CHEM 161: Beer s Law and Analysis of a Sports Drink

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "CHEM 161: Beer s Law and Analysis of a Sports Drink"

Transcription

1 CHEM 161: Beer s Law and Analysis of a Sports Drink Introduction Although sunlight appears white, it contains a spectrum of colors. A rainbow actually shows this range of colors in visible light: violet, blue, green, yellow, orange, and red. What we see as the color of an object depends on the particles present in the object and how they interact with white light. An object absorbs specific wavelengths or colors of visible light and transmits the remaining colors. Consider the following examples: Figure 1: Light Absorption and Emission (a) If the particles/molecules do not absorb any light, the reflected light is white, and the object appears white. (b) If the particles/molecules absorb all light, no light is reflected, and the object appears black. (c) If the particles/molecules selectively absorb some colors but reflect other, the object appears to be the color that is reflected. In the example below, the object absorbs red-orange light and appears to be blue-green in color. In the same way the colors of solutions depend on the solute and solvent particles present. For colored solutions, the more concentrated the solution, the more light it absorbs and the darker its color. In everyday life this can be observed when soda from a dispenser seems unusually light in color. The light shade of the soda indicates the dispenser is low in syrup (or even missing syrup altogether), so the light color indicates the low concentration of syrup in the soda. Because people expect specific colors for certain drinks or food, color additives are often used to enhance their natural color. For example, yellow food coloring may be added to lemonade or oranges that appear dull or brownish may be sprayed with Citrus Red No. 2 to give them brighter orange color and make them more appealing. 1 In 1900, there were about 80 man-made food dyes available to consumers. However, some of them proved to be dangerous. For example, Amaranth (also known as Red No. 2) was banned for use in the US by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1976 because it was a suspected carcinogen. Fear about the dye even caused red M&M s to be discontinued from 1976 until 1985 even though red M&M s never used Red No. 2. (Red Nos. 3 and 40 were always used for red M&M s.) Improved food safety standards 1 From the U.S. FDA/IFIC brochure, Food Color Facts (Jan 1993) CHEM 161 Lab Manual S2012 page 69

2 resulted in FDA approval of seven color additives for use in foods. One of these is the Food, Drug and Cosmetic (FD&C) certified additive Allura Red (also known as FD&C Red No. 40), the same food coloring used for M&M s. The image below shows the balland-stick model for the molecule superimposed over the space-filling model, as well as the Kekule structure (in which hydrogen atoms and lone pairs of electrons are not shown). Figure 2: FD&C Red No. 40, Allura Red (Na 2 C 18 H 14 N 2 O 8 S 2 ) In this experiment, a sample of a sports drink will be analyzed to determine the molar concentration of Allura Red present. This will be done using spectrophotometric analysis, a method that determines the concentration of colored substances in solution based on the light absorbed. Spectro- Photometric Analysis A spectrophotometer (often called a Spec-20 or UV-Vis) is an instrument that measures the intensity of a light beam of a given wavelength that passes through a sample. Light of a given wavelength passes through a sample, which absorbs some of the light, and the light not absorbed continues to the detector (see schematic below): When more colored molecules are present, they can absorb more light, and less light goes through to the detector; thus, the concentration of the solution can be determined by calculating the amount of light passing through a sample and hitting the detector. This amount of light absorbed by the substance is called the absorbance (A) of the solution. A solution containing a colored substance absorbs specific wavelengths (or colors) of 2 from CHEM 161 Lab Manual S2012 page 70

3 Wavelength of Maximum Absorption (λ max ) visible light and transmits the remaining wavelengths (or colors), so there is often an optimal color (and corresponding wavelength) of light at which a solution would absorb the most light. The selection of this optimal wavelength, called the wavelength of maximum absorption (λ max ), is critical to ensure the sample absorbs the most light to make an accurate measurement. The λ max is determined by measuring the absorbance of a sample at various wavelengths then preparing a plot of wavelength (x-axis) versus absorbance (y-axis), as shown below. For the example above, λ max is about 610 nm. Figure 3: Absorbance versus Wavelength Plot to determine λ max λ max The relationship between concentration and absorbance can be summarized by using the Beer-Lambert Law 2 (known more commonly as Beer s Law), which relates the amount of light absorbed by a material with the properties of that material. The transmission of light through a substance is measured as a mathematical quantity called transmittance, T, which is defined as follows: T = I (1) I 0 where I 0 and I are the intensity of the incident light and the transmitted light, respectively. Percent transmittance (%T) is defined as follows: %T = I 100% (2) I 0 The absorbance, A, is then defined as follows: I A = log T = log or A = 2 log %T (3) I 0 Thus, the absorbance has a linear relationship with the concentration of the colorabsorbing molecules or particles in the solution, which can be shown as follows: A = ε l c (3) where c is concentration, l is the path length (the length of solution the light moves CHEM 161 Lab Manual S2012 page 71

4 through), and ε is the molar absorptivity (the measure of how much light the sample absorbs at a given wavelength). Beer s Law Plot This linear correlation between absorbance and concentration for a colored substance or solution is often represented as a Beer s Law plot of the absorbance versus concentration. In the Beer s Law plot below, concentration is in units of molar (M). Beer's Law Plot Example y = x Absorbance E E E E E E E-03 Concentration (M) To prepare a Beer s Law plot, a set of solutions of known concentration (called standards) must be prepared by diluting a stock solution to make less concentrated solutions. The absorbance for each solution is then measured at the wavelength of maximum absorbance, and the data is used to prepare the plot. A regression line for the data is generated, and points giving a linear plot with a positive slope indicate a direct correlation between the absorbance and the concentration. The absorbance of a solution of unknown concentration is then measured, and if the absorbance is within the range plotted for the the Beer s Law plot, the concentration corresponding to that absorbance can be determined. The best straight-line fit obtained from the plot has the form y = mx + b, for which the y-intercept, b=0, since a solution with a zero concentration would have an absorbance of zero. Thus, rewriting the line equation in terms of Beer s Law, y = m x (4) A = ε l c shows the slope, m, is equal to the product of ε l and can be used to calculate the concentration of a solution given its absorbance. For example, the Beer s Law plot bestfit line equation above (y = x), has a slope equal to M -1, where the units of CHEM 161 Lab Manual S2012 page 72

