1 To Whom It May Concern: I understand you are studying the detoxification methodology developed by L. Ron Hubbard, particularly with respect to its use by Narconon of Georgia as a treatment modality for drug rehabilitation. I am board certified in occupational and aerospace medicine and a member of the American Society of Addiction Medicine. I was a career officer in the Air Force, retiring as a Colonel, and I hold an MPH degree from Johns Hopkins University. In addition, I currently serve in a voluntary capacity as the Chair of Narconon's Science Advisory Board. Over the past 20 years I have utilized the Hubbard methodology in a clinical setting, including clients with substance abuse issues, with excellent results. As I have long practical experience with this program, having supervised more than 3,000 individuals through detoxification, I thought it would make sense for me to respond to your request for information. I'd like to provide a brief introduction to the program, and address what I believe are the concerns that you have raised. The use of this detoxification protocol to address the health impact of toxic chemicals occupational and environmental toxins as well as illicit drugs has been reported in the literature for nearly two decades. Two international conferences have addressed this subject. As noted in published studies, and confirmed in clinical practice, the program is safe and effective. No adverse effects have been associated with its delivery in these writings. Court rulings have established the program as compensable under workman's compensation law. A summary of research supporting the elements of this program was included in an Appendix to the Proceedings of the First International Conference on Chemical Contamination and Human Detoxification. I've included this summary with my letter. A partial list of relevant papers is also attached. I believe your main concern is with the use of niacin during the detoxification process. Niacin stimulates lipid mobilization by triggering the release of free fatty acids into the bloodstream. It has been demonstrated that, while free fatty acid
2 levels drop initially after taking immediate-release niacin, they rise markedly within two hours and continue at high levels for some time. Shields, et. al. demonstrated that the mobilization of drug residues correlates with the niacin-promoted release of lipids from tissues (Reduction of Drug Residues: Applications in Drug Rehabilitation. Presentation at the 123rd Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, 1995.) Further, removal of these drug metabolites from the body is associated with increased cognitive function and reduced chemical exposure symptoms. Henkin, et. al. published evidence that sustained-release niacin, with respect to both dosage and severity, is more hepatotoxic than crystalline niacin. Data show that patients who developed hepatitis during treatment with sustained-release niacin and were rechallenged with equivalent or higher doses of crystalline niacin had no evidence of recurring hepatocellular damage. (JAMA 1990 Jul 11;264(2):241-3.) The typical sauna program at Narconon is about days. There are a number of components of this program that have very beneficial effects on general health as you know, many addicts are in a state of chronic depletion of basic nutrients. Several points are worth underscoring: Moderate aerobic exercise: This increases circulation, which ensures quick distribution of the niacin throughout the body and carries mobilized toxins to the excretory routes. Running is preferred, but this can be changed if medically indicated. Intermittent sauna to force sweating: As shown in several studies on this procedure, sweat is a primary elimination route for toxins. Sauna temperatures range from 140 to 180 degrees, lower than the typical health-club sauna. The sauna must be well-ventilated. Subjects take frequent showers, both to cool down and to remove substances from the skin and prevent their re-absorption. Liquids are administered and participants are monitored for signs of dehydration and heat exhaustion.
3 Ingestion of cold-pressed oils: These are provided to prevent mobilized toxins from being re-absorbed by the intestine. Polyunsaturated oils have been found to enhance excretion of extremely persistent chemicals, without depositing fat in the liver. Vitamin and mineral supplementation: The oil taken to prevent re-absorption of mobilized toxins may also reduce absorption of important nutrients. A resulting deficiency could increase the toxicity of mobilized chemicals such as PCBs. An increased intake of nutrients prevents such toxic effects, as well as balancing the intake of niacin. Vitamins are also given to replenish those lost in sweat and also act to balance the level of other vitamins so that no deficiencies occur during the course of the program. I have had the opportunity to observe first hand the use of this program throughout the world by Narconon, as well as by other physicians and organizations. In all of these settings I have found the program to be safe and effective. Narconon is unique in the rehabilitation field in that its program is entirely drugfree, from the withdrawal stage to program completion. The role of drug residues and metabolites in continued craving for drugs is well understood; this regimen is the only one