Technische dokurnentat ie. TRADËCOM INTERNATICft{AL E}.V. HONDSDIJK 1.A - POSïBUS 60.?396 ZH KOUDEKERK A/D RIJN. TEL {N'.

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1 Technische dkurnentat ie TRADËCOM NTERNATCft{AL E}.V. HONDSDJK 1.A - POSïBUS 60.?396 ZH KOUDEKERK A/D RJN. TEL {N'. TELEX 39466

2 Ner^rS;31n C:P.;'1'1 s)'5teíír descriptin is:ue 3'Ct l) rrtrducttn The l..ler,,rfr.a.rn f:p,/m EyE terr af,era.te:. r^li th turr menrc,ny cc'lr{ igur at ians - the :12 ( a'nd éqh.' Ei'stemE.. Tl.re -.r?k 5.}-Eterrl nequtr'ee. a..ler,..frain A c,l- At) ÀFrd a {lpp,r, Érs; cr:,rrtr.t, lier.r.,.rith at lea.st c,rr e fic,p,p, l'di:.c rlr.irre. Tfre {f. :.},Et*m requiree. tfre Ê)iErsrr:in bc'i' +itt*c t^rith i'4i' e>: tra. F:t-rt'l ifr a.rjditic,r,. :. ltl-rc,ugrh tfre tvrc :.ÍstÊtTrÉ rarcrf irr tfrf EÈnrÉ te.rà)'r 'r'f,u ÍTr:.i i irr d tfràt :RÍTr8 Ë'{ tl-ré [:F"'t1 Fr!''cQr'amE i'ru L"r! =rr tc' f uí-r 'i r.<ill c,rr.i i,f,èr'a.té irr tl'ie i'.rl'i :.'li': Ër'Ëten;. Fc'r'Êxàtrrtrle l^l[tf:[ts:txf wil Orrl i' FUfr 'r, :r ó4 1. e.>':.ten,, The Sàme disce CRlr E'? uë'êd ic'r e ither EY tëm. 2) Enter irr,3 tl're EP/fi zêtènl ":-Fl"i" t,l ith tfre :llf. t.f,/1.1 Sr'st*nr tl-rrs. ÊiÍ-r drre i:'uéino tfrê Ë'-ríïisr,rj rr.e,n, B;E: lrl: C,t Er' t'f e :irrq tfr * StOp' h.e.r' Êrlr FÈ'i^lËrUE. Tfr e Ê'ql. i:'ètenr 'CF'..'l"l CÊ.Í-r Onl r' E,e ËrrtÉr'ed E,r' EÈle;tirrg :.:" ii-è'itr tl-ré :)'ÊtÈ,r;' ÍTrPFrU' Tfr e Él':tÈÍr ii-r itr'rn,attc,ri v.rill E* read iran' dr'i'.',* Ê àl'l titë Ca,F,.r'r,,fr-,r. rtrë=ëà,1ê r^.rill b,* dr:.p'iar*eí. Êt t!-ri= F,':,ir't rf àrr ir,iti-4. ff,tríírirràir rj ha: E,ÉÊFr E.et t,'" tfre Ë;ETll'jlT F,rË'Ql'iÍTr ;t'."ii t'3 Èi':.ÊC'..jtEd. 0ther'hriEÈ th* lj"pryt prtr'mf,t. "Ë,"' t''ri i E* di :'p'l ared. :il Tfr l.;8,r'e'c,3r d Tl-r e l,:,ei'e,c,a.ré c,f,ér'ê.tê: il-r a :l igfr tl.r dr{iêrèrrt t'.rci' tfr è.fr UrrdËi f-r,t,t ÍTr.3. c,1116,tr6,5,-=.. Tl-rË iirst il',ir,.l i: tl-' :t cërlr tf;l:l cc,rfë: r,'lij1 ac,èrate 3.= i:'..j:lrol Undef tfm,. Ïïtr: lrrèêtrr t-haf-! +:'r e'': Anrt'lÊ i'' is rrt imri,ediatelf'fcr::-iele t cfràrrqe the nide,l'i the 5Ën Êr. usirrq crrtr.1..'t.!. T da tfris the cêdes ha.rre tc'eê Eerrt t ti-rè =.cr.éèrr. * tr'tc!: ta get C,urrd this i:. t us.e tl-ië iact tha.t tr,: crítrírahd F,rc,Ëí'.a.ÍTr rè{lècte ufrrêcgqnteat, le crrítrítrlrr,j=. i }'c,u v.ti:h :3i' to nrê,p tlr g(r'een Ela.;k,:,fr rral:rr trrfr itg tr'f,é íc'llc,trine ':ritrl.''i';t cfrtr l.,/cl and rrer,,rl irr e. Tl-rt.tFeerr r,.ri l l cl-rerrrrê {al l t'v,.'ed Er'.a. 'r';'il ta inérca.t* ths.t tl-re ÊC,F,tr.;, prqr'àír ctc,ê=r'-t urr der'etêr'd. Ti,e dez:ireé eï{*ct L.,Jtl'l houtevet. frár.rè Eeen acfriet,éd. Sirrce thè cur.sr. cgrrtr'c, r hme, irrsent arrd escafe l":: Éys a.r'e reail.' crrtrl fie),s.s ttr Ê.e will alec nt have the exf,ected ef{ect' unleê: tfre pr.c,grë.m being run will interprete them' Ctrre e{fect is that cur-fgr. le{t +ten ÍrreE.ns.delete the chê.r'3.cter' rr tfre leit. and shr{t cra.r lef t v.ril {ten rreê.rr delete Ét,Èri'tfr ing n tf: e leít upt tfr G F,r.mF,t (ií a.n>'). Ma.rry PrgramÉ (e.9. WC'RE,STAR) t^rill u. di++ Í' írt cerrtr'c'l ke>'ê fí' cunên mvcments. The l.le,rrbrairr ke;vt,ga.r'd ha: ft,--r'del?te'l-ey. trlhen the delete ke>'i r Ê+Éi eé ta irr EP,/11 dcunrena.t irr Gr in CP/n pnqfanr dcun'er'tat irr tf're crrtr'l,ey s.frc,uld b* used r"rth tfre CtTrrrè ke>' instea'd. F'a.ge

3 L NeurBrain C,f'tn system dercriptin ls.sue 3.0 Thc cntrl 0 t funetinr nh, hrvr n?w m.rningr. Cntrl./0 t cntnl/7 have n e{{ect (they cr'e t hr,vc special meànings under llp/t1), Cntr l,zb wi set e.nd unset the. tel ytrpe caf,ê'. When th is mdc it. set all lettere Le>'ed in will be nrade int cepitrls whethcn r nt the shift kcy is pn"6ted. This is:.imiler tc'tht ld cntrl,/l functirr, Whenevtn this mde ie s3t, the mde will Ere dirplayêd n thr 6ingle line ditplrx in mdel AD NewBr,rins. T btrin the mqan ingi thc cntrlz'0 t cntnl/9 k?ye had prrv iutl y, cntnl,/9 shuld be preseed be{rehand.. The etc'p key hae n ef f ec t. Tfre the ke>,barci perf.tec n e tyfe-afres.d bu{{er, which mcang that àrr)'thing typed in will be etr'ed urrtil tfre rr xt inprlt is ncquir'ed,,. -. 4> Scr.een cdel The ECF fr uêed b>'c.p/11 íe eimiler t the rrr'írr&l scf Êrr editr except it ie much sinrpler. t Feretes. n a 23 br' 8B 6cneen usin r the nr'ítral clraracten Éet. C,;raracters whge tc,f Eit ar'e E.et will displ af &cccrí^ding t tfri cur r'ent TV nrde. lrlher, ',fre et.t cêl urrrrr he.; be*n t)'ë,f! t thr curêc,r :tayr.n the le.st chsr'acter t,ut chs.rrges f r'm & ine t a bl ck tc indicaie tfrat tfre next chànecten t)'ped wi apfrebr' rr the next ine. Thcs.e ccntrl cdes nt isted belw wil Fr?n{nn, n ecticrr D.t tfrc Ír,ÍïrÈhte b,ut tfrey may E,e mede t d smêthing st e later' tinre a.nd E.huld be e etroided. 00H - Null. N actin. 0lH - lnrrrt llnr. Thl lirres Erelw tfrc icrllcd deurn. Thr curr'rrrt line is cl mc'ved t the le,f t hand side. OzH -.Oelcte line. The current line is deleted be w ( i+ eny) er*e scrl ed Up. A b'l ank ine. i: bttm f thr scr?en. 03H [telete t the end f line. The chanàcter at ell chane.cters t the right f it (if any) ó.pe 9PaCe S. 05H Gur$sn ff. Thr cunrr wi calsc t flrlh. \',, curr?rrt in? (if rny) lrc err'ed rnd the currn ir tnd tfre lines nterte et tf'9 the cu:'.r and cnuerted te 0óH Gurrr n. Th curin wi rtert t flerh. 08H BackÉplcc. The cursr i s mved ne rprce tc thc lcft, r i+ it wls n thr le{t herrd tldr t the right hend side but nc { thr abvc inc (the 80th chrtttctar ). í thr cufgr wà3 r.t the tp-le{t crn.nr it ir mvrd t thr tp-r i ght cernfn. CltH - TaÈ,. Splccs. Ànt print'cd until thr clumn numb?r ir multiplc + 8, A new line is taken i{ n?cesllr'y. 3 Fage 2