5 M -1 result from absorbance being unitless and concentration having units of molar (M). The concentration for a solution with a measured absorbance of would then be calculated as follows: A = c A c = M = M -1 = M The calculated concentration can also be checked using the Beer s Law plot on the previous page, where the broken red line shows the calculated concentration can be estimated to be between M or M. However, the concentration can be calculated with more significant figures using the line equation generated from the regression line. Because the direct correlation between absorbance and concentration cannot be assumed outside the range for the absorbance values measured, one cannot extrapolate a concentration corresponding to an absorbance greater than the highest measured absorbance for the standards used. In this case, the sample solution must be diluted until the measured absorbance is within the range of absorbance values for the measured standards. In this experiment, you will use a spectrophotometer to analyze a sample of a red sports drink to determine its molar concentration of Allura Red. A set of four standards will be prepared by diluting a sample of Allura Red, and the absorbance for each sample will be measured, so a Beer s Law plot can be prepared. Finally, the absorbance for a red sports drink will be measured. If the absorbance for the sports drink is outside of the range of absorbance values measured for the standards, the solution will be diluted until an appropriate absorbance is measured. Finally, the concentration of Allura Red in the drink will be calculated using the line equation obtained from the Beer s Law plot and accounting for any dilutions carried out. Using a Volumetric Flask Laboratory Techniques Using a Volumetric Flask: Volumetric Flasks are calibrated to hold an exact volume of liquid when the bottom of the meniscus is exactly on the line at the neck of the flask. In this lab, 50 ml volumetric flasks are used to prepare the standard solutions. These volumetric flasks are calibrated to prepare ml (±0.01 ml). To prepare a solution, transfer the indicated volume of the standard solution to the volumetric flask, fill the flask about halfway with DI water, stopper the flask, then swirl the solution to thoroughly mix it. Next, slowly fill the flask to just below the line with DI water. If your water bottle cannot be controlled to deliver DI water drop by drop, use a dropper or disposable pipet to add the last few drops. If you add water above the line marked on the neck of the flask, you will have to make a new solution. Again, stopper the flask, and invert it several times to get a uniform solution. CHEM 161 Lab Manual S2012 page 73

6 Procedure Part I: Preparing the Standard Solutions Work in pairs. Turn on the spectrophotometer before preparing the solutions since it requires about 15 minutes to warm up. Check out the following from the stockroom: a ml pipet, four mL volumetric flasks, and two cuvettes. Each student should prepare at least one solution (in Part I) and take at least one absorbance reading (in Parts II and III). Each pair will make four Allura Red standard solutions, labeled # s 1-4. Solution #1 is the stock solution prepared by the Chemistry stockroom. Record the concentration of the stock solution in your lab notebook. To prepare solutions #2-4, students will carry out a serial dilution. 1. Make sure the volumetric flasks are clean. If they appear dirty, wash them with soap and water, and do a final rinse with DI water. Dry the outside completely. The inside may remain wet since DI water will be added to the flask. Label three of the volumetric flasks #2-4. Serial Dilution 2. Obtain about 50 ml of the stock solution in a 100 ml beaker. Transfer about half of the solution to a large test tube labeled #1. Use only about 10 ml of solution to condition a ml volumetric pipet, then use the pipet to transfer ml of the stock solution to the clean volumetric flask #2. Add deionized (DI) water from your water bottle to half fill the flask, stopper the flask or use parafilm to cap it, and swirl to get a uniform solution, then add more DI water to just below the line on the narrow neck of the flask. Add DI water drop by drop to the mark. Be sure the bottom of the meniscus does not go above the line, or you will have to remake that solution! Stopper the flask and invert it several times to thoroughly mix the solution. 3. Transfer half of Solution #2 from the volumetric flask to a clean, dry beaker. Rinse and condition the 5.00 ml volumetric pipet and use it to transfer the Solution #2 to the clean volumetric flask #3. Fill the flask with DI water to obtain a total volume of ml of Solution #3. Repeat this process for Solution #4. 4. Stopper all your labeled flasks, inverting them several times to thoroughly mix the solutions, then set them aside for Part III. Part II: Finding the λ max for the Allura Red Solutions Each pair will use Solution #1 (the most concentrated stock solution) to determine the wavelength of maximum absorption (λ max ). Before taking each absorbance reading, be sure to recalibrate the Spec-20 using DI water. Note: Use only the cuvettes in the Spec-20. Cuvettes are made from spectroscopicgrade glass, which allows the maximum of light to pass through. CHEM 161 Lab Manual S2012 page 74

7 Using a Spec-20 1) Prepare a blank by using a disposable pipet to fill one cuvette 2/3 full with DI water then fill a second cuvette 2/3 full with your most concentrated solution (Solution #1). Remove any air bubbles clinging to the walls of a cuvette by tapping the cuvette gently to get the bubbles to rise to the top of the solution and escape. Use a Kimwipe to wipe off the outside of each cuvette to remove all fingerprints. Hold the cuvette by the top to avoid marking the glass with fingerprints. 2) Use the toggle to switch the Spec-20 from Absorbance (A) to Transmittance (T). (Note that as you switch the toggle, the red indicator light will move back and forth from A to T on the display on the Spec-20.) Note: The Spec-20 must be reset to read the maximum absorbance for the solution being analyzed at different wavelengths. Thus, the instrument must be rezeroed and the transmittance must be adjusted to 100% whenever the wavelength is changed. 3) Follow steps a e below to determine the absorbance for each wavelength. a) Use the dial on the top-right to set the wavelength to 400 nm. b) Make sure the cover of the sample holder is closed and empty and use the left knob on the front of the Spec-20 to set the T to 0%. c) Clean the cuvette containing the DI water with a Kimwipe to remove all prints. Open the sample holder, and note the line at the front by the cuvette holder. Place the cuvette with the blank (DI water) in the holder by lining up the line on the cuvette with the line on the Spec-20 to ensure that the light shines through the clear sides of the cuvette. Use the right knob to set the T to 100%. This ensures that any light absorbed by the blank (i.e., DI water in this experiment) is ignored, so only the light absorbed by the Allura red is measured. d) Use the toggle to switch the Spec-20 from Transmittance (T) to Absorbance (A). The Spec-20 is now set to read the absorbance of your sample. DO NOT change any settings!!! Clean the cuvette containing Solution #1 with a Kimwipe to remove all prints. Remove the cuvette with water, and replace it with the cuvette containing Solution #1. e) Record the absorbance on the display. If it reads a small negative number, record an absorbance of 0 for that reading. Determining λ max 4) Repeat steps a-e for a wavelength of 425 nm. Record the absorbance value for Solution #1 at this new wavelength, then repeat steps a-e to obtain absorbance readings at wavelengths every 25 nm between 400 and 600 nm. 5) Repeat steps a-e in 5-nm increments for three wavelengths above and three wavelengths below the maximum. For example, if you found the highest absorbance at 450 nm, repeat steps a-e for wavelengths of 455, 460, 465, 445, 440, and 435 nm. 6) The wavelength that gives the maximum absorbance for these readings is the λ max to use for Part III below. 7) Have your instructor approve your chosen λ max before you continue to Part III. CHEM 161 Lab Manual S2012 page 75

