Component Middleware. Sophie Chabridon. INT - INF Department - Distributed Systems team 2006

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1 Sophie Chabridon INT - INF Department - Distributed Systems team 2006

2 Outline 1. Introduction Overview of EJB Technology Sophie Chabridon 2006 INT - INF Department - Distributed Systems team 2

3 1 Introduction 1.1 Limits of object-oriented programming Motivations for Component Dased Development What is a component? Characterization of a component Runtime environment of a component (1) tier architecture Main component middleware Sophie Chabridon 2006 INT - INF Department - Distributed Systems team 3

4 1 Introduction 1.1 Limits of object-oriented programming A lot of tasks must be done manually Object instantiation Service invocation via direct access to object reference + explicit method call Definition of dependencies between classes Almost no tool for application deployment (installation of executable files on the various sites) Applications structure difficult to understand (= set of files) Difficult to modify or extend an existing application assembly modification of system services communication mode Building an application using black-box classes makes it difficult to inherit from other classes to introduce new references to other objects Sophie Chabridon 2006 INT - INF Department - Distributed Systems team 4

5 1.2 Motivations for Component Dased Development 1 Introduction Programming in the large versus programming in the small Applications are built by assembling existing components Notion of connector : Components are connected with one another defining a software architecture Formalism to describe interactions between components Formalism to describe the deployment of components Separation of concerns : Separate functional from non-functional or extra-functional aspects to allow for more reusability Focus on application concerns (functional) rather than technical problems (extra-functional) Sophie Chabridon 2006 INT - INF Department - Distributed Systems team 5

6 1 Introduction 1.3 What is a component? No consensus on a unique definition. Each platform has its own definition!! According to [Szyperski, 1998] : A unit of composition with contractually specified interfaces and explicit context dependencies only. A software component can be deployed independently and is subject to composition by third parties. Context dependencies : required interfaces and execution environments (platforms) A binary unit - not source code! This means that a class library is not a component No persistent state - a component is not an instance of itself Much like classes are not objects Sophie Chabridon 2006 INT - INF Department - Distributed Systems team 6

7 1.4 Characterization of a component 1 Introduction A software module That is a contractual specification by exporting some attributes, properties and methods That provides interfaces to other components and requires some interfaces from other components That has no persistent state That has pre- and post-conditions That must be configured by setting properties That is independently deployable and composable Sophie Chabridon 2006 INT - INF Department - Distributed Systems team 7

8 1.5 Runtime environment of a component (1) 1 Introduction Application Server Container Application Server Container Component Client Component Connections Component Service Service Service Service Service System / Middleware Sophie Chabridon 2006 INT - INF Department - Distributed Systems team 8

9 1 Introduction Runtime environment of a component (2) Container Encapsulates components Provides system services : lifecycle, transactions, persistence, security Maintains connections between components Deals with invocations and events Application server mediator between the containers and the system/middleware Runtime environment for containers Sophie Chabridon 2006 INT - INF Department - Distributed Systems team 9

10 1.6 3-tier architecture 1 Introduction Sophie Chabridon 2006 INT - INF Department - Distributed Systems team 10

11 1 Introduction Entreprise Java Beans 1.7 Main component middleware Supported by Sunjava.sun.com/products/ejb application server : J2EEjava.sun.com/j2ee ONE LANGUAGE, MANY PLATFORMS Utilise write once, read everywhere philosophy of Java Must be implemented in Java EJB standard can be seen as a subset of CCM.NET MANY LANGUAGES, ONE PLATFORM (Windows) Replaces COM+ and DCOM Supported by Microsoftmsdn.microsoft.com/net CORBA Component Model (CCM) Supported by the Object Management Group (OMG) Extend the EJB model MANY LANGUAGES, MANY PLATFORMS Vendor-neutral specification Sophie Chabridon 2006 INT - INF Department - Distributed Systems team 11

12 2 Overview of EJB Technology 2.1 Introduction EJB types Entity Beans Session Beans Message-driven Beans (MDB) Container Deployment Descriptor Client side Sophie Chabridon 2006 INT - INF Department - Distributed Systems team 12

13 2 Overview of EJB Technology 2.1 Introduction Java s component model for distributed enterprise applications, released by Sun in 1998 Definitions [Monson-Haefel, 2001] : Enterprise JavaBeans is a standard server-side component for computer transaction monitors (CTM). EJB technology defines a model for the development of reusable Java server components that encapsulate the business logic of an application Based on many Java librairies : RMI-IIOP - remote method invocation based on CORBA Interoperable Inter-ORB Protocol JTS (Java Transaction Service) - Transaction Management (specification JDBC (Java DataBase Connectivity) - JNDI (Java Naming and Directory Interface) - access to a naming service based on CORBA Oobject Transaction Service) JSP (Java Server Pages) - Web clients JMS (Java Messaging Service) - Asynchronous messages Sophie Chabridon 2006 INT - INF Department - Distributed Systems team 13