4 l,leweneirr CP/ 1 e.yatem dcer_riptin t.c.ue -J.0 3 OÉH Cur scrr. dwn. The cunén is mcved ne ipece ds,r^.rrr, cuns.n &nc, rras'at if thr the b,.ittm { the ËcreÉn, tfre ÉcrÊÉFr re and scnlled à blanlr ine up irrserted at tfre t,ttm. OBH C:ur.sr up. The cur.i.crr ie. mved,uf,nnc inr, rlnir,jy rt th tt inr. urrlcé.é it w.t OcH cur'sn right. The cur.sc,r. is. mved ne p:itin r ight t tfre t r' if i t waê be>'c,rrd tfre n ightmst cc,l uíir, r,r,,;i curêr) th b,lck it is- mved t tfrc secnd cíun,n Grr trre rrê), t l ine. 0t'H Ê;r'ra.ige retur'rr. The cur.é.r iê. nrc,rred tc, the.le{t cur'rent ine c{ the H i necr't mc'd. Fur'tfret' trcrrr-cc,n tc,i cfràr ac ier the.cur'er s. a.r.e i psitic'n. neer tc,j at witfr the cf'ara.cter psitic,n Fr'Êviusl> et tf,e cur.ér. and char.acter.e ta tfre rigfrt f it mved t cha'r3'cte''è the right. ver'fltrring tf,* r'igfrt r,anci s.ide lst' c,i ttrf É.cr.eeri ïhie mdi ane is cir,celled wrïen ànc,ther. crrtrl Ê.en t chr.rrctgn. rg l4h Escape. The fc,llntn cnanè.c ter' ie nat irrterf,rete crrtr'l :(8. cce, a sxcept fr 0f whicfr is alr,raye ignc,re. t 5H Cl ear. l ine. The cur ren t i in* is cur'sr ÍÍr\,Êd t tfre lef t hand eid*. wr'itten trrirh ÉFaceE. B.nd the lc,h.et cur.ésr.pasrtin. Fallr,rrirrr_.r tfris. cc,rrtr.c,.i c,:,,je 1r,.,! the next che:'acter.s Êetrt ar.f irrterfr.etèd Ë: tt,*-.iri,n l.r, r.rw ta wfrtcir Frurr!, r. the curggr' ehuld È,e set. The cc, lijmn tr uí:8,èr. Êent Ehuld f tret' Ee The tp nu, ie r'w arrd tfre.,lef trir:t ciumrr l. clumr, is l7h Set Tv mde. Fllwing thie cr,trl ce the rrêxt s'ent char.acter. wil set the Tv Entr^l negister whene.\,er be!ng \ha.t :,cr.eerr ie. di:pla.ve. 0nly bite 0 i.r, ar.* irrter.p,reted. detenmineg Bit 0 tfre backgrund cc, ltrur (0 ÍrrÉB.rr :, E,acr..c,rund da.r.k, bacl'igrund 1 bright). Bit r deter.nrirree hc,;-cnailacï-;, tiith E,it? set ar'e interpr.eted (0 gir.r36 r.evgr.ie charactër.ê, cheracter ;llrzjs ZF É,t). lëh elete. lef t. Tfre ch&facter tc, the le{t t ihe deletid curec,r. ie Lnd sube'equent ch&rb.cters are mved cne péërtri,.rl leít' The tc, tfrê cufer' ir nrved rre p:.itin lef twar.dr.. wrr. + n the thr l rf cur.ëc,r tmrt cl umn f n rc t l n, tlkrn. l?h [re r te. The chari.c ter &t the cursr is. de r ÉuDsequent e tcd rnd chtnacters lrc mved rre Fcitin tc, tfre lef t.!ah - cl can Écr'3en. Thc Écreen ie c cer.cd rnd the cun$f il nrvcd t the tp leít cr.nen. Fage 3

5 (+ NewErrairr C'P/V s)'ê.tem des.criptin sstlê 3.0 BH Ee.cepe2. + th ie ie' {cl t^,ed bv Ànvth ing then then t-r then nc, ac t in is tat<en et the mment ( these sequenceb ene r?.erved {pr, extaneion). l+ it is {llwed b7 '}' then à cnvent ina'l curscr' psi t irr ing ts'kes pl ace ' t"ri tfr the rt{' eddres'e' {llwed by thc cc,lumn }ddr'ct. n this c&3e tfr? tc'p lrft crnlr i s at Z0ti r?0h. CH - Cur'sn hnre le{t. As cer'naige Feturrr' i!)h C:ur.gn frem r'ight. The cunsr i6 616t/Êd tc' the right clumn i.n the ine t.i^iith blcl: cur'esr'/'!eh c:ur:c,r. fruríírè. Tl're CUr'Êr' is mc',,r;d t t-frp t;'c' i*'t l FH - C'l ean ËrF;?ÊÍr. nl= 1Aii... 5) 0ther dev i ces cérrrê1, rnet n t;e 3:2k E.yÊ.teÍïr the PTR: 6,(.ric* i:. e.lurar'ê Set ta tl're Frinter' prt, a.nd the RDR: àrrd PU': de''iceê àrê Eet t the cmnrurr icatic'ne [,Crnt. Tf,eee Are eet to t^l6rk at fi'00 E'Ëuá. lrr +-lrë ó4k Ei'Ëtenr tfre t,rte ueed wi l l E,e in the ei: F Er,E in E'a'r: ur t l l t'p used insteedt but tnese mer- be sfi31tged br u:ing the t:ol'lfitiur pfsr.:ràítr' t CC:SF l.t'c.t E? F'r ge 4