8 Measuring Absorbance for the Standard Solutions Part III: Measuring Absorbance Values for the Standard Solutions and Sports Drink Using the λ max found in Part II you will determine the absorbance for each solution made in Part I. You wil also analyze the sports drink sample for its Allura Red content. 1) Set the wavelength setting to the λ max found in Part II, then place the blank (DI water) cuvette in the Spec-20. Use the A/T switch to display absorbance (A), and check that the A reads zero for the water sample. If not, repeat step 3, parts a-e, from Part II to re-calibrate the Spec-20 for the λ max. Do NOT change any settings again for the remainder of Part III. 2) Empty the cuvette with DI water, and condition (rinse) it twice with small amounts of Solution #4 (least concentrated solution prepared). Fill the cuvette 2/3 full with that solution. Wipe the cuvette off with a Kim-Wipe before placing it in the sample holder. Close the lid, then read and record the absorbance of that solution. Do not change the wavelength or change any other settings on the Spec-20 while you obtain absorbance readings for the standard solutions! 3) Repeat step 3 and record the absorbance at the λ max for all of the standard solutions made in Part I. Note: Save the standard solutions until after your Beer s Law plot has been completed and approved by the instructor. 4) Obtain about 15 ml of the sports drink to be analyzed in a 50 ml beaker. Record the name of the sport drink in your lab notebook. Analyzing a Sports Drink 5) Empty the cuvette used to read absorbance values for the standards in step 3, then rinse it several times with DI water. Condition the cuvette with a small portion of the sports drink, then fill the cuvette 2/3 full. Wipe the cuvette off with a Kim-Wipe before placing it in the sample holder. Close the lid, then read and record the absorbance of the solution. 6) The linear correlation between absorbance and concentration cannot be assumed outside the range for the absorbance values measured. Thus, if the absorbance of the sports drink is higher than the absorbance for Solution #1, it must be diluted until its absorbance is within the range of measured absorbance values for the standards. If the sports drink is outside the range, check out a ml volumetric flask and a 5.00 ml pipet from the stockroom. 7) Condition the 5.00 ml pipet, and use it to transfer 5.00 ml of the drink to the clean mL volumetric flask. (The flask does not need to be dry since DI water will be added to the flask, but the volumetric pipet must be conditioned.) Add DI water to fill the flask, inverting and mixing to insure a uniform solution. 8) Rinse a cuvette with DI water then condition it with the dilute sports drink. If the absorbance is still higher than the absorbance measured for Solution #1, continue diluting the solution until the absorbance measured is lower than the absorbance for Solution #1. CHEM 161 Lab Manual S2012 page 76

9 9) Have your instructor approve the absorbance for your sports drink before disposing of any solutions. Waste Disposal: After you have recorded and graphed all of your concentration and absorbance data from your standards and unknowns, discard your solutions down the drain with plenty of water. 10) Rinse the cuvettes with a few portions of DI water then wipe them dry using Kim- Wipes. Wash and rinse the volumetric flasks and pipet used, including one final rinse with DI water, then shake out any excess DI water before drying the outside of the glassware and returning all of the equipment to the stockroom. Post-Lab Analysis and Calculations DATA ANALYSIS Concentration of standard solutions: Use the dilution equation, where: M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2 (5) M 1 is the initial concentration of the solution before it was diluted (in M) V 1 is the volume of the initial solution used (in ml) M 2 is the final concentration of the standard solution after it was prepared V 2 is the total volume of solution prepared (in ml) in the volumetric flask. Note: Because serial dilutions were carried out, M 1 will change with each successive dilution. Data Analysis using Excel You will use Excel to enter and graph the data you obtain in this lab. Set up the two columns of data, with the concentration of Allura Red in the first column and the absorbance values in the second, as shown below. Enter the data for the four standards and the sports drink in the worksheet, as well as the concentration and absorbance for the blank. Allura Red Concentration (in M) Absorbance 0.000M Prepare a chart/plot, including a descriptive title for the plot and proper labels for the axes with units: Allura Red Concentration (in M) for the x-axis and Absorbance on the y-axis. (Note that absorbance is unitless.) Add a regression line for the data points to find the best-fit linear equation to the data. Be sure to choose Display equation on chart and Display R-squared value on chart. Also check the Set intercept= box, and set it to zero, so the regression CHEM 161 Lab Manual S2012 page 77

10 line goes through the origin. The equation option will provide the equation for the line (y = mx + b) that best fits your data points. The R-squared value will indicate how close your data points are to a straight line. A value close to 1.00 indicates your data is very close to linear. Clean up the formatting of the graph before printing. Right-click the background to clear it. You can also select and delete the legend to the right of the graph since there is only one set of data. Move the equation box if sits on any part of the regression line or on any points. Maximize the plot, so it will fill an 8 x 11 page. Print your Beer s Law Plot. The plot will be submitted with the rest of your lab report. Use the linear equation (y = mx + b) from your Beer s Law plot to determine the concentration of Allura Red in the sports drink. If you diluted the sports drink to get the absorbance within the appropriate range, calculate the concentration of Allura Red for the undiluted sports drink. Also use Excel to prepare a plot of Absorbance versus Wavelength (similar to Figure 3 on p. 87) using your data from Part II. Include the plot with your lab report. CHEM 161 Lab Manual S2012 page 78

11 CHEM 161: Beer s Law and Analysis of a Sports Drink DATA Name: Partner: Part I: Solution Concentrations and Absorbance Use the dilution equation, M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2 to calculate the molarities for Solutions 2-4. LAB REPORT Solution # 1 (Stock) Molarity Show the calculation for the molarity of Solution #2 below: Part II: Determining the λ max Wavelength Absorbance Wavelength (nm) Absorbance 400 nm Max -15 = 425 nm Max -10 = 450 nm Max -5 = 475 nm Max = 500 nm Max +5 = 525 nm Max +10 = 550 nm Max +15 = 575 nm 600 nm What is the maximum absorbance value for your Solution #1? What wavelength gave this reading (i.e., the λ max )? Instructor Initials for λ max : CHEM 161 Lab Manual S2012 page 79

12 Part III: Measuring Absorbance Values for Standard Solutions and Sports Drink Solution DI water (blank) Molar Concentration of Allura Red (in M) Absorbance Sports drink (original concentration) Absorbance Sports drink diluted to % of original concentration Sports drink diluted to % of original concentration Sports drink diluted to % of original concentration Post-lab Calculations and Analysis Post-Laboratory Calculations and Analysis 1. Linear equation: Provide the equation for the best-fit regression line obtained for your Beer s Law plot: 2. Use Beer s Law (A = ε l c) and your line equation in Question #1 to calculate the concentration of the diluted sports drink sample with an absorbance value within the range of measured absorbance values for the standard solutions prepared. CHEM 161 Lab Manual S2012 page 80

13 3. Next, mark on your Beer s Law plot the absorbance value for the diluted sports drink sample, and draw lines to approximate the concentration from the plot (see example plot on p. 88). a. Molar Concentration of Allura Red in Gatorate from plot: b. How does your calculated concentration from Question #2 above compare to the estimate value from your plot? 4. Calculate the concentration of Allura Red in the original sports drink sample, accounting for any dilutions carried out to get the absorbance value in the appropriate range. 5. The LD50 for Allura Red ingested orally was determined for rats and rabbits to be 10,000 mg/kg i.e., about 10,000 mg of Allura Red consumed per kg of a rat s or rabbit s mass proved lethal for 50% of test subjects. Assuming the LD50 would be about the same for humans, use the concentration you determined in Question #4 to calculate how many gallons of red Sports drink consumed all at once by a 150-lb. person could potentially kill the person. CHEM 161 Lab Manual S2012 page 81

14 CHEM 161 Lab Manual S2012 page 82

Calibration of Glassware

Calibration of Glassware Calibration of Glassware Introduction Glassware is commonly calibrated using a liquid of known, specific density, and an analytical balance. The procedure is to determine the mass of liquid the glassware

More information

GlobalTech manager dies

GlobalTech manager dies Case File 9 Killer Cup of Coffee: Using colorimetry to determine concentration of a poison Determine the concentration of cyanide in the solution. A Killer Cup of Coffee? GlobalTech manager dies SOUTH

More information

Determining the Quantity of Iron in a Vitamin Tablet. Evaluation copy

Determining the Quantity of Iron in a Vitamin Tablet. Evaluation copy Determining the Quantity of Iron in a Vitamin Tablet Computer 34 As biochemical research becomes more sophisticated, we are learning more about the role of metallic elements in the human body. For example,

More information

How do scientists prepare solutions with specific concentrations of solutes?