14 2 Overview of EJB Technology 2.1 Introduction tier architecture Client Light weight client - Web navigator Heavy weight client - Java application (or possibly other language) Application Server and open source distributions : jboss, Jonas (Objectweb) A lot of software products : J2EE (Sun), WebSphere (IBM), WebLogic (BEA) DBMS Mostly using a relational DBMS (Oracle, SQL Server, PostGreSQL...) Provide storage support for application data Sophie Chabridon 2006 INT - INF Department - Distributed Systems team 14

15 2 Overview of EJB Technology 2.1 Introduction J2EE Application Server J2EE : Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition Separate presentation and business logics Sophie Chabridon 2006 INT - INF Department - Distributed Systems team 15

16 2 Overview of EJB Technology 2.1 Introduction Sun Java Technology Current main release : Java 2 platform, including 3 parts : J2SE : Java 2 Platform, Standard Edition Essential compiler, tools, runtimes, and APIs for writing, deploying, and running applets and applications J2EE : Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition Component based model and infrastructure services for enterprise application development and deployment J2ME : Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition Optimized Java runtime environment for embedded systems, from smart cards to more PC like applications Sophie Chabridon 2006 INT - INF Department - Distributed Systems team 16

17 2 Overview of EJB Technology 2.1 Introduction Java Community Process (JCP) International developer community whose charter it is to develop and evolve Java technology and technology compatibility kits. reference implementations, specifications, Company, organization, or individual can be member Sophie Chabridon 2006 INT - INF Department - Distributed Systems team 17

18 2 Overview of EJB Technology 2.1 Introduction Roles in the development process An EJB application can be seen as connected in an assembly scheme 0, 1 or more Web components 0, 1 or more EJB components Persons involved in the development process Developer of Web components Developer of EJB components Application assembler Application deployer and manager Sophie Chabridon 2006 INT - INF Department - Distributed Systems team 18

19 2 Overview of EJB Technology 2.2 EJB types Entity Beans Identified by a primary key persistent state is maintained through all method and server invocations Model real-world objects (e.g. Owner, Account) that exist in persistent storage Session Beans Model client activities Perform a task or process, and are therefore transient Do not exist outside a client session No persistent state Two kinds of session beans : stateless and stateful Manage actions that may cross entity beans or go outside the concern of an entity bean e.g. Teller may authenticate the user and transfer funds between accounts e.g. Statement may include transactions from multiple accounts Sophie Chabridon 2006 INT - INF Department - Distributed Systems team 19

20 2 Overview of EJB Technology 2.2 EJB types EJB types Message-Driven Beans (since EJB 2.0) Only a bean class. No interface. Listener processing messages asynchronously Sophie Chabridon 2006 INT - INF Department - Distributed Systems team 20

21 2 Overview of EJB Technology 2.2 EJB types Interfaces Remote Interface Extends javax.ejb.ejbobject Interface presented to the outside world (contract definition) specifying the business methods provided by the bean Gets compiled by the ejb compiler to create RMI stubs and skeletons Stubs are used by RMI to translate a method invocation to wire format Skeletons are used by RMI to translate wire format to a method invocation Methods getejbhome() - returns the Home object for the bean getprimarykey() - returns the primary key for the object gethandle() - returns a handle to object that may be used to re-establish communications at a later time ; possibly in another server remove() - removes this EJBObject object (prior to eviction) isidentical(ejbobject) - returns if both objects are same NB : A client application never interacts with a bean class directly ; It uses the methods of the bean s home and remote interface. Sophie Chabridon 2006 INT - INF Department - Distributed Systems team 21

22 2 Overview of EJB Technology 2.2 EJB types Interfaces (cont.) Home Interface Interface for component management Extends javax.ejb.ejbhome Defines the beans life cycle methods for creating, removing and finding bean instances. Gets compiled by the ejb compiler to create RMI stubs and skeletons Sophie Chabridon 2006 INT - INF Department - Distributed Systems team 22

23 2 Overview of EJB Technology 2.2 EJB types Interfaces (cont.) Local Interface Business services provided by the bean Extends javax.ejb.localobject Gets compiled by the ejb compiler to create local stubs for container to Can only be used within the same JVM as the EJB interpose transactions, access control, etc. on invocations. Methods getejblocalhome() - returns the LocalHome object for the bean getprimarykey() - returns the primary key for the object remove() - removes this EJBObject object (prior to eviction) isidentical(ejbobject) - returns if both objects are same methods do not throw RemoteException ; only EJBException LocalHome Interface Local interface for component management Sophie Chabridon 2006 INT - INF Department - Distributed Systems team 23