6 í CF'/n utility dcunrerrta.tirr icsue 7,Cr l) rrtnductin Tl-ri:. dcunrent neiens t tfre Fr'Ë,gr'aÍrrÊ.Frrc'vided cirr the NewBrain ËFr,l"l S).E.tem disc thrt àre trtiucëd b,)'cirund>' Eutirresg S>'stemÉ' The:.e pr,c,rjr.áítr:. ar'r F,ar.ticula.r' tc, tfré l..let^le:r'a.rrr ËP'lt'1 É')'Étem and rril'l f r.,r8r.k: Grr.i.n:!. tfrer' cp/:t.l g.:r':teírr. n addi t ic,rr tfrè)' r.vil nt r.rrc,t.f. rrritl-i the [.lgr,,rf;r.a.in 1"1Pt']4:.,ÉtÈtTr (F,r,:,,Jr'á.nr l^tfri'lfr u.rrl'. tlith bc'tfr r,,ri j t,é ie.eue,j t,.rith tfrs l"lf'r'l'1 g:.;:ténr,'. Tfr e:'e Fr'c'graÍrrg sfrcul O ÍrCrt È,e u=ed tfrr'c,ugfr, a. rrett4r'p-ed Er'it*nr '?> FOR"AT Elarrií ÉrÊËÊ.rru=t t,e ig,r'niatte'j l.rith thig Frgr':''ÍTr E'et'rr'e ueé' t^jtrefr it is irrr.,gl..ed it t^,rill à5h. r^tfricr'drlvé ie t Ee u:*d {cr' the te,f.ítrítrê.t-ttnq (rt,ëf;.tic,n. t+ l'r:'u l-ràtjê tr,rrg'erl ltrc'l'è df it'r;el it l= f.écoitrít,értded tc, U=Ê A. di++éf ent C,rr Ê '.:'É:. àrr:'irif -r ;t Ët Of [r áë &F.t,r'.]r[.F' Ët?E'rrdF'r.e Ë'rrÈv.tliFrÉ.T ref'r.c'gr.a.mviilltl-rèi-ra:f'yutc, pli,:*'a Elar, l,: dtsr irr tl'rê et;.t*d Ar ive à.fr d EreÉ-a rt Ér'rrl in*' + i';'rj frb.r/* 3 É.trrBiè ctr'ir.r* Ei':t*nr it i: lflrp'r3f'tarrr at tl"rr: pc'irrt tc' r.eítfc"./* >'c,t)r Ev'iten iisr ;trr d F'la.ce a!'lsrrk di='c irt tlre dr'lt'è' C,tfrÊrr.qiEe lrur' Sr'Êtenr dr:c r^till EËrlCrÍTrÊ iarn'ate'j' TO à\'gié aici,jent: it is 3.!tGC,6 tdea. tc't'tl-rt*-p'r';'tect 'crur Ër'g't*rÍr óie;' i+ ètr.r,inirrg rt,tlr;r. tfra.n rrewl irre ie t,r'ëêeèd at tfri: Ê'C'irrt COntr'C'l '''r iil r.e r-ur.rr tc, tfr i ir.st quegt irr. frr,c* rrer^r lrre E 5'r e:seé the d :'c wi'i be ic,rme.ttecj, At tl-re encl the {iret quèëtic,rr r,r;'l 'l.t'e r'èëëf:: Èd and >'u can {nnrat a.rrthen rjisc, lf i'c'u wi:'fr tc'èi'it tfr a [rl'[rqf&ítr t,r'e:: rrér.\rl ine. Eeir'e i'u dc tfr i: nrahe sur'e tha't a :'l's'tem di:'c i ' in r-i: age.irr. 3) S\'E;CiEN Tlr is F rc,gfam CCF ieê. tfre S)'E tenr irrtc'nnrat iorr Crl'r tfre r Ë:Ér'"tÊCj tracl"e fornr Grre dle.c to ts.frc,tfrèl. TfriS'sl'rC'uld ueua'll.r't'e dirrr e a+tér' a irn,a.tting a rrerrr di:c. Tfre irrfc,rnratic'n g6'piéd r.'rill irr':lue tfré cc,rr{ igur.ai in in{r.nrs.t irr,.rrci th* irt i t iè.i círítràl-rci ine ' l"lher' activa.ted it urill {ir's.t ael'l {r the letter'c'i tfre dr'i"'e ir$n' wfrich tfre System infc,r'nratin is t Ee r'ead. Enter tl're etreí trri the dr.iv8 àfrd preês Írewl in9. The 6)'E.tenr in{qrma,t trr v.ti therr E' r.ead {rm tlra.t dn ive. t r,,ri then ae.l(ed wfrer'e tfre irrir'nra.t ic' rr i: t be urn i t t-en t. Answer th is in the E.è.ntÉ t'rà.! r ànd th* irr{nmat an wi therr be urn i t terr. Th ie quest ic'n t^ri then EÊ r-epeated. TO exit the pr'grarír pr'eéë newl irte Gr crrtr'l'rc' Èr êftr pint disce in the dn ives nriy È'e PËÍrr\rÊd r' r'epl aced 3e-' r equ ir'ed' Page

7 v CF/l"l utiiitv dcumentatin Es'ue 2'0 4) SETNT ThiÊ Frc'gram r^ril s.et ut, an initia' crrrítrand tl'r at t^ri'l t'e executed E,YtheCP/l1G},9f.ÊíTrtrl r lrcld-btingtlres),stem.frexamplc'yu 616;v r^rieh a.t.^,ai.s'ià u=*.^j6rdstar. r'16àn tfre t'r'(rqf 3'Tr is a'ct ivated i t 'UJE:tt witl pnmfrt *l if, '>'. Type irr the cmíïrènd )'u t^ris'h e'g' an prcée newl ine. + yu wiet-, t c ea.n the in i t ial cmmerrd iu'-t -ff,* Fr eêe nev,rl in". irr i t ial ;t**n6 g'ri then r'ef r' tsce thc pr?\' ius Cllr.TleÀr.l t.rècírí03rrduírc rangedpnegécntr'l/c.ntetherttllre ÊÍrrÍÍr*.Frd t,,i l l t,e E.et crlt tlrp Jl*a i; 'jr irre A:.'1'l r'' F''l ace i t lr t-l-rer,ji E.cË.i,f,u ÍTruËt either f?erêtst tfre 5rf cr$fa'íïr c'r'g'ï'::ciel'l t'ê tfre ther disc:. 5) E),iT T r is pngr.am exite the C'P/ "l g;,,stem. n tl-re case + the:{2k CP/ 1 gr.gten, tfre scrèen v.rill gc,blank tenrg'c'r'irilz' E 'ir:'r'p neetarting Err-ic;lc:. l^lhi'l e thie i: ccuning )'t,: Ír ê)'t'reeé 1i-rÊ Ei'c'F' i'e)' t'c' r.eerrt*r f:p/l'1 irrstee.d (a.s' n!rrlrt'rfrue'i' ht itl-' tl're c''ll E>'StÊïr tfre ÍrrRirrÍTrtr'utrrillresFFear'and)'crucanth Freele':t'Éurne:lt pl GOr &ÍTt. ii ) 5[ CtF t' Thi: ië a F'rc'Qr3'nt.,i.,3t cc'f',v.ê a dig'c trac.' b.r, t.ra'c '. u.ll. Én frí-ri.r' 3. :irr..-,., e drit.e Ê ar'.:']:t,. e, TrrÈ r.è1r'.:c? tc.iill t re F:rrl'l r,.rit. ts. ÍriJCF. a.ê 'r-,::itlê {r'c,m tfre g.g,sr'cê ci isg Srrd tfr rr rr'rr'ite tfrie' t'l' th* de=tirre.tit,rr diec. l^tl-rerr tl'rè prcrqraítr i= :'tarted uf it r'rri EaY,,F. lê.:e E.Ë.ni-.ce Éis.g in,jri..re rl:", Ír, is t,,rill therr t' readl 8'rrd therr itrarille,a..'*.,placedestina.ticndie.cin,jri(.lee:''.tl-risurilit r rr bev.rnit}.ente.t ref.r.cese.u',illt.erepeat.edlurrtiia.tt re?rrdit uril.l s.a.y 'TyF,e C t cntirrue with anther ct'.r* penatign r' netll ine t r'e turn t the 9y 'teírr" ' r') [rëof t' Thie i: a. FrgrS.m t cf:t'e di:'c t^jhén t dr'ir''eê êrè availa't'le' t^jfrén it- Ete.rts up it t"rill sey "FlaÊF - c'urcè di:'c irr dritre Ê3 and,jes.tinatic,n disc in dr'ive B! àrrd t:'p'e S (r'1'9141 i;'rp tc' quit)"' Anr cttren l,iey wil caus.e t[; Pr'c'gr'aÍtr a'er t ' A tra'cl:' b/ tr'a'cl';.t per.atin wiit therr take placer- &rrd the rigirri'l pr'rtrpt will rea.f,peer. This png &ÍÏt te. il.l nl>, rlrl( n tw sin,ilerl), CCrt.tf iguned drives. i.ptp Efruld Ee us'ed atherwise)' C:SF 13./5'/83 F'a ge Z.