How do scientists prepare solutions with specific concentrations of solutes? EXERCISE 2 Name How do scientists prepare solutions with specific concentrations of solutes? Objectives After completing this exercise, you should be able to: define and correctly use the following terms:

More information

Appendix C. Vernier Tutorial

Appendix C. Vernier Tutorial C-1. Vernier Tutorial Introduction: In this lab course, you will collect, analyze and interpret data. The purpose of this tutorial is to teach you how to use the Vernier System to collect and transfer

More information

Calibration of Volumetric Glassware

Calibration of Volumetric Glassware CHEM 311L Quantitative Analysis Laboratory Revision 2.3 Calibration of Volumetric Glassware In this laboratory exercise, we will calibrate the three types of glassware typically used by an analytical chemist;

More information

Lab 5: Quantitative Analysis- Phosphates in Water By: A Generous Student. LBS 171L Section 9 TA: Dana October 27, 2005

Lab 5: Quantitative Analysis- Phosphates in Water By: A Generous Student. LBS 171L Section 9 TA: Dana October 27, 2005 How uch Phosphate is the Body Being Exposed to During a Lifetime by Showering? Lab 5: Quantitative Analysis- Phosphates in Water By: A Generous Student LBS 171L Section 9 TA: Dana October 7, 005 [Note:

More information

Experiment #5: Qualitative Absorption Spectroscopy

Experiment #5: Qualitative Absorption Spectroscopy Experiment #5: Qualitative Absorption Spectroscopy One of the most important areas in the field of analytical chemistry is that of spectroscopy. In general terms, spectroscopy deals with the interactions

More information

Application Note: Absorbance

Application Note: Absorbance Units Units Theory of absorbance Light absorption occurs when atoms or molecules take up the energy of a photon of light, thereby reducing the transmission of light as it is passed through a sample. Light

More information

Phosphates (ortho- and total)

Phosphates (ortho- and total) INTRODUCTION Phosphates (ortho- and total) Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for all aquatic plants and algae. Only a very small amount is needed, however, so an excess of phosphorus can easily occur.

More information

CHM 130LL: ph, Buffers, and Indicators

CHM 130LL: ph, Buffers, and Indicators CHM 130LL: ph, Buffers, and Indicators Many substances can be classified as acidic or basic. Acidic substances contain hydrogen ions, H +, while basic substances contain hydroxide ions, OH. The relative

More information

ph Measurements of Common Substances

ph Measurements of Common Substances Chem 100 Section Experiment 10 Name Partner s Name Introduction ph Measurements of Common Substances The concentration of an acid or base is frequently expressed as ph. Historically, ph stands for the

More information

Using Excel (Microsoft Office 2007 Version) for Graphical Analysis of Data

Using Excel (Microsoft Office 2007 Version) for Graphical Analysis of Data Using Excel (Microsoft Office 2007 Version) for Graphical Analysis of Data Introduction In several upcoming labs, a primary goal will be to determine the mathematical relationship between two variable

More information

Calibration of Volumetric Glassware

Calibration of Volumetric Glassware Chemistry 119: Experiment 2 Calibration of Volumetric Glassware For making accurate measurements in analytical procedures, next in importance to the balance is volumetric equipment. In this section volumetric

More information

The introduction of your report should be written on the on the topic of the role of indicators on acid base titrations.

The introduction of your report should be written on the on the topic of the role of indicators on acid base titrations. Experiment # 13A TITRATIONS INTRODUCTION: This experiment will be written as a formal report and has several parts: Experiment 13 A: Basic methods (accuracy and precision) (a) To standardize a base (~

More information

6 H2O + 6 CO 2 (g) + energy

6 H2O + 6 CO 2 (g) + energy AEROBIC RESPIRATION LAB DO 2.CALC From Biology with Calculators, Vernier Software & Technology, 2000. INTRODUCTION Aerobic cellular respiration is the process of converting the chemical energy of organic

More information

NITRIC OXIDE and NITROGEN DIOXIDE 6014

NITRIC OXIDE and NITROGEN DIOXIDE 6014 NITRIC OXIDE and NITROGEN DIOXIDE 6014 NO MW: 30.01 CAS: 10102-43-9 RTECS: QX0525000 46.01 10102-44-0 QW9800000 METHOD: 6014, Issue 1 EVALUATION: FULL Issue 1: 15 August 1994 OSHA : 25 ppm NO; C 1 ppm

More information

Phosphorus Analyzer Procedure Last updated: 8.7.15. A. Introduction

Phosphorus Analyzer Procedure Last updated: 8.7.15. A. Introduction Phosphorus Analyzer Procedure Last updated: 8.7.15 A. Introduction The phosphorus analyzer can be used to measure soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) aka orthophosphate (PO 3-4 ) only. Additionally, this

More information

Experiment 13: Determination of Molecular Weight by Freezing Point Depression

Experiment 13: Determination of Molecular Weight by Freezing Point Depression 1 Experiment 13: Determination of Molecular Weight by Freezing Point Depression Objective: In this experiment, you will determine the molecular weight of a compound by measuring the freezing point of a

More information

Lab 2 Biochemistry. Learning Objectives. Introduction. Lipid Structure and Role in Food. The lab has the following learning objectives.

Lab 2 Biochemistry. Learning Objectives. Introduction. Lipid Structure and Role in Food. The lab has the following learning objectives. 1 Lab 2 Biochemistry Learning Objectives The lab has the following learning objectives. Investigate the role of double bonding in fatty acids, through models. Developing a calibration curve for a Benedict

More information

Studying Photosynthetic Electron Transport through the Hill Reaction

Studying Photosynthetic Electron Transport through the Hill Reaction Studying Photosynthetic Electron Transport through the Hill Reaction In this lab exercise you will learn techniques for studying electron transport. While our research system will be chloroplasts and photosynthetic

More information

Standard Operating Procedure for Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (Lachat Method)

Standard Operating Procedure for Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (Lachat Method) Standard Operating Procedure for Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (Lachat Method) Grace Analytical Lab 536 South Clark Street 10th Floor Chicago, IL 60605 April 15, 1994 Revision 2 Standard Operating Procedure

More information

Solutions and Dilutions

Solutions and Dilutions Learning Objectives Students should be able to: Content Design a procedure for making a particular solution and assess the advantages of different approaches. Choose the appropriate glassware to ensure

