1 CATALYSTS IN COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY AND FLUE GAS CLEANING
2 CATALYSIS AND CATALYSTS
3 Catalytic reactions Catalysts influence a chemical reaction by changing its mechanism: Reaction without catalyst: A + B = AB (final product) Reaction with catalyst: A + K = AK (transient product ) K catalyst AK + B = AB + K Catalyst K is preserved in the chemical reaction.
4 Operation of catalyst Active centres Catalyst Substrates Transient complex catalyst-substrate Catalyst Products Mechanism of catalyst operation. Reagents reacts with active centres of catalyst and together. After removal of products of reaction the catalyst may operate and catalyse of chemical reaction of new subtracts.
5 Catalysts Catalysts is a chemical compound which influence the rate of chemical reaction by lowering its activation energy, i.e. the initial energy necessary to initiate the chemical reaction. Catalyst is a reagent, which amount before and after the chemical reaction doesn t change. Activation energy without catalyst Energy Energy of substrates Activation energy with catalyst Change of free energy Progress of reaction Energy of products
6 Types of catalyse reactions Homogeneous catalysis in gas phase. Heterogeneous catalysis on the surface of solid body. In combustion processes and environment protection methods heterogeneous catalysis is in use.
7 Mechanism of Heterogeneous Catalysis Heterogeneous catalyst catalyse chemical reactions in gas phase on the surface of solid body. The mechanism of heterogeneous catalysis is as follows: adsorption reaction in active centres desorption
8 Heterogeneous Catalysis Adsorption reaction in active centres desorption Adsorption densification of gas phase on surface of on a solid body (chemisorption adsorption with chemical reaction of gas- and solidphase). Active center chemically active defects of crystal structure on the surface of a solid body. Catalytic active centres active centres having catalytic properties, i.e.: Pt- O, Pt H, Pd H, Ni O
9 Example: catalytic oxidation of CO CO + O CO 2 carbon CO CO 2 carrier oxygen
10 Oxidation Catalysts and catalytic reactions Metals: mainly (platinum group): platinum, palladium, rhodium Oxides: Ag 2 O, Fe 2 O 3, CuO, V 2 O 5, Cr 2 O 3, TiO 2, MnO 2 Reduction Metals : platinum group, gold, iridium, chromium Oxides: Cr 2 O 3 Hydrogenation and de-hydrogenation: Platinum group, cobalt, nickel, cuprum, zinc
12 ZEOLITES Zeolites are mineral catalysts of crystal structure. They are silicates of high porosity. As catalysts are in use: natural zeolites (chabazyt, erionit, gmelinit, mordenit, fojazyt) and synthetic zeolites.
13 Chabazite (Ca, Na 2 )[Al 2 Si 4 O 12 ] x 6 H 2 O aluminiumsilica of calcium and sodium
14 STRUCTURE OF ZEOLITE
15 Deactivation of catalysts In theory catalysts are not wear out in chemical reactions. In fact their time of activity is limited due to the phenomenon called deactivation. Deactivation is reduction of catalyst activity due to the chemical adsorption of some chemical elements or compounds, which form stable connections eliminating active centres.
16 Deactivation of catalysts Heterogeneous catalysts are deactivated by chemical elements: chlorines (J 2, Cl 2, Br 2 ), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), phosphorus (P), arsenic (Ar) and chemical compounds: sulfur compounds, like: H 2 S, CS 2, tiofen, HCN, CO, mercury salts, compounds of phosphorus, arsenic and lead.
17 TYPES OF CATALYST CARRIERS Ceramic Metallic
18 How do we understand catalyst? Catalyst rather catalytic reactor is a technical device, in which catalysis is in use. A catalytic active substance covers directly the carrier or indirectly the intermediate layer on a carrier.
19 Advantages: Ceramic carriers Material: oxides (Al 2 O 3, TiO 2 ) Low costs of manufacture; easy formation Large inner surface Resistance to corrosion; Strong adhesion of active substance; High temperature of melting; Disadvantages: Low resistance for vibrations; Low resistance for temperature variations.
20 Ceramic catalysts: monoliths and granulates
21 Surface of ceramic carriers
22 Advantages: Efficient heat transfer (resistance to local overheating); Low hydraulic resistance; Metallic carriers High resistance to mechanical stresses; Low weight. Metallic carriers usually are made in the form of steel tapes, wire or wire-net.