8 + CO.FCiURE pfgnaíír dcumentat i n i :.Eue 1,0 l) lntnductian Tfre l.ler^rerain C.P,/11 COiF6URE Frgnanr wfrich will r'un under btl', 32K ènd é,41( CP,/F\ s),steírr: a'l rars tfre user' tc, :e t h is CP/n Systenr a.ccër'dirrg t the t>'fe { die'c dr'ivee a.rrd deuices fre wiahee' t uêe. The irr{r.mat irr is F,FC,ce:E.ed arrd wr i tterr i.c, the finst Êectr + the i in:.t tr'acl.: c'i tfre dr'iv Eg,Ëc t + ied a t the eírd. Th ie' inic,rnrs.t in is tl,ue cf' ied dur irrg SYS;CiEt'l s.rrc des' nt af {ect the { i e: c,n the digc. The irr{c,r'nrat in i: crrrl }' r'ea.d in at cgl d bc't timer Ê. urilí'nc,t ta.ke trce until tfrat ccur'8. t^lfrsn a sld bt crccul.sr the cc,n{iguratin in{c'r'n,atirr ie rea.d {+ the diec in F,hy:.ical dn ive 0 (usual y A: ). The in{ë,í-'nra.t icrn n discs in 3.nv ther' dr.iue:. ie igrrc'red. The csní igur'e.t ic,n irrf crírrat in is used in E,rftfr C.?,/11 syetems àrrd in bth the pa.ged è,.frd ngn-t,aged tilsctt E r's t enrs. 2) 9tar'tir'g uf Fr.nr the C'.CF pr.grtrpt (á)i errter C:O '{FGUF: and F,reEE newl ii-,e. hlfreh r.urrnirrg the Frgram, a.t a.nv F,c'int tfre u:.èr' ÍÍrêr' atrandn the FrqraÍïr E,)' t>'pirrg Crrtnl./C. a.nd FrC, CfrS.nQÊ '^ ll l Ee ríta.de. [,.lherr a.rrsrr.fer.rng a que tin tfre cf'/l'1 line editr' cslr EF used t crrect artêr^rêr.e. rrce newl ine hae beerr F,ressed it is rrt F,EE.ible t cr'rect airt'err'r'ë.. Tfre XSUB utility nra>'prvè useiul. 3) Crr{ i gur i ng tlre d i sc s 3.1) Hr,^r nra.ny disc dr'ives da >'c'u t^rieh t cc,n{igur'e Errter. tfre rrumb'er C,f di:.c dr'i.*,eg there are in >":'ur' S>'Stem. TfriS r,,,ill UÉUall), be a mèximum { 4t but ÍTrA)'t,e nts,r'ê if vu frà.v A f,ar.cj disc t have a RAM dis.c íac i i t>'. i { i'c,u Êt,ec ii.r nrc,re than tfrére are the {lpp>'disc crrrrrtr'c'ller will rrc't at''i8ct' hut tfrer'ë t^ri l l be e..stnarrge del a>' c'f a {eur EecrrdË rr cc,l d bc't ir'g tlh i l e the csrr trl l en at temp ts t r eca.l i b'ra.te the uf:ê t tached dr'i ve:'. Fr.Crm now 9l'r the queetins will be agked {c,r ÊàCfr dr'ive. 3.2) trlha.t ie the phyeical dnivê rruiírbêr (UEuall>'rr) This give: the hardware dr ivc FrutrrErÊr t be dr i vcs. Ueuel y yu shul d rêgprrd with thr ií vu ha.v: herd discs r FA' disc {ac diííer'cnt-. used t 3.cceÊÊ the sugget.ted vtluc, but ilitr'c tl-rc> nrly be Page t --''.;,..i..:; -i'"*n4jil.;.; ránvr*:d,'i'r,-.'.

9 g CO.FGURE FngreÍÍr dcumentat in se.ue.0 3.3) trlhat is the gep length (usually 42, \au shc,uld alwa>,s. entec 42 unlees ygu ccntnliers. har,re ether disc 3.4) Nhat is the gef length n fnmatting Yu shud at^re'"ë. errter 40 unleee )'u have s.tr'arrge disc dr' ives.?.3t t.,.ll'r;t is the spec i al F,ararÍteter' b:'te f th* dni,.re (usus. ll>'crt This r,,rill b,e.0 ue.ua.lly tfrr.retr settir,g cer'ta.in bits frar.rs cer'tairr irrtene:tirrgl ef{ects.. Setting bit [t r..rill ca.ue.e data tc'è,e rea.d and wr itten t tfre disc in inverted f c,r'nrat. This càfr Ere used f n p),èítrf,le u.rhen rea.dina nra.ru' Super'Brain disc {c'r'nrats, Setting Eit t^ril i. cause the disc cntl er tc, d:,ut'l e the tracl.i rrurrrber wherr seel; inq a cer ta. in tr ack i tfruel'r tfre c)'l inder rtunre'er' irr the Ê.ec tn s.eanched ir urill remain uncl'ra.nged). Thi: càn be ueê+ul {er' reading a 4L1 trac!, s per irrcfr t.tfl) 'lc'rmatted di:.c trritfr a.?é, TP dr.ir.'e. t is nt r.ècmrrende t urr i te t B diec in tfr is nrcrdp as i t me)' rrt t'e r'ead bv ê. 4S TP dn i'.te. 3.é) telhat is tl're seek rate {r' the diec in nrill is-ecrrde. C:nsult tfre tecl'rrrica. ma.rrua. fr' tfr.e dr'irte >'c,u ene us.irrcr a.n,j enter irr tfre cc,rf?ct c,alue, f irr dub,t 3! i: :a+e Eut sl,f,t.'.,. J+ the drir.re he:. Eeerr E.up,p'l ied b'r' C;rur'd.r' Elu:ir'esg. S;'--..tems tfre r.ra. lue )'u r'equine e.fruld t'e -suffl ied. 3.7> klfra.t is the sectf size (51? r lct74') Tfre disc ctrrrtr'sllen and SUF,F,r'ts tt.r sizes { ph1'sical sectr' Ei:e, 512 àrrd tf-t24. Hweven the Ec,{twa.re t,rri r,nly'sutt'r't a Sl: b>'te sectn unle:s.an E.pctr' r^ril b'e ur:ed. e)ífè.rrsirr Ec,x i: u:.ed. Ll:ually E Sl2 blte 3.8) Hc'u,r nra.rr )' Eectns are ther'e t'er trecl'. Tlr is quest isn re+ens t t he n uírrbe r' c'{ Fl'rys. ical sec tre (l.l0t CF'/l'1 Êectcr't) there are Per tracl(. lf 5'25 inch discs tre being ue.ed thene is a maximum f t0 (which is the us.u,b.l t,alue) lr :'12 byte sectc,ns and 5 lctr' lq'/.4 È,yte s'ec tn:.. Fege 2 r. r., :.j - : * r' {i' : ài' f.l.. t l. ii ll#i;lé.*'-rái,i, r-;g'i'- :, :-; :{.; r,

