# This Little Piggy Math in the Pig Barn

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1 Area This Little Piggy Math in the Pig Barn Math Background Math is very important in agriculture when determining weights of animals. It is neded for marketing; administration of vacines, determining feed rations and determining pen space. It is also used in the ear notch identification system. Hogs are raised in various types of housing ranging from indoor housing systems to pasture. Sows can give birth (farrow) up to three times a year. Farrowing stalls are used to protect the baby pigs from being injured by the sow. Pigs are weaned when they are 2-4 weeks old. It takes about 5-6 months for a pig to reach market weight of pounds. Grade Level: 5-6 Time: Standards: Grade 5 - Multiplication and division of whole numbers and fractions-concepts skills, and problem solving Grade 6 - Ratios and proportional relationships Swine are monogastrics which means their stomach has one compartment. Because the stomach area is smaller, they require higher amounts of concentrates which are grains low in fiber and higher in digestible nutrients. Pigs will eat about 870 pounds of corn and 120 pounds of protein to reach market weight. It takes about 3.5 pounds of feed to produce 1 pound of live weight. The average size of a pig: Newborn pig is 3-4 pounds Weaned pig is pounds (2-4 weeks old) Feeder pig is pounds Finishing pig pounds Pigs move to finishing barns until they reach 260 pounds Market pigs weigh pounds Dressing percentage (amount of meat for consumption) is 70% of the live weight. Pork is an important part of our diet. It provides our body with protein that builds strong muscles and helps our bodies grow big and strong. Pork is also a great source of iron, zinc and B-vitamins. Modern technology, along with the work of farmers, has brought consumers the leanest bacon, ham and sausage and other pork products possible. Electronic equipment allows farmers to monitor the fat content of the pig and adjust the pig s diet to produce very lean meat. This equipment, along with breeding techniques, allows farmers to choose leaner animals for breeding stock and to supply consumers with lean, tasty products they want. Compared to ten years ago, pork has 30% less fat, 14% fewer calories and 10% less cholesterol. Another great resource from Page 1

2 This Little Piggy There are different types of production systems for swine: Farrow-to-finish farms where the pigs stay on the same farm from birth to finishing at market weights of about 260 pounds. Farrow-nursery farms that will farrow pigs and then sell pound feeder pigs to grow-finish farms. Farrow-to-wean farms that sell pound weaned pigs to nursery-grow-finish farms. Wean-to-finish farms that buy weaned pigs and finish them to market weights. No other animal produces a wider range of by-products that pigs do. One example is that there are over 40 different drugs and medical products produced including heart valves, insulin, and skin to help with burns. Vocabulary BARROW - a male pig not used for breeding. BOAR - a male pig used for breeding. FARROW - to give birth to piglets. GILT - a female pig that has not given birth to piglets. LITTER - a group of piglets born at the same time. Litter sizes are usually 8-12 piglets. PIGLET - a baby pig. PORK - the meat that comes from pigs. Pork chops, bacon, ham, sausage and pork roast are some examples of pork. SOW - a female pig used for breeding. Pigs are pregnant for 3 months, 3 weeks and 3 days. ( days). SWINE - term used to describe the species WEAN - when a piglet is big enough to eat on its own and doesn t nurse from the sow anymore. Another great resource from Page 2

3 Answer Key This Little Piggy Procedure Thought problem #1. Use girth and length measurements in an algorithm to predict weight of the pig. Algorithm - L x G xg/400 The process is to measure the girth (around the body under the armpits), and the length ( from the top of the head to the tailbone. 1. Measure the pig s heart girth. Place the fabric measuring tape around the pig, just behind the front legs. Note the pig s circumference in inches. 2. Measure the pig s length. Start at the base of the pig s ears and measure to the base of its tail. Note the pig s length in inches. 3. Calculate the pig s girth measurement. To calculate the girth, you will square the heart girth measurement. For example, if the pig had a heart girth of 44 inches: 44 x 44 = Multiply the pig s girth measurement by its length. If our example pig had a length measurement of 39 inches: 1936 x 39 = 75, Divide your total by 400 to get the estimated total live weight For example: 75,504 / 400 = lbs. 6. To estimate carcass weight, multiply your live weight by 72%. For example: x 0.72 = lbs Another great resource from Page 3