More information

Mouse Insulin ELISA. For the quantitative determination of insulin in mouse serum and plasma

Mouse Insulin ELISA. For the quantitative determination of insulin in mouse serum and plasma Mouse Insulin ELISA For the quantitative determination of insulin in mouse serum and plasma Please read carefully due to Critical Changes, e.g., Calculation of Results. For Research Use Only. Not For Use

More information

Inc. Wuhan. Quantity Pre-coated, ready to use 96-well strip plate 1 Plate sealer for 96 wells 4 Standard (liquid) 2

Inc. Wuhan. Quantity Pre-coated, ready to use 96-well strip plate 1 Plate sealer for 96 wells 4 Standard (liquid) 2 Uscn Life Science Inc. Wuhan Website: www.uscnk.com Phone: +86 27 84259552 Fax: +86 27 84259551 E-mail: uscnk@uscnk.com ELISA Kit for Human Prostaglandin E1(PG-E1) Instruction manual Cat. No.: E0904Hu

More information

Luminol Test PROCESS SKILLS SCIENCE TOPICS VOCABULARY

Luminol Test PROCESS SKILLS SCIENCE TOPICS VOCABULARY EXPERIMENT: LUMINOL TEST Luminol Test Visitors mix a solution of luminol with fake blood (hydrogen peroxide) to produce a reaction that gives off blue light. OBJECTIVES: Visitors learn that some chemical

More information

Determination of the Amount of Acid Neutralized by an Antacid Tablet Using Back Titration

Determination of the Amount of Acid Neutralized by an Antacid Tablet Using Back Titration Determination of the Amount of Acid Neutralized by an Antacid Tablet Using Back Titration GOAL AND OVERVIEW Antacids are bases that react stoichiometrically with acid. The number of moles of acid that

More information

Stage 1 Desired Results

Stage 1 Desired Results Lesson Title: Phosphate Testing Contract Discipline Focus: Chemistry Grade level: 11-12 Length of lesson: 1.5 class periods Content Standard(s): Stage 1 Desired Results Understanding (s)/goals Students

More information

Lab 5: DNA Fingerprinting

Lab 5: DNA Fingerprinting Lab 5: DNA Fingerprinting You are about to perform a procedure known as DNA fingerprinting. The data obtained may allow you to determine if the samples of DNA that you will be provided with are from the

More information

Household Acids and Bases

Household Acids and Bases Household Acids and Bases GRADE LEVEL INDICATORS Experiment Demonstrate that the ph scale (0-14) is used to measure acidity and classify substances or solutions as acidic, basic, or neutral. 21 Develop

More information

Basic Toxicology Lab Stations. Modified By Stefani D. Hines, M.A., M.S. Station 1: SEPUP Determining Threshold Limits: Taste Test for Salt Solution

Basic Toxicology Lab Stations. Modified By Stefani D. Hines, M.A., M.S. Station 1: SEPUP Determining Threshold Limits: Taste Test for Salt Solution Basic Toxicology Lab Stations Modified By Stefani D. Hines, M.A., M.S. University of Arizona, Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center, funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

More information

ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE: Given: A = 3 and B = 4 if we now want the value of C=? C = 3 + 4 = 9 + 16 = 25 or 2

ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE: Given: A = 3 and B = 4 if we now want the value of C=? C = 3 + 4 = 9 + 16 = 25 or 2 Forensic Spectral Anaylysis: Warm up! The study of triangles has been done since ancient times. Many of the early discoveries about triangles are still used today. We will only be concerned with the "right

More information

Using Excel for Handling, Graphing, and Analyzing Scientific Data:

Using Excel for Handling, Graphing, and Analyzing Scientific Data: Using Excel for Handling, Graphing, and Analyzing Scientific Data: A Resource for Science and Mathematics Students Scott A. Sinex Barbara A. Gage Department of Physical Sciences and Engineering Prince

More information

MATERIALS (COMPLETE LIST):

MATERIALS (COMPLETE LIST): Mold Control DESCRIPTION: Using three types of cleaning solutions (sodium hypochlorite, quaternary ammonium compounds, and borates), students analyze which product is most effective for controlling yeast

More information

EXCEL Tutorial: How to use EXCEL for Graphs and Calculations.

EXCEL Tutorial: How to use EXCEL for Graphs and Calculations. EXCEL Tutorial: How to use EXCEL for Graphs and Calculations. Excel is powerful tool and can make your life easier if you are proficient in using it. You will need to use Excel to complete most of your

More information

ACETALDEHYDE and ISOVALERALDEHYDE (Gas Chromatography)

ACETALDEHYDE and ISOVALERALDEHYDE (Gas Chromatography) ACETA.02-1 ACETALDEHYDE and ISOVALERALDEHYDE (Gas Chromatography) PRINCIPLE Isovaleraldehyde (IVA) and acetaldehyde are released from the syrup with the aid of dilute phosphoric acid and heat. The liberated

More information

Human Free Testosterone(F-TESTO) ELISA Kit

Human Free Testosterone(F-TESTO) ELISA Kit Human Free Testosterone(F-TESTO) ELISA Kit Catalog Number. MBS700040 For the quantitative determination of human free testosterone(f-testo) concentrations in serum, plasma. This package insert must be

More information

North East Regional Heat Schools Analyst Competition 2013. Coral in Distress

North East Regional Heat Schools Analyst Competition 2013. Coral in Distress RSC NERAD Schools Analyst Competition 2013 Laboratory Handbook Page 1 North East Regional Heat Schools Analyst Competition 2013 Coral in Distress LABORATORY HANDBOOK Royal Society of Chemistry Analytical

More information

Biosafety Level 2 (BSL-2) Safety Guidelines

Biosafety Level 2 (BSL-2) Safety Guidelines BLS-4 Biosafety Level 2 (BSL-2) Safety Guidelines BSL-3 BSL-2 BSL-1 BSL-2 builds upon BSL-1. If you work in a lab that is designated a BSL-2, the microbes used pose moderate hazards to laboratory staff

More information

PRACTICAL 3: DIGESTIVE ENZYMES, SPECIFICITY AND ph

PRACTICAL 3: DIGESTIVE ENZYMES, SPECIFICITY AND ph PRACTICAL 3: DIGESTIVE ENZYMES, SPECIFICITY AND ph 3.1 Introduction The aims of this practical are: to illustrate the different ph dependence of gastric and pancreatic digestive proteases to illustrate

More information

Trace Gas Exchange Measurements with Standard Infrared Analyzers

Trace Gas Exchange Measurements with Standard Infrared Analyzers Practical Environmental Measurement Methods Trace Gas Exchange Measurements with Standard Infrared Analyzers Last change of document: February 23, 2007 Supervisor: Charles Robert Room no: S 4381 ph: 4352

More information

CPI Links Content Guide & Five Items Resource

CPI Links Content Guide & Five Items Resource CPI Links Content Guide & Five Items Resource Introduction The following information should be used as a companion to the CPI Links. It provides clarifications concerning the content and skills contained

More information

OSMOSIS AND DIALYSIS 2003 BY Wendy Weeks-Galindo with modifications by David A. Katz

OSMOSIS AND DIALYSIS 2003 BY Wendy Weeks-Galindo with modifications by David A. Katz OSMOSIS AND DIALYSIS 2003 BY Wendy Weeks-Galindo with modifications by David A. Katz OSMOSIS Osmosis is the reason that a fresh water fish placed in the ocean desiccates and dies. Osmosis is the reason

More information

Energy - Heat, Light, and Sound

Energy - Heat, Light, and Sound Science Benchmark: 06:06 Heat, light, and sound are all forms of energy. Heat can be transferred by radiation, conduction and convection. Visible light can be produced, reflected, refracted, and separated

More information

Fighting the Battles: Conducting a Clinical Assay

Fighting the Battles: Conducting a Clinical Assay Fighting the Battles: Conducting a Clinical Assay 6 Vocabulary: In Vitro: studies in biology that are conducted using components of an organism that have been isolated from their usual biological surroundings

More information

Archived. Gloves should be changed frequently during the analysis.