10 9l COl.lFlCURE pnsgr'am dcumentat in gsue 1.0 3,?) t.lfrat is tfrt cl,.cw íectr' (usua.lly 0) l.lr'nral v yu wi errter 0. Th i:. is because when )'u f nmat a disc the cntr'c'ller r.rill ha.rd-{r'm;.t the mst ptinrum el.,er.rr factr'r-rrrt tfr disc. Hwe,,,er )'c'u ma)'wi6h tc, use t s{tware FHeu, tg r'et.d ther f nmats + disc. Fr' exampl e ÍÍràr'ry SuperBra.irr {rma.ts use e. :.l4etr{a.ctc,r f 2, The skeur {a.ctn ie.ne gr'eater tha.rr the nunreen a{ F,hl.sical E.Éctns ekip,p'ed b,etweerr needing efctrt.gn l. trasf. irr the lc'gical l)' car'nect crden. 3.10) Hw mani'sides dc,ee the dritre l'r3rre (1 crr 2't Enter fr,eingle sided'dr'irres anrj? fr' dc,ut, le-sided drir,res. Yu may { ËGur'se errten {r' a duble-e.ided dr'ir.re i{ }u wi:.h t nead a singl e sided disc in i t. + yu answer 2 ybu rrti therr be a.slr.ed: 3.t0.1) Ar'e the tracl,, E nunrbered... + )'cu fr3.\rê a daut, le-:ided dr'irre.r'u can eitlrer usè the tr'acl<e. n crr e side c'+ the diec ic,j ler4rgrj E,)' tfre tra.cl'1 E c,n the C'tfrer' Ê.icie, r.r'cru can use { irs.t a tr a.cp. Grr crrré E ide, tfreh c. tr'a.cl,; n the ther. { r'c,u urish t use the tr'mer' tfren r'epl>', i+ th; latten (trrhicl'r i:. nrgre e+íicient arr d is the ueuêl l.ler^lerain tc,i-íírts.t) tfrêfr t' [r'l r'7, l'1arr>' a. ien tr'nr;.ts \e.è. SuF,ËrE,ra.in) dc, htrèr,rer' u:-è thè i,:rmer C fr Ífr. :l.11) Hc,r.^r marrv track:. F,Én srcie are thene Fr tfre die.c Tc, a.nsr.{rer' this queetian )'cu shuid r'e{er tc tfrè tecfrrrica. ÍTr3.rruè. + the disc dnive. Fr a 5.2=, irrch drir-re nrltrèl y i,t t,.ri be 4Ct f n a 48 TP dn ive and 80 {r Ë\ 9'd TP dr'ive. 3.12) Ht.r ÍTrany tra.ck ane reser'rred tusually?) The usuel aneujen urill be?. The F.''s.tem infr:,nni.itirr in tfré NewFrain sy:.teírr tre.c14s tal:e uf 7H È,>'tesr and tfre r?=.er'ved traclrs ehuld be enugh ta hld this 3.17) t^lhat is the blcksize in Kbytes (ttrlzr4rgr Gr' ló) UE.ual ly it wil Ee Z {n 40 TP s.inglez'duble :.ided dr'ives and 4 ín ÉCr TPt dubl sided dnivec. Other'{rmat dis.c:. trr&>/ }rb.\r3 ther blcl,:sizes. lí intrc,ducing a. wier'd fr'nrat a. rule { thuírrb is t use E,l aclisize that wi give i-bu be trrreen l2ê and 7=l3 blcks. The nrs.ximum huríreer + E,lcks. is 5t?. Ctrrce )'Ë,u fràtrê èhehr F?d thie questin tl're Frgra.m will te'l i'c,u tfre disc ca.pa.c ity. Th ie nray be ess tha.n the advent ised ca.pac r tl {r ttrr r ag.rrs. Fir.stl y it des. nt incl ude the EF,ace {r the EyÊ.tem Pegc 3 r,l-ir, -,-,,1#,'.j ;i-g ;4;-;rf i:j *Ï;t r;e'i:-+trtj..&i.,i - ^,,

11 ...: L'. i -.. CONFGURE prgram dcumentetin rsue l.cr tracke à.rrd :.ecndl), it will be e multiple í the brlcksize and àny dd àíïlcrufrt is unubcd. Thie urill be the vrlue displr.ycd uhen d i ng a 9TAT OF;fi:. 3.18) Hvr man)' entr ies ê.í'e tfrer'e in the directc,ry (mul tiple s+ n) Usua. lly tfrls will Ee the lwest huíírt, r' F,ssit,'l e. lí it is greaten than lzer tfren a méseàge r^iil be utput r,.rhich s.tates tha.t Grrly 128 entrie: u.till t,ê cl'reck-ed. This metsns. tt-rat tfrp C:Fr'l'1 sygtenr r^rill nly suíïrchecli tfre {irst 129 dinectr>'entr'iee. rrr its s.vst nr rrrhich detects trrhether' the discs haue t,êbn cha.rrged EUr'ret'titiusl>'. 3.1t-) s the disc rerrc,va.ble (1=),esr!=;1 g,) U:.ua.l y a.rrsr{rer', Eut {r rrgh-r' írr\raerl e frard dis.cs and RAí dis': {acilities it mê}'be rrrërf Ê e++iciër,t ti sr; Ë.r,.,àr [t. + yc,u ànêurer [t the f.p/11 s>'steíïr t,.rill nc't uee it: directc,r.r'sumcl'recf. É>Etenr tc, detect rà'hêther' the di:.rs fiê.rr b'een cfr anaed. 4) Cc,n{ iunirrg d*vices Tfr i s i rr{c,r'me.t i rr i -. nl >' u:ed irr the c,.il. E:F'/14 si':.teírr. t deecn ibe the d*rrice: that Àre atta.cfredtc, tfre f.p'.2'11 lc,gical cjel,icef (OFYTE i: frc,t us.ed). E;trea.rr 0 r.eier.e t tlre l:e.''!rg.3rfr, strea.m r'e{er'e. t the s.èr' Èn. s.tr'ea.n'? r'e{er'e tc,the F'rir,tÊr, strea.nr 3l re{ers tc, the reader'zlpurrth a.nd s.tr ea.n,.1 ie. {r Lei't'c,a.rd s.ta.tu3. \E,U Sir C'Uld t.êée,efro e.e.f;, ll irr Ull ÍTrÊ3.tr =..i U:t fr Êhrline): Str'e;.m 0 Str eam 9tr'eam 2 Stneam :{ S:tr'ea.m 4 l9 (nra.,'- t,e é. ÈFr Eu-rÍTrp t,tc,tc,t>.f,!i r tlt. rrull 1Ë, O, null ló, 0, L0 17, 0, rq 3r 0r null 5) Finishirrg at the end it tr,ill asl,. )'C,U r^rl'r ich dr- ive yc,u r^l is.l'r the Cc'rr {iquratir' in{c,rmatic,n tc, be r.^rl' i t ten tc,. Tfr i e i s. )'Ë,ur a.: t cha.rrce t- Fress crrtn1,"c. :í A th*r, rep,lr'0. i+ B then etc. Th* in{rmatin will then te written tc, the disc àrrd tfre Er'r'àÍTr rrii l l {inis.h. csp 3./ 4./83 Pa.ge 4 ; -*; i;.;j,..;;.'. ir.,i';.,,. -,',;*gt4i li:.i.,