24 2 Overview of EJB Technology 2.2 EJB types Classes Bean Class A session bean extends javax.ejb.sessionbean An entity bean extends javax.ejb.entitybean Implements the bean s business methods Primary Key Value that uniquely identifies the object in the database Provides a pointer into the database Only required for entity beans Must implement java.io.serializable Implements hashcode() equals() tostring() Contains identical public attributes from the Bean Class for those that represent the bean s primary key value(s). Sophie Chabridon 2006 INT - INF Department - Distributed Systems team 24

25 2 Overview of EJB Technology 2.2 EJB types Client and Server interaction Sophie Chabridon 2006 INT - INF Department - Distributed Systems team 25

26 2 Overview of EJB Technology 2.3 Entity Beans Represent a business object in a persistent storage mechanism Can be shared by multiple clients Can be linked to other entity beans (like relations in a relational DataBase Management System) Persistence can be managed in two ways : Container-managed Simplest to develop Bean s code contains no database access calls Configured using a deployment descriptor Bean-managed The client is required to explicitly write persistence logic by providing implementation methods for Home interface More flexibility in how state is managed between the bean instance and the database Used when deployment tools are inadequate Sophie Chabridon 2006 INT - INF Department - Distributed Systems team 26

27 2 Overview of EJB Technology 2.4 Session Beans Model business process being performed by a single client involving one or more entity beans Life duration linked to client s one Two types of session bean Stateful session bean maintains the conversational state between a client and the session bean may be serialized out and passivated to conserve system resources will be serialized in and activated when needed in the future e.g. Teller session bean logged into and transfers funds between accounts Stateless session bean does not maintain conversational state to be used for generic tasks, to read persistent data e.g. Statement that is given a list of accounts or an owner to generate a textual report for consumes the least amount of resources among all the bean types Sophie Chabridon 2006 INT - INF Department - Distributed Systems team 27

28 2.5 Message-driven Beans (MDB) 2 Overview of EJB Technology Handle asynchronous JMS (Java Messaging Service) messages Useful for non-blocking calls Stateless - state is lost between messages processing All instances of a same MDB class are equivalent Can process messages from several clients No remote interface The container delivers messages to a MDB using the onmessage() method Same lifecyle as a stateless session bean Sophie Chabridon 2006 INT - INF Department - Distributed Systems team 28

29 2 Overview of EJB Technology 2.6 Container Provides system services to bean Research initiatives (s.a. Objectweb JOnAS) provide extensible containers Current services are frozen with pluggable services Persistence service The container stores on a stable storage support (DB) the state of beans instances Security service This grants particular clients (or groups of clients) bean access The container maintains a access control list (ACL) Sophie Chabridon 2006 INT - INF Department - Distributed Systems team 29

30 2 Overview of EJB Technology 2.6 Container Container (cont.) Lifecycle service Instances passivation Temporary saving of a bean when container needs memory Instances pooling For performance reasons, the container can instantiate less beans than there are clients Then several clients share the same bean Possible only for beans without instance variables Pooling of connections to the Database All the beans of a server share a pool of connections to the DB Connections remain open and are used by beans Sophie Chabridon 2006 INT - INF Department - Distributed Systems team 30

31 2 Overview of EJB Technology 2.6 Container Transaction Service Guarantees ACID (Atomic, Consistent, Isolation, and Durable) properties for transactions Example of a banking transfer (debit then credit operations) Isolation - several parallel transfers must give the same result as if they were Consistency - e.g. an account must never have a negative balance Atomicity - Either both operations complete successfully or none performed successively Durability - Account state must be persistent and stored on stable storage Fully integrated within the EJB server Main advantage compared to the CORBA middleware Sophie Chabridon 2006 INT - INF Department - Distributed Systems team 31

32 2 Overview of EJB Technology 2.7 Deployment Descriptor Instructs the server on the type of bean (session or entity) Instructs the server how to apply services to the bean Described in XML (Extensible Markup Language) Created from IDE (Integrated Development Environment s.a. Eclipse, NetBeans, JCreator...) or text source Supplied with other bean components in a jar (Java archive) file bean class remote interface home interface primary key (for entity beans) deployment descriptor RMI stub/skeleton Sophie Chabridon 2006 INT - INF Department - Distributed Systems team 32

33 2.8 Client side 2 Overview of EJB Technology Sophie Chabridon 2006 INT - INF Department - Distributed Systems team 33

34 Course material http ://www-src.lip6.fr/homepages/lionel.seinturier/middleware/ejb.pdf http ://www.idt.mdh.se/kurser/cd5480/2003/lectures/ejb-lecture.pdf Références [Monson-Haefel, 2001] Monson-Haefel, R. (2001). Entreprise Java Beans. O Reilly. [Szyperski, 1998] Szyperski, C. (1998). Component Software : Beyond Object-Oriented Programming. Addison-Wesley. Sophie Chabridon 2006 INT - INF Department - Distributed Systems team 34

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