that offers addicts the possibility of reducing drug craving by accelerating the excretion of drug residues. It does not merely substitute "medicinal" drugs for "illicit" drugs. It is a national tragedy that most addicts return to drugs after treatment. Many have come to believe they can never really overcome their cravings. The growth of Narconon and the increase in the use of the sauna program developed by L. Ron Hubbard throughout the world are due largely to the growing recognition of the unique benefits of detoxification for those who are trapped in the cycle of addiction, and the need for an approach to rehabilitation that fully addresses the problems that these individuals face. I appreciate your desire to satisfy yourself that this program is safe, and know that you have the best interests of the program participants in mind. I am far from the only person in the treatment community who is familiar with this program, and
4 would be happy to assist you in communicating with others who have seen it in operation over long periods of time. I am confident that when you have the full information at hand, you will agree that the techniques employed by Narconon are yielding significant results and that they are indeed safe. I hope you will feel free to call if I can be of further assistance. I can be reached at Very sincerely, David E. Root, M.D., MPH PS: If you are interested, you can download a number of the existing studies at
5 SUMMARIES OF PUBLISHED PAPERS REGARDING DETOXIFICATION (PARTIAL LIST) Evaluation of a Detoxification Regimen for Fat Stored Xenobiotics. Medical Hypotheses, Vol. 9, Summary: One hundred and three individuals undergoing detoxification with the Hubbard procedure volunteered to undergo additional physical and psychological tests concomitant with the program. Participants had been exposed to recreational (abused) and medical drugs, patent medicines, occupational and environmental chemicals. Patients with high blood pressure had a mean reduction of 30.8 mm systolic, 23.3 mm diastolic; cholesterol level mean reduction was 19.5 mg/100 ml, while triglycerides did not change. Completion of the detoxification program also resulted in improvements in psychological test scores, with a mean increase in Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale IQ of 6.7 points. Scores on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory profiles decreased on Scales (4-7) where high scores are associated with amoral and asocial personalities, psychopathic behavior and paranoia. Medical complications resulting from detoxification were rare, occurring in less than three percent of the subjects. Reduction of Drug Residues: Applications in Drug Rehabilitation. Presentation at the 123rd Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, Summary: Drug residues and their lipophilic metabolites are associated with persistent symptoms; their mobilization into blood correlates with drug cravings. The concentration of drug metabolites in both sweat and urine was measured in eight individuals who had been actively using drugs prior to detoxification. Cocaine, opiate, and benzodiazepan metabolites were detected by fluorescent immunoassay in both sweat and urine. Low levels (not indicative of use) continued to be eliminated for several weeks. In two cases, drug levels were below detection prior to treatment but became detectable during detoxification. A separate series of 249 clients with a history of drug abuse rated the severity of their symptoms before and after detoxification. Chief symptomatic complaints prior to detoxification included fatigue, irritability, depression, intolerance of stress, reduced attention span and decreased mental acuity. (These same symptoms were dominant in those who had ceased active drug abuse over a year prior to treatment.) Following detoxification, both past and current users reported marked improvements in symptoms, with most returning to normal range. The Hubbard detoxification program represents a vital innovation in drug rehabilitation: an approach aimed at a long term reduction of the predisposition for drug abuse. Precipitation of Cocaine Metabolites in Sweat and Urine of Addicts Undergoing Sauna Bath Treatment. College on Problems of Drug Dependence, Fifty-Seventh Annual Scientific Meeting, National Institute on Drug Abuse, College on Problems of Drug Dependency, Summary: Four subjects (three males and one female) admitted to a residential treatment program were selected for study. All met DSM-III-R criteria for cocaine dependence and ingested cocaine by smoking. The duration of their use of the drug ranged from eight months to 18 years, and they reported cocaine use on over 75% of days in the month just prior to treatment. Three reported last use of cocaine within 48 hours of admission; one reported last use 25 days prior to program entry. Urine and sweat samples were collected from subjects every two to three days during detoxification and analyzed by fluorescent immunoassay. Cocaine metabolites were detectable in both sweat and urine of all subjects. Three of the four subjects showed a measurable increase in sweat or urine cocaine metabolite concentrations at the beginning of detoxification. Two subjects demonstrated negative urine samples prior to detoxification, but demonstrated the presence of metabolites when detoxification commenced.