Archived. Gloves should be changed frequently during the analysis. Introduction Gloves and laboratory coats Small tools Specific clean-up and housekeeping procedures are used to help protect evidence samples from conditions and agents that might serve to destroy, deteriorate,

More information

Application Sheet for Rivaroxaban (Xarelto ) Standard Range with. BIOPHEN Heparin LRT (#221011/221013) RUO

Application Sheet for Rivaroxaban (Xarelto ) Standard Range with. BIOPHEN Heparin LRT (#221011/221013) RUO Instrument Adaptation The attached instrument adaptation has been prepared and validated by the reagent manufacturer, Hyphen-Biomed. Instrument Siemens BCS-XP Product BIOPHEN Heparin LRT Analyte Rivaroxaban

More information

Experiment 9: Acids and Bases Adapted from: Chemistry, Experimental Foundations, 4th Ed. Laboratory Manual, by Merrill, Parry & Bassow.

Experiment 9: Acids and Bases Adapted from: Chemistry, Experimental Foundations, 4th Ed. Laboratory Manual, by Merrill, Parry & Bassow. Chem 121 Lab Clark College Experiment 9: Acids and Bases Adapted from: Chemistry, Experimental Foundations, 4th Ed. Laboratory Manual, by Merrill, Parry & Bassow. Content Goals: Increase understanding

More information

Related concepts Kohlrausch s law, equivalent conductivity, temperature dependence of conductivity, Ostwald s dilution law.

Related concepts Kohlrausch s law, equivalent conductivity, temperature dependence of conductivity, Ostwald s dilution law. Conductivity of strong and weak electrolytes TEC Related concepts Kohlrausch s law, equivalent conductivity, temperature dependence of conductivity, Ostwald s dilution law. Principle It is possible to

More information

1. To perform a potentiometric titration of a sample of Liquid Drano with hydrochloric acid.

1. To perform a potentiometric titration of a sample of Liquid Drano with hydrochloric acid. INTRODUCTION ANALYSIS OF DRAIN CLEANER (Revised: 1-25-93) Many common household cleaners contain acids or bases. Acidic cleaners, such as toilet bowl cleaners, often contain hydrochloric acid or sodium

More information

Blackbody Radiation References INTRODUCTION

Blackbody Radiation References INTRODUCTION Blackbody Radiation References 1) R.A. Serway, R.J. Beichner: Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics, 5 th Edition, Vol. 2, Ch.40, Saunders College Publishing (A Division of Harcourt

More information

Calibration and Linear Regression Analysis: A Self-Guided Tutorial

Calibration and Linear Regression Analysis: A Self-Guided Tutorial Calibration and Linear Regression Analysis: A Self-Guided Tutorial Part 1 Instrumental Analysis with Excel: The Basics CHM314 Instrumental Analysis Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto Dr. D.

More information

Electrochemistry Revised 04/29/15

Electrochemistry Revised 04/29/15 INTRODUCTION TO ELECTROCHEMISTRY: CURRENT, VOLTAGE, BATTERIES, & THE NERNST EQUATION Experiment partially adapted from J. Chem. Educ., 2008, 85 (8), p 1116 Introduction Electrochemical cell In this experiment,

More information

INSTITUTIONAL POLICY AND PROCEDURE (IPP) Department: Manual: Section:

INSTITUTIONAL POLICY AND PROCEDURE (IPP) Department: Manual: Section: HOSPITAL NAME INSTITUTIONAL POLICY AND PROCEDURE (IPP) Department: Manual: Section: TITLE/DESCRIPTION POLICY NUMBER HANDLING OF H AZARDOUS DRUGS EFFECTIVE DATE REVIEW DUE REPLACES NUMBER NO. OF PAGES APPROVED

More information

Methylene Blue Active Substances (MBAS) assay for nonionic surfactants in environmental samples. Method Version 081408.

Methylene Blue Active Substances (MBAS) assay for nonionic surfactants in environmental samples. Method Version 081408. Methylene Blue Active Substances (MBAS) assay for nonionic surfactants in environmental samples. Method Version 081408. Developed by Jack Bell, Ph. D., with assistance from Geneva Mottet and Hannah Halliday,

More information

Plots, Curve-Fitting, and Data Modeling in Microsoft Excel

Plots, Curve-Fitting, and Data Modeling in Microsoft Excel Plots, Curve-Fitting, and Data Modeling in Microsoft Excel This handout offers some tips on making nice plots of data collected in your lab experiments, as well as instruction on how to use the built-in

More information

= 1.038 atm. 760 mm Hg. = 0.989 atm. d. 767 torr = 767 mm Hg. = 1.01 atm

= 1.038 atm. 760 mm Hg. = 0.989 atm. d. 767 torr = 767 mm Hg. = 1.01 atm Chapter 13 Gases 1. Solids and liquids have essentially fixed volumes and are not able to be compressed easily. Gases have volumes that depend on their conditions, and can be compressed or expanded by

More information

Calibration and Use of a Strain-Gage-Instrumented Beam: Density Determination and Weight-Flow-Rate Measurement

Calibration and Use of a Strain-Gage-Instrumented Beam: Density Determination and Weight-Flow-Rate Measurement Chapter 2 Calibration and Use of a Strain-Gage-Instrumented Beam: Density Determination and Weight-Flow-Rate Measurement 2.1 Introduction and Objectives This laboratory exercise involves the static calibration

More information

International Journal of Research and Reviews in Pharmacy and Applied science. www.ijrrpas.com

International Journal of Research and Reviews in Pharmacy and Applied science. www.ijrrpas.com International Journal of Research and Reviews in Pharmacy and Applied science www.ijrrpas.com P.V.V.Satyanarayana*, Alavala Siva Madhavi NEW SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR THE QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF

More information

III. BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE

III. BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE Chemical Bonds and Reactions (Water) Grade Level: 7 (Applied Technology) Presented by: James Rubright, Three Oaks Middle School, Fort Myers, Florida Length of Unit: Ten Daily Lessons and Activities I.