4 This Little Piggy Thought Problem #2 You will determine how much antibiotics to use to treat pigs who have pneumonia. You have 32 pigs in a pen you are raising as a 4-H project. Seven of the pigs quit eating and are hanging their heads and coughing a lot. When you take the temperature of the sick pigs they are running a fever of several degrees. Your veterinarian checks the pigs and suggests you give an antibiotic that is approved for use on swine that have pneumonia. This is referred to as on label treatment since the antibiotic is labeled for treating pigs with pneumonia. You weigh the 7 sick pigs as a group. They are averaging 220 pounds. You will be selling these pigs when they reach 250 pounds. They are gaining 1.5 pounds per day when they feel well. Assume the pigs will be back on feed and gaining weight again in one week. 1. How much antibiotic should you administer to each sick pig? Solve for X. Your medication label says to administer 2ml or cc s to a pig per each 100 pounds of weight. The pigs weigh 220 pounds each. 2. How much antibiotic will you need to buy to treat all 7 pigs? 4.4 ml or cc s x 7 = 30.8cc s. The veterinarian can give you the exact amount needed or they may sell you a 50 cc bottle of antibiotic. How much antibiotic would you need to store safely in the refrigerator if you purchased a 50cc bottle? Thought Problem #3. How much water do your 32 pigs need daily? If you have 32 pigs averaging 220 pounds how many gallons of water would they need per day? 2/200 = x /220; 2 x 220 = x/ = 200x; x = 440 /200; x =? gallons for each pig. 32 pigs x? = gallons needed per day. Table 2. Readily available supply of clean, fresh water Weight (lbs) Gallons per day Another great resource from Page 4

5 This Little Piggy Thought Problem #4. You have chosen to take a pig to the 4-H Fair on July 20th. Using math, you need to determine when to buy the pig and how much it should gain each day to reach the end weight of 260 pounds at the fair. This little piggy was born with 9 other piglets on April 8th. It weighed 3 pounds at birth. This piglet gained 50 pounds in 16 days. Answer A. What day and what month did it reach 53 pounds? April days = Answer B. What was it s average daily gain during the finisher part of its growth cycle? 75 pounds / 30 days = Answer C. What was it s average daily gain overall? Table 1. growth phase Date Weight Days on Feed Pounds Gained per feeding period newborn April 8 3 pounds NA 3 NA feeder April 24?A? 53 pounds finisher May pounds ?B? market July pounds TOTAL ?C? Discussion Questions: Average Daily Gain How does this math relate to your real life? Apply the same math principles used in the pig math to determine how to create a thought problem for the following scenarios. You need to determine how much dog food to give your half grown pet. The label gives directions based on weight of the dog. Construct a thought problem that solves for this. What if you were sick with an ear infection? How would the doctor determine the amount of antibiotic to prescribe to you? What if you are a light weight football player that needs to gain 50 pounds from spring training til fall football season? How would you determine your needed average daily gain? In order to prevent dehydration during the hot summer months of football practice, you need to drink a certain amount of water during practice. How would you determine how much water is needed each day? Another great resource from Page 5