6 Body Burden Reductions of PCBs, PBBs and Chlorinated Pesticide Residues in Human Subjects, Ambio, Vol. 13, No. 5-6, Summary: Prior to detoxification, adipose tissue concentrations were determined for seven individuals accidentally exposed to PBB. The chemicals targeted for analysis included the major congeners of PBB, PCBs and the residues of common chlorinated insecticides. Of the 16 organohalides examined, 13 were present in lower concentrations following detoxification. Seven of the 13 reductions were statistically significant; reductions ranged from 3.5 to 47.2 percent, with a mean reduction among the 16 chemicals of 21.3 percent (s.d percent). To determine whether reductions reflected movement to other body compartments or actual burden reduction, a post-treatment follow-up sample was taken four months later. Follow-up analysis showed a reduction in all 16 chemicals averaging 42.4 percent (s.d percent) and ranging from 10.1 to 65.9 percent. Ten of the 16 reductions were statistically significant. Diagnosis and Treatment of Patients Presenting Subclinical Signs and Symptoms of Exposure to Chemicals Which Accumulate in Human Tissue. Proceedings of the National Conference on Hazardous Wastes and Environmental Emergencies, Cincinnati, Ohio, Summary: A discussion of some of the problems in attempting to diagnose and treat low-level body burdens of toxic chemicals. A review of 120 patients who were prescribed detoxification treatment as developed by Hubbard to eliminate fat-stored compounds showed improvement in 14 of 15 symptoms associated with several types of chemical exposures. Reduction of Hexachlorobenzene and Polychlorinated Biphenyl Human Body Burdens, World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Scientific Publications Series, Vol. 77, Summary: Electrical workers paired by age, sex and potential for polychlorinated biphenyl exposure were divided into treatment and control groups. Adipose-tissue concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), four other pesticides and 10 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners were determined pre- and posttreatment, and three months post-treatment. At post treatment, all 16 chemicals were found at lower concentrations in the adipose tissues of the treatment group, while 11 were found in higher concentrations in the control group. Adjusted for re-exposure as represented in the control group, HCB concentrations were reduced by 30% at post-treatment and 28% three months post-treatment. Mean reduction of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners was 61% at post-treatment and 14% three months posttreatment. These reductions were statistically significant (f < 0.001). Enhanced excretion appeared to keep pace with mobilization, as blood-serum levels in the treatment group did not increase during treatment. Excretion of a Lipophilic Toxicant Through the Sebaceous Glands: A Case Report, Journal of Toxicology-Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology, Vol. 6, No. 1, Summary: A 23-year-old woman worked at a manufacturing facility, hosing the soot and ash accumulated in the exhaust stack and on the filter pads of an oil-fired generator. She performed this task without protective gear. After six months, she reported feeling ill to the plant nurse. One month later, she was removed from the job, and she remained unable to work for 11 1/2 months because of symptoms relating to toxic chemical exposure. The toxicants were amenable to removal through the sebaceous glands and possibly the gastrointestinal tract by the Hubbard detoxification technique. This was accompanied by remission of her subjective complaints and she was authorized to return to work. Improvement in Perception of Transcutaneous Nerve Stimulation Following Detoxification in Firefighters Exposed to PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs, Clinical Ecology, Vol. VI, No. 2, Summary: Seventeen firefighters with a history of acute exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzofurans, and dibenzodioxins were evaluated for peripheral neuropathy. Neuropathic evaluation was done using the Neurometer(r), a transcutaneous nerve stimulation device utilizing a constant sine
7 wave at fixed amperage. Prior to detoxification, five of the 17 had abnormal current perception threshold measurements. Following treatment, all showed improvement. Most strikingly, the current perception thresholds of two patients returned to normal range after detoxification. This finding raises the possibility that damage heretofore thought to be permanent may in many instances be partially reversible. Occupational, Environmental and Public Health in Semic: A Case Study of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Pollution, Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Civil Engineers, New Orleans, Louisiana, October, Summary: Eleven workers with readily observable symptoms of exposure to PCBs and other chemicals were chosen for detoxification from a group of 24 male volunteers from a factory using PCBs in the manufacture of capacitors. The remaining 13 served as a control group. Detoxification treatment reduced both the body burdens and the symptoms of treated workers while no such improvements occurred in the control group. This study, undertaken in cooperation with the University Medical Center of Ljubljana and the Institut f-i_ir Toxikologie, University and Technical Faculty of Zurich, supports the use of health screening and detoxification for individuals affected by toxic exposures. Human Contamination and Detoxification: Medical Response to an Expanding Global Problem, Proceedings of the MAB UNESCO Task Force on Human Response to Environmental Stress, Moscow, Summary: Individuals with a variety of workplace exposures were unable to work or had reduced work capacity. Following detoxification, each was able to return to work. Though the results presented are anecdotal, they confirm previous findings in the peer-reviewed literature (Schnare et al., 1982; Roehm, 1983; Schnare et al., 1984; Schnare and Robinson, 1985; Tretjak et al., 1989) and demonstrate that this approach can be effective in reducing body burdens of toxic compounds and returning individuals to the workplace. Neurobehavioral Dysfunction in Firemen Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Possible Improvement after Detoxification, Archives of Environmental Health, Vol. 44, No. 6, Summary: Fourteen firemen were exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their by-products at the site of a transformer fire and explosion. Six months after the fire, they underwent neurophysiological and neuropsychological tests. They were re-studied six weeks after detoxification. A control group of firefighters was selected from firemen who resided in the same city but were not engaged in the fire in question. Initial testing showed that firemen exposed to PCBs had poorer neurobehavioral function than the control group. Significant reversibility of impairment was noted after detoxification. PCB Reduction and Clinical Improvement by Detoxification: An Unexploited Approach? Human and Experimental Toxicology, Vol. 9, Summary: A female worker from a capacitor factory, with a history of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other lipophilic industrial chemicals, was admitted for treatment at the University Medical Centre of Ljubljana, Slovenia (then Yugoslavia). She presented with severe abdominal complaints, chloracne, liver abnormalities and a bluish-green nipple discharge of approximately 50 ml d- 1 in quantity. High PCB levels were noted in adipose tissue (102 mg kg-1), serum (512 ug 1-1), skin lipids (66.3 mg kg-1), and in the nipple discharge (712 ug 1-1). After detoxification, PCB levels in adipose tissue were reduced to 37.4 mg kg-1 and in serum to 261 ug-1, respective reductions of 63% and 49%. Excretion of intact PCBs in sebum, appreciable before treatment, was enhanced by up to five-fold during detoxification. The nipple discharge ceased early in the detoxification regimen.
