize the scribbles themselves from less to more energy ). Their intuitive ideas are appropriate for this grade. THROWING ARM: Systematically categorize the energy of the ball given it being seen to be travelling at various speeds (as per time lapse pictures). Balls of varying mass could be used. The following lessons can be extended to meet this standard: Invent a Self-Driving Car, Invent an Art Machine, Invent a Throwing Arm Grade 4 RI.4.1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. W.4.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. RI.4.3 Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text. W.4.8 Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources. RI.4.9 Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably. W.4.9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

7 4-PS3-3 7 ENERGY 4-PS3-3 Ask questions and predict outcomes about the changes in energy that occur when objects collide. Decide on how much energy the moving arm of the lever and/or the ball has at different times in its motion. This measure of energy is entirely qualitative and relative one level to the next. Create a game where students use the launcher to knock a cup off a table. Fill the cup with materials increasing in weight and see how much is required to stabilize the cup so the launcher can no longer tip the cup over. The "Invent a Throwing Arm" lesson can be extended to meet this standard. Grade 4 W.4.7 Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic. W.4.8 Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources.

8 5-PS2-1 8 MOTION AND STABILITY 5-PS2-1 Support an argument that the gravitational force exerted by Earth on objects is directed down. Systematically document the each ball s trajectory, and ask students to explain their characteristic parabolic shape. This investigation could begin by looking at a video of trajectories in microgravity environments (space walks, etc). The Invent a Throwing Arm lesson can be extended to meet this standard. Grade 5 RI.5.1 Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. RI.5.9 Integrate information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably. W.5.1 Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.

9 3-PS2-4 9 MOTION AND STABILITY 3-PS2-4 Define a simple design problem that can be solved by applying scientific ideas about magnets. Design a careful experiment with the magnets that couple the Bits together. The Introducing littlebits lesson can be extended to meet this standard. Grade 3

10 4-PS ENERGY 4-PS3-2 Make observations to provide evidence that energy can be transferred from place to place by sound, light, heat, and electrical currents. Explore how the Bits connect and tell a story about how energy moves from place to place in the circuit; what form it might be in at different times. E.g. LEDs and motors convert electricity to light and motion, respectively. Sensors convert light, motion, or heat to an electrical signal. The Introducing littlebits lesson can be extended to meet this standard. Grade 3 W.4.7 Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic. W.4.8 Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources.

11 MS-ETS ENERGINEERING DESIGN MS-ETS1-1 Define the criteria and constraints of a design problem with sufficient precision to ensure a successful solution, taking into account relevant scientific principles and potential impacts on people and the natural environment that may limit possible solutions. Students set various criteria for success, as well as constraints for the successful completion of the design problem. All Open Challenges: Hack Your Classroom, Invent for Good, Invent a Chain Reaction Contraption, Hack Your Habits Middle School RST Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts. MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. WHST Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. 7.EE.3 Solve multi-step real-life and mathematical problems posed with positive and negative rational numbers in any form (whole numbers, fractions, and decimals), using tools strategically. Apply properties of operations to calculate with numbers in any form; convert between forms as appropriate; and assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies.

12 MS-ETS ENERGINEERING DESIGN MS-ETS1-2 Evaluate competing design solutions using a systematic process to determine how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the problem. Students Create different solutions to the problem and explicitly compare them on the basis of their ability to meet the goal within the constraints. All Open Challenges: Hack Your Classroom, Invent for Good, Invent a Chain Reaction Contraption, Hack Your Habits The Guided Challenges can be extended to meet this standard by adding a step to define the goals and constraints of the lesson: Invent a Self-Driving Car, Invent an Art Machine, Invent a Throwing Arm, Invent a Security Device Middle School RST Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts. MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. RST Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic. WHST Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. 7.EE.3 Solve multi-step real-life and mathematical problems posed with positive and negative rational numbers in any form (whole numbers, fractions, and decimals), using tools strategically. Apply properties of operations to calculate with numbers in any form; convert between forms as appropriate; and assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies. WHST Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

13 MS-ETS ENERGINEERING DESIGN MS-ETS1-3 Analyze data from tests to determine similarities and differences among several design solutions to identify the best characteristics of each that can be combined into new solutions to better meet the criteria for success. All challenges will allow students to test their prototypes and make improvements. Set all but one variable as fixed, and change the amount of just one parameter in attempts to maximize the agreed-upon criterion for success. Students may also be allowed to borrow the best aspects from one another s designs during this process. All Guided Challenges: Invent a Self-Driving Car, Invent an Art Machine, Invent a Throwing Arm, Invent a Security Device All Open Challenges: Hack Your Classroom, Invent for Good, Invent a Chain Reaction Contraption, Hack Your Habits Middle School RST Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts. MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. RST Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table). RST Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic. 7.EE.3 Solve multi-step real-life and mathematical problems posed with positive and negative rational numbers in any form (whole numbers, fractions, and decimals), using tools strategically. Apply properties of operations to calculate with numbers in any form; convert between forms as appropriate; and assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies.