6 This Little Piggy Procedure Thought problem #1. Use girth and length measurements in an algorithm to predict weight of the pig. Algorithm - L x G xg/400 The process is to measure the girth (around the body under the armpits), and the length ( from the top of the head to the tailbone. 1. Measure the pig s heart girth. Place the fabric measuring tape around the pig, just behind the front legs. Note the pig s circumference in inches. 2. Measure the pig s length. Start at the base of the pig s ears and measure to the base of its tail. Note the pig s length in inches. 3. Calculate the pig s girth measurement. To calculate the girth, you will square the heart girth measurement. For example, if the pig had a heart girth of 44 inches: 44 x 44 = Multiply the pig s girth measurement by its length. If our example pig had a length measurement of 39 inches: 1936 x 39 = 75, Divide your total by 400 to get the estimated total live weight For example: 75,504 / 400 = lbs. 6. To estimate carcass weight, multiply your live weight by 72%. For example: x 0.72 = lbs Another great resource from Page 3

7 This Little Piggy Thought Problem #2 You will determine how much antibiotics to use to treat pigs who have pneumonia. You have 32 pigs in a pen you are raising as a 4-H project. Seven of the pigs quit eating and are hanging their heads and coughing a lot. When you take the temperature of the sick pigs they are running a fever of several degrees. Your veterinarian checks the pigs and suggests you give an antibiotic that is approved for use on swine that have pneumonia. This is referred to as on label treatment since the antibiotic is labeled for treating pigs with pneumonia. You weigh the 7 sick pigs as a group. They are averaging 220 pounds. You will be selling these pigs when they reach 250 pounds. They are gaining 1.5 pounds per day when they feel well. Assume the pigs will be back on feed and gaining weight again in one week. 1. How much antibiotic should you administer to each sick pig? Solve for X. Your medication label says to administer 2ml or cc s to a pig per each 100 pounds of weight. The pigs weigh 220 pounds each. 2. How much antibiotic will you need to buy to treat all 7 pigs? 4.4 ml or cc s x 7 = 30.8cc s. The veterinarian can give you the exact amount needed or they may sell you a 50 cc bottle of antibiotic. How much antibiotic would you need to store safely in the refrigerator if you purchased a 50cc bottle? Thought Problem #3. How much water do your 32 pigs need daily? If you have 32 pigs averaging 220 pounds how many gallons of water would they need per day? 2/200 = x /220; 2 x 220 = x/ = 200x; x = 440 /200; x =? gallons for each pig. 32 pigs x? = gallons needed per day. Table 2. Readily available supply of clean, fresh water Weight (lbs) Gallons per day Another great resource from Page 4

8 This Little Piggy Thought Problem #4. You have chosen to take a pig to the 4-H Fair on July 20th. Using math, you need to determine when to buy the pig and how much it should gain each day to reach the end weight of 260 pounds at the fair. This little piggy was born with 9 other piglets on April 8th. It weighed 3 pounds at birth. This piglet gained 50 pounds in 16 days. Answer A. What day and what month did it reach 53 pounds? Answer B. What was it s average daily gain during the finisher part of its growth cycle? Answer C. What was it s average daily gain overall? Table 1. growth phase Date Weight Days on Feed Pounds Gained per feeding period newborn April 8 3 pounds NA 3 NA feeder April 24?A? 53 pounds finisher May pounds ?B? market July pounds TOTAL ?C? Discussion Questions: Average Daily Gain How does this math relate to your real life? Apply the same math principles used in the pig math to determine how to create a thought problem for the following scenarios. You need to determine how much dog food to give your half grown pet. The label gives directions based on weight of the dog. Construct a thought problem that solves for this. What if you were sick with an ear infection? How would the doctor determine the amount of antibiotic to prescribe to you? What if you are a light weight football player that needs to gain 50 pounds from spring training til fall football season? How would you determine your needed average daily gain? In order to prevent dehydration during the hot summer months of football practice, you need to drink a certain amount of water during practice. How would you determine how much water is needed each day? Another great resource from Page 5