8 Xenobiotic Reduction and Clinical Improvements in Capacitor Workers: A Feasible Method, Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Vol. A 25, No. 7, Summary: Eleven capacitor workers, occupationally exposed to PCBs and other industrial chemicals, underwent detoxification. Thirteen co-workers served as controls. Mean PCB levels prior to detoxification were 28.0 mg/kg in adipose and (g/l in serum. Following detoxification, PCBs were reduced in serum by 42% (p<0.05) and in adipose by 30% for patients without concurrent disease. Patients with concurrent disease had a 10% reduction in adipose levels, while serum levels remained unchanged. Both adipose and serum PCB levels increased in members of the control group. At a four-month follow up examination, these differences were maintained, though the mean adipose PCB values in all groups were higher than at post-treatment. All patients reported marked improvement in clinical symptoms posttreatment, with most of these improvements retained at follow-up. No such improvements were noted in controls. Treatment of Pesticide-Exposed Patients with the Hubbard Method of Detoxification. Presentation at the 120th Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, Summary: A review of the efficacy of detoxification in addressing the complaints of 155 patients who had experienced significant exposures to pesticides. Treatment effected reductions in chemical levels in adipose tissue, and a concomitant decrease in symptomatic complaints. Neurotoxicity and Toxic Body Burdens: Relationship and Treatment Potentials. Proceedings of the International Conference on Peripheral Nerve Toxicity, Summary: Many chemicals have neurotoxic health effects of long duration, leading to the conclusion that these effects are essentially irreversible. This paper proposes that the accumulation and persistence of neurotoxic chemicals in adipose tissue may play a role in the prolongation of neurotoxic effects. If this were the case, an approach designed to reduce body burdens of fat-soluble compounds should lead to a similar reduction in neurotoxic effects. Transcutaneous current perception thresholds were measured using the Neurometer device in 48 patients exhibiting neurotoxic effects both before and after detoxification. Following detoxification, marked improvements were noted in both peripheral neuropathy and self-reported patient profiles. Treatment of Children with the Detoxification Method Developed by Hubbard. Presentation at the 123rd Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, Summary: Eighteen children from ten families were referred for detoxification. Their chief complaints included environmental sensitivity, headaches, chronic fatigue, allergies, respiratory problems and recurrent infections. In each case, the entire family had become ill following a known change (e.g., application of pesticides, installation of improperly cured carpet) in their environment. The ages of the children ranged from neonatal to 15 at the time of exposure, with treatment ages ranging from 4 to 21. Treatment resulted in improvements in symptom profiles, with at least 89% of the children reporting long-term improvements in their symptoms. Where children have become ill following chemical contamination, treatment with the detoxification method developed by Hubbard is a viable approach.
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Heroin Heroin is an opiate drug that is synthesized from morphine, a naturally occurring substance extracted from the seed pod of the Asian opium poppy plant. Heroin usually appears as a white or brown
Use of Buprenorphine in the Treatment of Opioid Addiction Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Executive Summary Which of the following is an
SAFETY DATA SHEET Issuing Date: 09-Jan-2015 Version 2 Product Name 1. IDENTIFICATION Dawn ProfessionalÒ Manual Pot and Product Code(s) 1-00 Product ID: Product Type: Recommended Use Restrictions on Use
Tobacco/Marijuana Tobacco Nicotine, one of the more than 4,000 chemicals found in the smoke from tobacco products such as cigarettes, cigars, and pipes, is the primary component in tobacco that acts on
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