12 tl OeEcniptin f the l'ler^rbr'arrr DStO Ey terír íssue l.[l lntr'uctien Th* Ner^r6r;.irr [rl5;[:10 E)zsten, F,r'vides the àbilit). f at.e.embler F,Í'trgra.ÍÍr. cí^ frigh-level language Fr'gr'EÍïrs (e.9. BAglC, COl"lALr tc' uëe the f ac il it ie:. í the í.p,/11 7,7 di:.c f il ir-rg E.ystem, wi thut a.c tual r' c'perat ing urrder' CF,'l"i. Tfr ie is. dne E)' pru iding 4 dev ice dr'i.,rer':., derrit*:. l2-15, whicl-r r.^rfrè[r c:. leci in tl-ré cc'r'r'ect rra.nnër. Frc,t.riËlÉ the pri,r-lra.m r^rrth s.er'i;l :.ri d r-ind,f,nr êc:ése ta disc iiles, Errd tfre at,il i't:r tc r'ead a.nd'uf,date th,i directcr)'. TfreE.e der.ricei B.re a,.raila.b, le undef È,i,tfr the F,agÈd arrd nl-,rr-f,a.ged l.ler^lpfain Gper'a.t i ng E)'E terrg,, F,r'v i cied tha.t tfrè d i Ec Ctrtrl l et b,è'x t s FÍ*ÊiPfrt in tfre Ér' ténr. i,s.c0 {iles Since [,]5[.0 u:è:. the f,p/11 2,7 drsc iirr,g s):-tem. the {ierri..írrê u:.*d aré the saítrê aë us.ed b)'f:f.'11'1?,7. Tfra.t is àfr ptin:. dr'ive iderrtrtier' r,rhicfr ia a drive l*tter is, l'l sr^16s1 by a. calnr Ê. l-g cfràra.cter f ilèfràítrê ptic,r,al:'ic, l lr,.red Ei à.n exterre.in t^lfricfr i:. a dc,t {c'l v.red E.i' -.:t cha.r'a.c ter':. E;l tr a. ch3.r ac ter's irr e i tfrer 'i ie d a.r'e te[ri,f d. E,.,: an,f, leg.c,{ f il*treítréé. a.r.e FF;E[,, F,F[rt-:F;ÊilÍ.ErAÉ,, á[r d fl stl.[t!rf.ë.[lf"i, trjfrsir,:,f,enin:r á. tile!,ëru rrr ill frts.\r tc' F.pÊCif), the i i l ;rla.íïrè. rr EÊ,nrg :,p'ec ia'i c ir'cunrë tb.rrëèë. i'g,u ca.n use arírt igucru =. íii;na.ítre=.. rr tfr*s.è tra:f=.r a ':!' ie a.'r..,.rildcard" char.a.cter., B.rrd a. 'r' ÊFeci+r':. t-h:t tfre r'e=t c,f the f i*ld i:. tc,b,e cmprleted witl-r r^rildcar'd ch3.ra.cter:.. Fr.ei.á.ÍrrF, le rr?:'r' +riil nr;.tch:1, ZT, : etc., à.rrd "r.c:l"i" will matcfr ceri)e.[:l'1, As;lr.ccrl.1! s.t*t.c:01"1 Étc. "i.ii" nrè.tche a. ll {iles. tjfren àn.unànrtriguc,u: {ilêrró.írre ie. r'equir'ed there sfr uld te ttr-r Gccurr'encÉ-s. G+ r'àrr c'r' ";'rr. All lettere in íilefràítrèë àne cc,rrver'ted tc' cs.f,ita.l 'l ettens autnra.ticall>'. Oevice 12 BDSCO Thi:. pfcruides a cgírrpletel>'birrar;- iile serial 1/O {a.ciliti'. lzjherr GF,er'irrg the device the F,ara.n'eten :trirrcr Ehuld Êc,ntairr è.fr UrràírrEriguus í i l ename. The br'tee. + tfre { i 1e cè.fr therr E,* r'ea.d crr' writterrr depending gn whetfrir the file wa: perrêd ír' irr5,rj1 c'r utf,ut. An attempt t read {nm a í il e c'féfrêd f c,r' c,utg'ut r' wr'ite t a {ile pened fn input will r'esult in nc, actin. An attenrp, l t read F,a.st the end { f ile will r'es.ult tr-r á.n err'c'r. Nte srlatg'1rs;- tha.t the C.F/n íiling eystem dc'ee.frc,t rír Ë.1,: È rrtè c'l the end c,f {ile àrrd É the end sí f ile er'r'gr'v.ri1l rret Ee ra.ised until tfre la.et sectr frb.ê beerr entinely read. E,e,.ricÉ l: i: r'ec.=ítrnrèrrded {err :.avirrg Errd la.ding BASC and COl"lÊL F,Í'Ggr'8.ÍTr!1 3.rrd fc,r' rea.din,_:r irr as.enrbl Ér pr'gr ams a.:sembl ed bv, CP./l"i ËÊsenr!,i er' irrtc, ê Ë:itt1 i il e. All utput f ile stneams must he cl:ed. lila:rrrg-i è.f, irrput iiie ha.e n ef{ect but it is advised that Fngnams gl,c,ild d eg. --.: t.:. Pege

13 (L NewBrain ETSCO syst m descriptirr isrue 1.0 Oevice l3 - TDSC0 evíce l--'1 ie extr.emel>, eimilan t device 12, Eut panater in à urev Êc' the.t tevt f il ee. cr'eated by e CP,/1.1 editr Gr krfd pncefe.r can be read n wn i tten. Wher, utput ing t à { i e t,ened by dev ice l3 e line-t'eed ic. insented a{ter. eueiy carraige r.eturn, and AH iê tr'eated àê à f ie tenmine.tar which is utpu whren clsing 1.re {ile. Liliet{ise when neading {nm& f ile pened b,y deuice l3 linefeeds'aré ignr'ed èrrd AH ie tr.ee.ted a.s an end c,{ *íle indicatr.. t+lhen end-{-{ile is reached lah ie neturrred wherr it"lput is called, 3:::::_11_:_lt scr c' 7.'---- Deuice l4 pr'videg the f acil ity + nandm f ile accese. ts F,crwèn is hurer,rèr'fan gneater tharr tha.t f CP,/1.,1 rarrdm {ile facility as it t,r'c'\,ides {r' recr'dg. c)+ va.riat, le.-ize {r.c,n, Eryte t tfre max imum l'1h.vtes t b* read ar' r^rr'i t ten e.t eny t,a: i t rn uri th in the f i e. Fi i es 4r'e pened in the sê.ítre fià.hrrpr. ee. irr dev icee. L? B.[rd 13" tfrugf, in tfr ie casè i t ie. immater ial a= tc, r,rhethen tfr e der",ice ig. r_,l,pn i,:'r irrg,,:t c,n utg,ut. Once e {ile has t, 8h pened b}, device 4e è.rr), Ê. quênce È,* rea.d:. r'rqritee cê..n be per{r'med. Fe{re each ie dc,ne a.:.i>r-bytp hêàder. Eequence ÍrruÊt t'p Ê. rrt t the der,rice. This cgrr Eis.ts f tr.v thr.êê b'>'te b in;.r.r" nuneer'e c,f trth icfr th Írrc,E.t a ign i{ ica.rrt h,r,te:. :.frc,,.r'i d t,è ssrr t {rr'rt. Tfre iir:.t numeei.ê.[,egi+'r,: the p,c,:.itirrr r,.riil-rin +i. e tfrat the 1./Et ig t crírrtrrêrrêê irm. áfrd therr il-r e l*ncth t,i àr?3 that ie 'ic' be tnansp.uted. lje i ther' r-r{ the:.e truírre,bf.s shc,u ld frb.\r their nr6:t eíerr i{ica.nt bit eet, l,.lfrethen the tr.e.në.f,utatic,rr i= B.!-r 'input r' 3.n utput ie deter'nrined È,)' tfrè rr Xt t'cr té,ee perfcrr.1;r d. The pr'gr anr tfren must e i tfrer r'ead r v.rr.i te thp nunrben c,i bytes tha.t he Êpec i{ ied the ength + the tr arrsputat in t be. t^lfren tr'ans.e.ctic,rrs with a {ile ha.,s Eeen ccmp'l eted. then it mus.t be cleed i+ it ha.e Eeen updated, and slruld in an), caêe be c sed.! t is werth nt ing that tfre c,f/n í i ing EyetÊÍÍldr-'e.Z h Cr t prv ide {c,r the del e t in { B.reaE nc, nger r.eu ir.ed irr a r. a r' donl f iler s if device t4 is t t,ê used {n à data. base {a.ci it;" ther, eithen the da.ta ba.se s).stem shuld reuse r.edundà.rrt ar.ea:. C'r es shau d pr.v i de f n cpy i ng t a new regtr.uc tur'ed íile s.nd deletin + the ld {ilc. Exanrp e l 0 OPEt*l4, l 4, "TEMP 20 ll.lfut( "STARTtNG ADDRESS. )XrGOSUBl00 30 NPUT( "LE{GTH,')XrGOSL B00 4G LNPUT(, 'PUT OR OUTPLÍT?..)AE: t FAll=,'0, THET, c.o 50 FORA=lT0X C+ETl{14,Y PUTy:NEXTA r put 3:60TOZ0 é0 LNPUT ('STRNG?')At:FORA=0 TC X-l 70 PL Tflt 4,t'41D$.(At3,A+ 1-( NT(A,/LEhl(At$) rlef{r.art ) ) ) :t.jeiita: GTO?0 t Cc 0 PUT{ 4 r X/é553ó, ( X,/23é) At.tO2SS, X- ( NT (),1./?Sê, ) r:5é, ) : RET