9 Appendix A This Little Piggy 1. For your birthday, your uncle gave you a 55 pound pig. You plan to raise it to 245 pounds and then sell it. How many pounds does it need to gain? 245 pounds to sell 55 pounds now = 190 pounds to gain 2. If it gains about 1.6 pounds each day, how many days will it take to reach 245 pounds? (round to the nearest whole number). How many months is that? 190 pounds needed to gain / 1.6 pounds each day = or 119 days 119 days / 30 days each month = 3.9 or 4 months 3. Your uncle has three sows (mother pigs) that together have 36 piglets. If they each have the same number of piglets, how many are in each litter (group of piglets)? 36 piglets / 3 sows = 12 piglets per sow 4. If one sow only has four piglets and the remaining two have equal numbers, how many piglets do they each have (using the piglets from number 3)? 36 piglets 4 piglets = 32 piglets 32 piglets / 2 sows = 16 piglets per sow 5. One sow and her piglets use 58 bushels of corn to grow. If corn costs \$4.30 per bushel, how much will you spend on corn? 58 bushels x \$4.30 per bushel = \$ You sell your 250 pound pig for \$60 per one hundred pounds. How much money do you make? This will give you the gross income. To calculate the net income, you would need to consider all other expenses of raising a pig (i.e. feed, housing, equipment). 250 pounds / 100 pounds = 2.5 \$60 per one hundred pounds x 2.5 = \$150(gross income) for your pig Another great resource from Page 6

10 This Little Piggy Pig Trivia Pork is the most widely eaten meat. The average American eats 46 pounds of pork. Pigs are one of the few animals that won t overeat. They eat to a calorie level and then stop eating. The largest pig on record is a Poland China named Big Bill, owned by Burford Butler of Jackson, Tennessee. He weighed 2,552 pounds and was 9 feet long. Pigs can t sweat as they don t have sweat glands. A pig can run a 7 minute mile! A pig s squeal reaches decibels, the same as the sound of a jet. There are over 100 million pigs raised in the United States. There are 72 different breeds of pigs. Some popular breeds are: Hampshire Duroc Yorkshire Landrace Poland China Chester White Spot Berkshire Lacombe Hereford Pietrain Tamworth The top 10 pork producing states are: Iowa Minnesota Indiana Missouri Wisconsin Illinois North Carolina Oklahoma Nebraska Ohio Want More? Extensions For more information on the pork industry and pig production, go to AgBooksForKids.com, under Awesome Agriculture, for a list of books that are focused on agricultural topics. Great for Technical reading 3-5th grade. Good information sheet on pigs from Illinois Ag in the Classroom. Another great resource from Page 7

11 Student Handout A This Little Piggy 1. For your birthday, your uncle gave you a 55 pound pig. You plan to raise it to 245 pounds and then sell it. How many pounds does it need to gain? 2. If it gains about 1.6 pounds each day, how many days will it take to reach 245 pounds? (round to the nearest whole number). How many months is that? 3. Your uncle has three sows (mother pigs) that together have 36 piglets. If they each have the same number of piglets, how many are in each litter (group of piglets)? 4. If one sow only has four piglets and the remaining two have equal numbers, how many piglets do they each have (using the piglets from number 3)? 5. One sow and her piglets use 58 bushels of corn to grow. If corn costs \$2.75 per bushel, how much will you spend on corn? 6. You sell your 250 pound pig for \$55 per one hundred pounds. How much money do you make? Another great resource from Page 8

12 Appendix B This Little Piggy Swine producers use a ear notching system that takes math to interpret. Study the universal system and the examples. Then mark notches on pictures in Student handout B & C. Another great resource from Page 9

13 Student Handout B This Little Piggy Another great resource from Page10

14 Student Handout C This Little Piggy Instructions: Cut out the piglet and notch your birth date in the ears according to the universal ear notching system. Left ear is your birth date; Right ear is your birth month. Another great resource from Page 11

15 This Little Piggy - Answer Sheet Ear Notch 13-9 Ear Notch 9-3 Ear Notch 5-12 Ear Notch 11-4 Ear Notch 48-6 Ear Notch 30-5 Page12

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