More information

Recrystallization II 23

Recrystallization II 23 Recrystallization II 23 Chem 355 Jasperse RECRYSTALLIZATIN-Week 2 1. Mixed Recrystallization of Acetanilide 2. Mixed Recrystallization of Dibenzylacetone 3. Recrystallization of an Unknown Background Review:

More information

Chemistry 102 Summary June 24 th. Properties of Light

Chemistry 102 Summary June 24 th. Properties of Light Chemistry 102 Summary June 24 th Properties of Light - Energy travels through space in the form of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). - Examples of types of EMR: radio waves, x-rays, microwaves, visible

More information

Mouse krebs von den lungen 6 (KL-6) ELISA

Mouse krebs von den lungen 6 (KL-6) ELISA KAMIYA BIOMEDICAL COMPANY Mouse krebs von den lungen 6 (KL-6) ELISA For the quantitative determination of mouse KL-6 in serum, plasma, cell culture supernatants, body fluid and tissue homogenate Cat. No.

More information

MATLAB Workshop 14 - Plotting Data in MATLAB

MATLAB Workshop 14 - Plotting Data in MATLAB MATLAB: Workshop 14 - Plotting Data in MATLAB page 1 MATLAB Workshop 14 - Plotting Data in MATLAB Objectives: Learn the basics of displaying a data plot in MATLAB. MATLAB Features: graphics commands Command

More information

Chemistry 422 BIOCHEMISTRY LABORATORY MANUAL

Chemistry 422 BIOCHEMISTRY LABORATORY MANUAL Chemistry 422 BIOCHEMISTRY LABORATORY MANUAL Mark Brandt, Ph.D. Third edition January, 2002 Table of Contents Introduction... 4 Keeping a Laboratory Notebook... 6 Laboratory Reports... 8 Experiment 1:

More information

Instructions for Use HUMALOG KwikPen insulin lispro injection (rdna origin)

Instructions for Use HUMALOG KwikPen insulin lispro injection (rdna origin) 1 Instructions for Use HUMALOG KwikPen insulin lispro injection (rdna origin) Read the Instructions for Use before you start taking HUMALOG and each time you get a refill. There may be new information.

More information

With proper calibration, the upper limit may be extended as needed.

With proper calibration, the upper limit may be extended as needed. While we have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this Internet version of the document, it is not the official version. Please refer to the official version in the FR publication, which appears on the

More information

Mouse Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin antibody(igm) ELISA Kit

Mouse Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin antibody(igm) ELISA Kit Mouse Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin antibody(igm) ELISA Kit Catalog No. MBS702810 (96 tests) This immunoassay kit allows for the in vitro semi-quantitative determination of mouse KLH(IgM)antibody concentrations

More information

Support Cleaning Apparatus. Operation, Cleaning, & Safety Manual

Support Cleaning Apparatus. Operation, Cleaning, & Safety Manual Support Cleaning Apparatus Operation, Cleaning, & Safety Manual Revision 1.1 31 May 2014 WARNING: The instructions and precautionary statements contained herein are intended for the Support Cleaning Apparatus

More information

GETTING STARTED. 6. Click the New Specimen icon.

GETTING STARTED. 6. Click the New Specimen icon. BD FACSDiva Software Basic Experiment Guide Please note, this guide is not intended to take the place of in-person training but is to be used as a reference as needed after completing training with Unified

More information

Taking Apart the Pieces

Taking Apart the Pieces Lab 4 Taking Apart the Pieces How does starting your morning out right relate to relief from a headache? I t is a lazy Saturday morning and you ve just awakened to your favorite cereal Morning Trails and

More information

YSI Meter Protocol: Specific Conductivity, ph, & Dissolved Oxygen

YSI Meter Protocol: Specific Conductivity, ph, & Dissolved Oxygen YSI Meter Protocol: Specific Conductivity, ph, & Dissolved Oxygen 1. Check the log-book to see if somebody else has already checked the meter for accuracy within the timeframes below. If the meter hasn

More information

The kit is a sandwich enzyme immunoassay for in vitro quantitative measurement of PST in mouse tissue homogenates and other biological fluids.

The kit is a sandwich enzyme immunoassay for in vitro quantitative measurement of PST in mouse tissue homogenates and other biological fluids. FOR IN VITRO AND RESEARCH USE ONLY NOT FOR USE IN CLINICAL DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES SEB268Mu 96 Tests Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay Kit For Phenol Sulfotransferase (PST) Organism Species: Mus musculus

More information

ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY APPROVAL PROGRAM CERTIFICATION MANUAL

ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY APPROVAL PROGRAM CERTIFICATION MANUAL 1 of 8 The quality assurance plan as presented in the Quality Manual should assure that constant and consistent test conditions are met and verified and should be tailored to the laboratory s activities.

More information

AP Physics 1 and 2 Lab Investigations

AP Physics 1 and 2 Lab Investigations AP Physics 1 and 2 Lab Investigations Student Guide to Data Analysis New York, NY. College Board, Advanced Placement, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks

More information

Laboratory Waste Disposal

Laboratory Waste Disposal Laboratory Waste Disposal 1. Purpose This guideline details the procedures to follow in disposing of hazardous waste that is generated in the laboratory in order to minimise risks associated with the disposal

More information

PREPRODUCTION INITIATIVE-NELP PARTICLE COUNTER TEST PLAN SITE: NAS NORTH ISLAND AND NS MAYPORT

PREPRODUCTION INITIATIVE-NELP PARTICLE COUNTER TEST PLAN SITE: NAS NORTH ISLAND AND NS MAYPORT 1.0 OBJECTIVE PREPRODUCTION INITIATIVE-NELP PARTICLE COUNTER TEST PLAN SITE: NAS NORTH ISLAND AND NS MAYPORT This test plan describes the data collection procedures for acquiring performance data on two

More information

Glassware Calibration Guidelines Laura B. Secor and Dwight R. Stoll, 02/01/2012 Adapted from National Bureau of Standards Document 74-461

Glassware Calibration Guidelines Laura B. Secor and Dwight R. Stoll, 02/01/2012 Adapted from National Bureau of Standards Document 74-461 Glassware Calibration Guidelines Laura B. Secor and Dwight R. Stoll, 02/0/202 Adapted from National Bureau of Standards Document 74-46 The purpose of calibrating glassware is to determine the volume of

More information

Mixing Two Insulins. Insulin syringe Alcohol pad Wash your hands with warm water and soap. Dry your hands.

Mixing Two Insulins. Insulin syringe Alcohol pad Wash your hands with warm water and soap. Dry your hands. Mixing Two Insulins Since your doctor has ordered 2 kinds of insulin that can be mixed, you need to learn how to mix the two insulins together in one syringe. This way you can give yourself one injection

More information

Epinephrine/Norepinephrine ELISA Kit

Epinephrine/Norepinephrine ELISA Kit Epinephrine/Norepinephrine ELISA Kit Catalog Number KA3767 96 assays Version: 01 Intended for research use only www.abnova.com Table of Contents Introduction... 3 Intended Use... 3 Principle of the Assay...

More information

How do scientists collect and analyze data?