14 (j NewE:r.ain i)lgc:tl e.)'etem dee.cr'iptic,n issue 1.0 Dcvica l5 gc,lgctcl ThiÉ F,revides the ia.cil ity { rea.dir,g i.rrd upda.ting the directn>'. t^jfrerr pcned n pá.r3íír3tcné. afe requined r.nd tht prt numtrrn lhuld be 0 " The prcrgt Enr inter'aste u.rr th dev ice dr iver by meané + csnduct ing tr.arreact ic'n5. ThÈ F,rgram wi { in=.t t"lr'i te e dec inra.l digi t t thc dev ice t indicetc v.rhrt k r nd f tnrrrrect in ir' r.equir.ed. EaCh l'r Ers its Ou\,rr numeer. UJ'ren pas:.ing parë.metent t d*vice 15, sf,ages, T*Bs, and nev.rlines ane q,ralid 5ÈFanatr'E. hfhen receiuirrg results {rnr device 15, a. rreutl irre char'ècter will nrank the arrd c,f the r'eeul t. The reet c'+ the tr'ansa.ct in ciepende n the rruíírber', The var i cuê. tr anë'act i rrg are! T:,pe 0 - [relet;iile. TakeF.aE.Ê.r-luÍÍrÊi'rt rn tsmb,iguc,jë f ilefrêíítê and deletee all {ilee ms.tching it. l',l r'es.ult ia retur'rrè'j. Tr.ie - Rerrame{ie. Ta.}<es B.s ê.rgurírentê trlc unarírbiguus {ilenamee, ànd cau ÊE the {lr'e.t {ile t Ee r' h3nrêd es the sesnd tilerrame, N r'eeult ie retur'ned. Tï;,? Select di:.c, This tel,.e.: a. c;.p,ital letter tss ar'gument ir:t:ca.tirrg tlre new defa.u'l t riu +Or' al'l Ê'u3:ÊQuerrt dis'c GF,Èratic,rr s. N r'e:.ult is rêt,jrned. Tvpe :< Seanch {r. { ine.t. Tfr i:. in i t iatès a directr';v eéar'ch prccès9. Ttris ta.hee &[r a.mbiguc,us {ilsnb.trr 8.8 ê.r!uírr?rrt e.nd retunng ti-ie {iret f ilerraííre matchirrg it. l+!-ir'itrêtëh rg {ur'd tfrêrr à frull :.trirrg is rétur'ned. Tf,pe 4 Sear'cfr {n ÍrÈ)it, ThiE muet rr'l ;'Ee callei a.{t:r a tzpe :{ trr. 4 trarre.actin. tt tal,.eê.rrrr ts.r'!uít,prit Erut r'eturne tl're lréxt matching ii'l efrè.írré. + nc íurtl'rer nratch ie. {gur,d therr e ncil str'ing is re turned. T>,pe 5 Return default disc, This tal<es n ar'gument but returns a letter giving tfré cul"f rrt de{ault ÉiEc. T>,Fe 6 Ree.et disc É',Étem. ThiE talies n êrgunrerrt Bi-rd n neeult. This r'eë të the t'f',/11 f illng É)'stem. Separatns.between a.rgurtrënts. can be ccmíriaë, nêtàjl irreê, r tae=. Res.ults retunned will Ere ternrinated by e t,ëwl irr. Exrmplr { u6a! T btalrr e {ull directnv f a. drive. 'l lg Lll.lFUT (.telhich "')e.j dnive da wísh e dir'ectr)' + 20 a!ébchr$(agc(aíè) 0R 3?> 3Ct tf ac('r" OR ri)"d" THE]'{ PRNT 'Dr'ive must b: Ê '- - 4g OPENi 5r lstprtntl{tsr 3rr!F{ r' l*.x' 30 Lt.lPUTflt5,e.tÈr tf a3()"thei.l PRTNT aí tprll.ltfll5'4:6oto ó0 CLOSEà15:END 50 Pr.ge 3

15 ítt l.letre:rain irlsëtr g)'e.tenr desc; iptin ie:ue 1'l:l C) S;Cl O l-lc'dul s.r i t>' Tfre t,l:,t l r]t mc,du i * r'equ ir'ee thr ee sub'f u t irre-= t t'* F'r crv ided a: e),: ter'r'èl rc,utine:. 1;11ft.Fl'l, Et{[rCFl'1, Èrrd BtlOS; ' Tfie {ir'et tt^tc'3'r' tal led l^th*rr an)' f,i de,.,icee l? tc' l5 are É'F'err ed c'r' clt':ed' BttR!; iz e\t,"sted tc,perfrnr tl-rè e*rmè {urrctiar, a: tl-r e tlf,'l'1 Bt)5 {urrctic'rr' Tfris F,Fr,ri,Jes. ic,r' tl-re use c{ the trlgf: rlr nrdule v'ritl-r 3 CF'21'lCtS Ê.>..;tenr tc, a. llc,,,,.r èccees. t tfr e cerr trbl iiiing r'gtenr r',rithin è1 rfetrr!ë'r.f.. Ctr wha.tèr.rs; LlF'.,'l"l CCrÍÍrp'atiErle Ei05 Sl'ÊtÊnt is UtÈd' Te;frrrical nc'te lrjherrarridlgr-:l0de'.'iceir'perre'!tl'recf"'l'liilinlre>'ëtertrls inr.rc,duced, a.nd t,)'cainq ttlitc'pt'l c'r El'{t'fF'l'l 3 uëe E'lruFtt r"'i Ee rbt[rta.irred. li the U:e COunt {all: tc'0t tl-re Êt'a':e ra}:'err tr'' tfre {i'l ir,g :i,=.tpítr ÍTlà.} 8, r'elinquisfred. ThenP t+ri'l nt Ee twc'gg'piee r-,i the {il irrg :.)'=tenr A.t à.rrr' Brr e tinre' rr tfre [rr!'l-r -['aged ='r'ëtêíír t-fre {iiirrg Ê..r.st*m lri'l r.:.ê.-; :;:,-t-?r r':'\'tá:.. r' t'l-rê F\a'led g:'gtèn' il-r* tri!:rl. lr-; :,vgt*rrr cla.inr: Ë.Fi *rr tire Fá'J tê'i- it= Ërr'irr rieê' Er r r' [r urr,rl'?f E l5r-r - ElË,: iri*rrts.m8. Ti-re iilèrràltr8 Fti-Ê"!i'jed ae F'à'rá'mtetÉr L'tl-r ÊFr c,;*r,irr,l d?(.'lc e i2, l!': Ë'F l4 Qr E euice 15 àf'f'jír*frt i: E.r'Frt=.Cticaili. irrc.c,r. ggt-' F is -"tï'eic'ic"j: t^rl-r Ft it Êl'r Ê'rlld F'r't' b'e' ;51 rrc,,.ll errrtr, Erther' a pl-ri'sicel 'JiS':?FF'l':- fr3ec'c':tjrrgd Or tfré Érrd-c,+-iil* l-rà.5 h'een reacl-reci CrFt ielri':; 1!' 15t - ftut-fut tfré 'Ji-'c frêe er.r.ftrr..eit.rerà'e, r1,:ica. discer.f.crr. -rê.êccurredr. te;.:'nre {ui. 153 [tirectc,r)'enr'c'p. A {ile requested dc'?ê nt eilist irr the directar},lt redinectcr.>,is*u. l,rtl.rerêt^le.s3'ph>,eita.ldigc er'r'r' r,.rh?fr r'ee.di rrq i-he di r'ectr'1" 134 lr'i t i al i :'a.t i c,n c,a.,jed. e i t-irar' due tc pi- rr. Tne ËP"1"1 { i irrg sr'ë tenr cu d nc't be lacl.l { ÍÍrPtrrc,Ft'i n a. disc {-e'ult' Tr.a.rrÊ.èCf-ic,n errrr. Witfr derrices 14 Ërrd 15, irrputtit"rg t"'therr &Fr autput rz.ltse XprgctÈdt Gr' u ice venea'' l:,é, lrlt F,r.t zer. 0pening de'ice l5 with ts hh-iêl'c'fc'r't' 157 Filer'átTr8 t lc,ng. A {ileh3.írr? Fresented t gerrice l5 ig t':'ê' c'ne, t 59 - Trensàc t ic'n t>'pe ennr ' de,.,ice ts is illegal. Arr transac t in nunrt'er' Ftr'eÊenterJ ta t5f, Rarrdc,m tra.neput erff. AttenrPt t sccess a 4ile be>'t'nd Er l'tb>'tes., c,f È lerrgth { Z r'c' l-r3 ' b'eerr EFeci{ied' F'a ge 4

16 r> a a l.jerrrfnain tilsë10 s,)'eteíír descriptin issue 1,0 t^jith s.c'ítre pfry's.icai disc err'rs, a. mesê.age ma.i'be c,utput t crregl e in a.ddi t in t tfre ernr cndi t ir:n t,e irrg ra i:ed. the CS.F' ( r'5./83:t F;';; 5