23 Structure of metallic carriers Structure of metallic carrier Cross section of metallic carrier
24 Metallic catalysts Metallic catalysts in car industry
25 APPLICATIONS OF CATALYSTS IN COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY
26 The most important applications of catalysts in combustion and related technologies Removal of NO x i SO 2 from flue gas (car industry). Reburning of CO and CH in flue gas. Burning of low-caloric waste gases and oxidation of odours (food industry, chemical technology, painting). Low-temperature combustion. Selective catalytic reduction of NO x with ammonia.
27 Advantages and disadvantages of catalytic combustion Advantages: Combustion with substantial air excess (λ > >1). Combustion at low temperature. Low NO x emission. Disadvantages: Low thermal resistance of catalysts. Low mechanical resistance of catalysts. Temperature of catalytic combustion limited to 800 o C.
28 CATALYTIC COMBUSTION OF LOW-CALORIC GASES AND NEUTRALIZATION OF ODOURS
29 Combustion of low-caloric gases Catalytic combustion of low-caloric waste gases: Catalysts make possible the neutralization of organic compounds in waste gases by their oxidation and utilization of thermal energy. Low temperature of the process: o C; Catalyst used The carrier are pellets or monoliths of Al 2 O 3; Active material: platinum..
30 Simple catalytic reactors inlet outlet Examples of catalytic reactors for combustion of low-caloric waste gases: 1 gas distributor, 2 mixing chamber, 3 catalyst, 4 wire net, 5 thermocouples, I i II inlet and outlet of gases
31 Installation of catalytic combustion of waste gases with heat exchanger Burner Heat exchanger Clean gases Heating area Catalyst Waste gases Fan
32 APPLICATIONS OF CATALYSTS IN HEAT ENGINEERING
33 Applications of catalysts in low power heating devices Domestic heating device limitation of pollutants emission: NO x, CO, CH in devices burning gas (natural gas or propane-butane). pipe coil catalyst (a) Radiant catalytic heater [1 gas distributor, 2 catalyst, 3 radiation, 4 electrical heater, 5 gas inlet], (b) catalytic water heater gas and air
34 Radiant burner Matrix - design Reaction surface Perforated metal distribution hemisphere Dosing hemisphere Fan flow Air Gas Dosing helix
35 Advantages of the burner Matrix Low pollutant emissions: NOx (9mg/kWh), CO (17mg/kWh); High safety exploitation and long durability, due to low load of the burner. Safe burning of natural gas in range of its parameters E and L. Reduced costs of heating.
36 Radiant burner Matrix how does it work The net of stainless steel is glowing and transfers a lot of heat into the reaction zone by radiation. The burner surface is made without welding. The temperature of combustion is much lower than in comparison to diffusion flame. Large half-sphere surface of burning makes of thermal load of the burner low,which caused that NO x emission is low (below 8mg/kWh).
37 APPLICATIONS OF CATALYSTS IN GAS TURBINES
38 Catalytic gas turbines catalysts allow burning of lean gas mixtures, reduce emission of NOx, unburnt fuel and decrease of heat loss due to low temperature of combustion ( o C). fuel combustion chamber air compressor air gas turbine fuel catalitic combustion chamber Gas turbine systems: a) flame combustion, b) catalytic combustion. air compressor gas turbine
39 Comparison of conventional and catalytic GT
40 Catalytic combustion chamber GT Catalysts
41 Scheme of catalytic combustion chamber of GT
42 APPLICATIONS OF CATALYSTS IN GAS CLEANING
43 Catalysts in car industry Limited emissions of gas pollutant from SI (spark ignition) car engines: NOx, CO, CH. Three ways catalysts TWC (reduction and oxidation): - reduction of NO (by CO) over the rhodium catalyst (effective when oxygen is absent in flue gas): 2NO + 2CO = N 2 + 2CO 2 - oxidation of CO and hydrocarbons over the platinum catalyst ( in the presence of small concentration of oxygen): 2CO + O 2 = 2CO 2 2C 2 H 6 + 7O 2 = 4CO 2 + 6H 2 O
44 Structure and operation of the 3 way car catalyst layer of platinum or rhodium ceramic or metal carrier Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons are oxidized in the presence of platinum by small concentration of oxygen in flue gas. The active catalytic substance (rhodium, palladium and platinum) is placed on a ceramic carrier (usually of the monolith type) or on the metallic carrier (made of sheet steel ).