How do scientists collect and analyze data? EXERCISE 1 Name How do scientists collect and analyze data? Objectives After completing this exercise, you should be able to: identify the names and functions of the laboratory items on display in the

More information

Effective Methods For Culturing Breast Cancer Cell Lines

Effective Methods For Culturing Breast Cancer Cell Lines Abstract Effective Methods For Culturing Breast Cancer Cell Lines William H. Marshall II Life Science Team Cell culturing is one of the most useful and prolific techniques practiced in biological science

More information

Western Blot Protocol Protein isolation

Western Blot Protocol Protein isolation Western Blot Protocol Protein isolation A. Preparation of cell lysates. - Preparation of materials: -Dial the microcentrifuge temperature control setting to 4 C -Prepare a bucket of ice -Prepare lysis

More information

Explain the role of blood and bloodstain patterns in forensics science. Analyze and identify bloodstain patterns by performing bloodstain analysis

Explain the role of blood and bloodstain patterns in forensics science. Analyze and identify bloodstain patterns by performing bloodstain analysis Lab 4 Blood Learning Objectives Explain the role of blood and bloodstain patterns in forensics science Analyze and identify bloodstain patterns by performing bloodstain analysis Introduction Blood, a

More information

Pantone Matching System Color Chart PMS Colors Used For Printing

Pantone Matching System Color Chart PMS Colors Used For Printing Pantone Matching System Color Chart PMS Colors Used For Printing Use this guide to assist your color selection and specification process. This chart is a reference guide only. Pantone colors on computer

More information

Carnegie Mellon University s Policy and Procedures for Recombinant and Synthetic Nucleic Acid Materials Spills

Carnegie Mellon University s Policy and Procedures for Recombinant and Synthetic Nucleic Acid Materials Spills Carnegie Mellon University s Policy and Procedures for Recombinant and Synthetic Nucleic Acid Materials Spills Background In accordance with Section IV-B-2-b-(6) of the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving

More information

FUEL CELL EXPERIMENTATION

FUEL CELL EXPERIMENTATION Grade Level: 6-8 Group/Team Size: 2 Time Required: 120 minutes Summary: This activity will guide students through four experiments with a hydrogen fuel cell to learn how to fill the unit, decompose water

More information

When Completed - Fax to (410) 704-2993

When Completed - Fax to (410) 704-2993 Revised 2/12 Date: / / Hazardous Chemical Waste Disposal Request Page of Requestor: Phone #: Email: Department: Building & Room #: Item # Description of Waste Chemicals Quantity Container Size & Type Comments

More information

Notes on Excel Forecasting Tools. Data Table, Scenario Manager, Goal Seek, & Solver

Notes on Excel Forecasting Tools. Data Table, Scenario Manager, Goal Seek, & Solver Notes on Excel Forecasting Tools Data Table, Scenario Manager, Goal Seek, & Solver 2001-2002 1 Contents Overview...1 Data Table Scenario Manager Goal Seek Solver Examples Data Table...2 Scenario Manager...8

More information

Computer 6B. Forensic DNA Fingerprinting

Computer 6B. Forensic DNA Fingerprinting Forensic DNA Fingerprinting Computer 6B Scientists working in forensic labs are often asked to perform DNA profiling or fingerprinting to analyze evidence in law enforcement, mass disasters, and paternity

More information

Country Club Ichthycide. LESSON 3 Parts per Million Adapted from, Investigating Groundwater: The Fruitvale Story

Country Club Ichthycide. LESSON 3 Parts per Million Adapted from, Investigating Groundwater: The Fruitvale Story Country Club Ichthycide LESSON 3 Parts per Million Adapted from, Investigating Groundwater: The Fruitvale Story TEACHER NOTE: Omit this lesson if students have a working knowledge of ppm. Overview Students

More information

Guidelines for Ethidium Bromide Waste Management & Disposal. University of Tennessee-Knoxville

Guidelines for Ethidium Bromide Waste Management & Disposal. University of Tennessee-Knoxville 1. Background Guidelines for Ethidium Bromide Waste Management & Disposal University of Tennessee-Knoxville Ethidium bromide (3,8 diamino-5-ethyl-6-phenyl phenanthridinium bromide, dromilac, CAS #1239-45-8),

More information

HS 1003 Part 2 HS 1003 Heavy Metals Test

HS 1003 Part 2 HS 1003 Heavy Metals Test HS 1003 Heavy Metals Test 1. Purpose This test method is used to analyse the heavy metal content in an aliquot portion of stabilised hot acetic acid extract by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Note:

More information

Laboratory Procedure Manual

Laboratory Procedure Manual Laboratory Procedure Manual Analyte: Matrix: Method: Method No.: Lead Dust Wipes Modification of the Automated AAII-25 Colorimetric method Nitric and Hydrochloric Acid Digestion followed by Atomic Absorption

More information

BET Surface Area Analysis of Nanoparticles

BET Surface Area Analysis of Nanoparticles OpenStax-CNX module: m38278 1 BET Surface Area Analysis of Nanoparticles Nina Hwang Andrew R. Barron This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0

More information

7. 1.00 atm = 760 torr = 760 mm Hg = 101.325 kpa = 14.70 psi. = 0.446 atm. = 0.993 atm. = 107 kpa 760 torr 1 atm 760 mm Hg = 790.

7. 1.00 atm = 760 torr = 760 mm Hg = 101.325 kpa = 14.70 psi. = 0.446 atm. = 0.993 atm. = 107 kpa 760 torr 1 atm 760 mm Hg = 790. CHATER 3. The atmosphere is a homogeneous mixture (a solution) of gases.. Solids and liquids have essentially fixed volumes and are not able to be compressed easily. have volumes that depend on their conditions,

More information

HARVESTING AND CRYOPRESERVATION OF HUMAN EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS (hescs)

HARVESTING AND CRYOPRESERVATION OF HUMAN EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS (hescs) HARVESTING AND CRYOPRESERVATION OF HUMAN EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS (hescs) OBJECTIVE: can be cryopreserved in a liquid nitrogen (LN 2 ) freezer for long-term storage. This Standard Operating Procedure (SOP)

More information

VERIFYING CALIBRATION OF WEIGHING DEVICES USED FOR LABORATORY TESTING

VERIFYING CALIBRATION OF WEIGHING DEVICES USED FOR LABORATORY TESTING Test Procedure for VERIFYING CALIBRATION OF WEIGHING DEVICES USED FOR Texas Department of Transportation TxDOT Designation: Tex-901-K Effective Date: August 1999 1. SCOPE 1.1 All weighing devices shall

More information

Appendix J IBC Biohazard Spill Management Plan

Appendix J IBC Biohazard Spill Management Plan OVERVIEW Prevention is the most important part of any spill management plan. Be sure to read and understand standard operating procedures (SOP s) and protocols for safe manipulation of biohazards before

More information

Continuous process of sodium bicarbonate production by Solvay method

Continuous process of sodium bicarbonate production by Solvay method Continuous process of sodium bicarbonate production by Solvay method Manual to experiment nr 10 Instructor: Dr Tomasz S. Pawłowski 1 Goal of the experiment The goal of the experiment is introduction of

More information