14 MS-ETS ENERGINEERING DESIGN MS-ETS1-4 Develop a model to generate data for iterative testing and modification of a proposed object, tool, or process such that an optimal design can be achieved. The Hack Your Habits lesson meets this standard. The following lessons can be modified to meet this standard: Hack Your Classroom, Invent for Good, Invent a Chain Reaction Contraption Students define and iteratively collect data to explore the explicit connection between the invention and a physical or environmental interaction that may impact the design. For example, modeling the impact of friction on the ability of a wheeled invention to climb a slope, or the impact of an invention on human behavior. The storyboard in the Invention Log should be used and updated throughout the lesson for each iteration tested. Middle School RST Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts. RST Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table). WHST Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. WHST Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. RST Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic. WHST Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. 7.SP Develop a probability model and use it to find probabilities of events. Compare probabilities from a model to observed frequencies; if the agreement is not good, explain possible sources of the discrepancy. SL.8.5 Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest. MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. 7.EE.3 Solve multi-step real-life and mathematical problems posed with positive and negative rational numbers in any form (whole numbers, fractions, and decimals), using tools strategically. Apply properties of operations to calculate with numbers in any form; convert between forms as appropriate; and assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies.

15 MS-PS ENERGY MS-PS3-1 Construct and interpret graphical displays of data to describe the relationships of kinetic energy to the mass of an object and to the speed of an object. INVENT A SELF-DRIVING CAR Use burst image capture of the motion of the car to calculate some distance over time measure (speed) and plot its kinetic energy for different cars of different mass. INVENT A THROWING ARM Use the trail of the projectile to calculate some distance over time measure (speed) of its trajectory and plotting its kinetic energy for balls of different mass. This is a tried and true physics lab. The following lessons can be modified to meet this standard: Invent a Self-Driving Car, Invent a Throwing Arm Middle School RST Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts. 7.RP.A.2 Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities. RST Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table). 8.EE.A.1 Know and apply the properties of integer exponents to generate equivalent numerical expressions. MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. 6.RP.A.2 Understand the concept of a unit rate a/b associated with a ratio a:b with b 0, and use rate language in the context of a ratio relationship. 8.EE.A.2 Use square root and cube root symbols to represent solutions to equations of the form x2 = p and x3 = p, where p is a positive rational number. Evaluate square roots of small perfect squares and cube roots of small perfect cubes. Know that 2 is irrational. 8.F.A.3 Interpret the equation y = mx + b as defining a linear function, whose graph is a straight line; give examples of functions that are not linear.

16 MS-PS MOTION AND STABILITY MS-PS2-2 Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object s motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object. This lesson would typically be taught (at least in part) by analyzing the trajectories of projectile motion. The Invent a Throwing Arm lesson can be modified to meet this standard. Middle School RST Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks. WHST Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. 7.EE.B.3 Solve multi-step, real-life and mathematical problems posed with positive and negative rational numbers in any form, using tools strategically. Apply properties of operations to calculate with numbers in any form; convert between forms as appropriate; and assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies. 7.EE.B.4 Use variables to represent quantities in a real-world or mathematical problem, and construct simple equations and inequalities to solve problems by reasoning about the quantities. 6.EE.A.2 Write, read, and evaluate expressions in which letters stand for numbers.

17 MS-PS WAVES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS MS-PS4-2 Develop and use a model to describe that waves are reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through various materials. Use the buzzer to explore how sound waves work. Supplement with a sound level meter. Support students in developing a model for how sound works. Why is it so faint if the light is turned on inside the backpack, but loud if the light reaches the sensor by opening the backpack? The "Invent a Security Device" lesson can be modified to meet this standard. Middle School SL.8.5 Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest. 9-6 = 3 y=x 2 + 6x +9

18 MS-ESS EARTH AND HUMAN ACTIVITY MS-ESS3-3 Apply scientific principles to design a method for monitoring and minimizing a human impact on the environment. Choose a personal and individual behavior that is known to have an impact on the environment (e.g. leaving the lights on when no one is home). The Invent a Throwing Arm lesson can be modified to meet this standard. Middle School WHST Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. 7.EE.B.6 Use variables to represent numbers and write expressions when solving a real-world or mathematical problem; understand that a variable can represent an unknown number, or, depending on the purpose at hand, any number in a specified set. WHST Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. 7.EE.B.4 Use variables to represent quantities in a real-world or mathematical problem, and construct simple equations and inequalities to solve problems by reasoning about the quantities. 6.RP.A.1 Understand the concept of a ratio and use ratio language to describe a ratio relationship between two quantities. 7.RP.A.2 Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities.

19 MS-PS MOTION AND STABILITY MS-PS2-5 Conduct an investigation and evaluate the experimental design to provide evidence that fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other even though the objects are not in contact. Design a careful experiment with the magnets that snap the Bits together. The Invent a Throwing Arm lesson can be modified to meet this standard. Middle School RST Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks. WHST Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.

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