45 Ceramic car catalysts Forms of catalyst carriers: a) granulates, b) monolith
46 Control of oxygen content in flue gas Near stoichiometric content of combustible mixture (λ = 0,99 ±0,5%) is possible due to computer control of air supply to the engine with the use of lambda probe. catalyst Three ways car catalyst and lambda sensor in SI engine.
47 Lambda probe in flue gas duct Two lambda probes: before and after the catalyst.
48 Scheme of lambda probe
49 Lambda probe and its construction. New one Used one 1. threaded casing 2. ceramic cover pipe 3. connection cable 4. cover with slits 5. ceramic sensor 6. connector 7. heater 8. heater contacts
50 Removal of soot from flue gas VW TDI
51 SELECTIVE NON-CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF NO (SNCR)
52 Selective non-catalytic reduction of NOx SNCR Selective non-catalytic reduction of NO x reduces NO in flue gas with ammonia or urea in the presence of oxygen. Chemical reaction of SNCR: AMMONIA NH 3 + OH = NH 2 + H 2 O NH 2 + NO = N 2 + H 2 O UREA CO(NH 2 ) 2 + 2NO +1/2O 2 = 2N 2 + CO 2 + 2H 2 O CO(NH 2 ) 2 = NH 3 + HNCO
53 Temperature window of selective non-catalytic reduction of NOx SNCR
54 Scheme of the SNCR installation of NOx reduction water tank water boiler tank tank steam
55 SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF NO (SCR)
56 Scheme of the SCR installation The active substance may be: platinum, palladium, titanium oxides, wolfram, vanadium. Catalyst carries is ceramic monolith honeycomb. Scheme of NO reduction in flue gas by SCR method.
57 Chemical kinetics of selective catalytic reduction SCR The reduction process bases on chemical reactions of amine radicals with NO and NO 2. Amine radicals come from ammonia decomposition.the summary reaction assumes: 4NO + 4NH 3 + O 2 =4N 2 + 6H 2 O 2NO 2 + 4NH 3 + O 2 = 3N 2 + 6H 2 O These reactions undergo in vanadium catalytic reactor in the presence of oxygen and at the temperature of flue gas in the range of o C.
58 Applications of SCR SCR has found several important applications for removal of NO from flue gas in: Gas turbines. SI engines. Coal-fired boilers in power plants. Power stations Incineration plants Stationary diesel engines Trucks Buses Ferries Cruise liner Challange: Diesel passenger cars
59 Applications of SCR in power plants Coal-fired boilers: Catalyst SCR reactor formation in power plant using ceramic monoliths.
60 NO reduction of emissions form coal -fired boilers Pollutant (Daily average) Dust 20 mg/m 3 SO MW: 850 mg/m 3 >100 MW: 200 mg/m 3 NO x MW: 400 mg/m 3 >100 MW: 200 mg/ m 3 CO MW: 150 mg/m 3 >300 MW: 200 mg/m 3
61 Catalytic removal of SO2 form flue gas Sulfur dioxide is oxidised to sulfur trioxide (SO 3 ) over the vanadium catalyst in the presence of oxygen in flue gas and at the temperature range of o C. Than the SO 3 is is absorbed by water and converted into the sulfuric acid. The vanadium catalyst is placed on a ceramic carrier of TiO 2 or TiO 2 /Al 2 O 3. The oxidation reaction is: SO 2 + 1/2O 2 = SO 3 (catalytic) SO 3 + H 2 O = H 2 SO 4
62 WSA Process for H 2 S Gas SO 2 SO 3
63 WSA Process for H 2 S Gas
64 Application for Power Plants SNOX TM Petroleum Coke or Heavy Residual Oil
NITROGEN OXIDES FORMATION in combustion processes NITROGEN OXIDES FORMED DURING COMBUSTION N 2 O - nitrous oxide NO - nitric oxide NO 2 - nitrogen dioxide N = 14, O 2 =16, NO = 30, NO 2 = 46 CONTRIBUTION
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