17 tb lss,^c (. q/+/s3 f-p r^+1rcté$ a.u Fr'rQhr r ss{^q. s. l.ler,.rer'ai n F,aeed nremr>' c,fenat i rrg systenr l) rrtnductisrr Tl'r e f',lerr.rbrê.ifr F,aged nrerí'c,r')'fer'ating s)'stem allt^te. the trlewera.in t use ÍTrE,ne nreítrc,r). tl-rsrr the nrma. l 280 ii4k addnese spêce è. llt,'rs. f'1ucfr c,{ i. l-re des iet-, in t*nnr:. ai 1/í-r fr3.t. treerr taken {r'cnr the Frl,Frp,.tged c,f,êr'ating st'stenr. The des.ign r^ra.-e, ba=.ed c'n the tr PtrÈ-'sity {c'r hig;r'l y e+iicient rreítrc'r')' ètrcees a.rr d rïra!-rë.rjêtrrêfr t-r 3.rr ir e{f icient F r'tr'en3.m ent.r ir'crfrítrêfrt sl.rr i tch inb..:,) H:.r dr,.'à.r.e ' ' Tl-re ha.r.dr,.ta.r.g r,,rhicl-r err ts.t, l*s the tjei,.rbrain tt, Ë.CceE: F,a.rJeci nrênrc,r'>' is h*ld irr the l'.ler.rtfra.in exfsrr ÊiOrr frgr'l'. l-'ienrc,r".r'lrrl-rether FlÍf'1 c'!- F;AlÍ is 'Ji,.rr,Jed rrr ttr, Êf'Frtiguc'u:. FrGEE c'i Eli,.. A i:tinctic,rr ig. nre,--l* irr tl're frar.cil.,..ràr.p. r.,.rl-rich i: r'eilected irr tl-r* Ê.c,*tr..r.rts.Í*e b,elr.r,r;,g3 FiOl'1?.rr d RÀl'l t,a:jp.. Tl-re ier[r Cè.f-r à.cceee. èt B.Fr )'c,rrè tinre i4fi. + rtrêltrc,r']'t r,lhiah i:. diili!rfl intr, Et Ëtf:. :;Ll:lTg. Ër, 1'FèÈ rràfr t,e t,ruqf't irr t àírr':. 1r, t, frl ÍTrÈ\rptTrpt-rr { data tal,le.- c'l3.cp r,.tl-rên this. r:'ccul-e.r tt-lt tl'r É f ;r.;irr.rp.pe i= ÍrË.dp to rji'hàírrically cl-r a.rrqé tl-r e f';.;'d1.,t.3.t-'p inr;'lpmerit?,f a.ddre=: trar'sla.tran {unctic,r, trrhicl-r CC'rr'.rÈr'tg 1-l-r e Ë:[t Q?rrFr'ated adcii-.es:. irrr:' B. S.:,:tenr l-r iqhr^::>.a.ddne -e. The l-r a.r.,ji,.ra.re acdre:s tr.;.rrg.iatic't-' furrcí.i':,t-r ta.kes ë.tr additie,rral h,it aë irr f,ut, Thi: bit is called Ali a.rr tr m3r'be rlérrér'af-ed t')' è!-ri' ècti'.r* irardwar.g elenrerr t t i.e. marrr Fr,:'ÊÈE.:.cr' tr'r t)l'lai '.t:.ir'ê tfr e h;r d,..rra.ne ;.ddr es.= tr a.ns at ic'rr iun': t i c'rr, Tl-r is F'l-O'..r iëe: {':r!.fi a.ditic,rra.l Ë.slc'ts ce.lted tl-re ÊLTEF.l'l'rTi\.r E;LT Ë;ET. ]rr i,l-r* cà:e { the ma.in F,rc,ce::Ë'r tri Eettir,cr è.rr d uneêtting { tfr is E' it ;ê.ue.e a cfrrflete crrè.nqe irr tl-r e t,ageê. that it c3.n àccpië.. The us.e { thes.e al tenna.t irre sl ts i s. a.na aqus t the ZE:[t a t:f rrat i '.re reqiei-ers 3.rrd thei'a.re reêer't.,ed fr 'l'etènr use. 3r Furrdam*rrta.l s. 3,1) S;lc,t allcatin The a ll ce.t in + s] ts Êha.nges dtrra.n,ical l>' a.ccndinq tc, tl-rp requ i red enr,r i rc,nment a{ the cunnentl>' ev.pe.uting pf'crqf3.írr, t is ust-r al l-rurevèi ic,r '-,':,t ;:l ii,.,:..!. tc crrtsin the S;.r-E;TEt.1 FÊ1lE. Tfri: i s e pa.etê { RAt'i r,.rhc,se data structunes a.r? {urrdanrêr,tel t the S)'gtenr C,F,er'a.tin. lrr r.rrl-i Ët fc'llr^r9 it is B.sEUrrr d that thi:. EàÈe is ê l t^t;.}'e irr s f [t. Fape 1

18 + NeurErai r, Faged memr)' ÉF,eratinq s)'etem lse.ue C.1 3.7) Preeervatic,n 1 pr'crgram state Nr'nralli' the Eta.te f 3. FngFË.nr ie sá.r,ed wherr e. subnc,utirre is called bz" g,usf ing the regi:.ter: rrt the handrlrane stack. n à F,aged )'Etenr this is nt adequater &s the :ubrutine mèy urieh tè, actèee its r\,rr Fages { r.rrí'1..ëf,ace. rr c,r'dêr tlrat tfre F,àge: that tfre cal irrg rc,ut ine r^rà.,.: irrg ar'e : t i è.ccessibl e v.rfrerr tfre subr ut ine has been { in ished, the :ubnut ine mè.}' dec ide t E.ave tfre t,ar-ree.that the ca.lling cade rrrcê. ue.ing n the E.tacll.efrd restr'e thfítr;{terwar'ds. t is rr Èt F,c,ssit'le hr,.revên t read the hz.r'dt'ta.r'e tc, dis.cc'uèr'wfricfr p,3qge ar'e cur'r'errtly Er^ritched in. Tc'gÈt rund tfr is there ar'e in the s)':tem Fage 6 2-E..rte lc,catic,n:. called!;0 t 9,7,^thare th fruítrtrèr'e c,{ tlre Fé.gÉÊ. r^rl'rich a.r'e currerrtl>' reqi,derrt a.r'e kept. Al F,rgranrÊ. êrê ÍïruSt there{ë,r'e ufdate tfrese lqca.tic,rre. ii tfre>'bring in fiê(.{ pageê. a.nd F,Êr'{c,rm :)'s.tenr ca.'le (see belc,irr ), Als.a r^rherr F,epfrnr inq a Ê/EtÉnr call a. F,ngra.m must E,B a.hrr'e c,f r,,rhich E. lts the s.>,stem call FreEe[.\,ÈE.r deett,r,)'e r paeeë:- irric'rme.tirr ir'. 3r.3:) Fc,rnrat i lc,catrgrr: 90 t S:7 Eaifr 5rr lê'ca.tic'n cèrr tains. a t(,jc' t'r'te euatrtit)'r^,rl-rirfr,tc,r-r tairr-= t.rhat r4è.:. r^tr i tterr ta the F,3gs str'ê r,.rfrè.rr the F,age rrras F,l;c*d in Elc,t n, E;it: li: t l5 mu:.t a. lr..rat's Ëc,rrt-Êin thè lralue rr. E: rf. l! ie. alwa),s [1. El i t: 0 tc' 1l cc,rrta in tfre F, s.fé rruffrt,ép. t^jheri r^rr'i t ing t;, tl-rè F,à.ge :tr'é tnè tr^rc, E:i'te què.ntitr'r:. FrÊ:.ented Í-r Al5-nËr and [i7-ti[t. E>a.nrple: Fret.ervincr èrrd re:tnrng B F,i.ge irr :. lct 7, L[, HL, ( S7 ) PUSH HL ;Cde tha.t uees s.lt 7 F.OP HL L[r E, H LT' Ë, F.A6EREG 0LtT (c),l L[r (S?),HL 3.4) The cncept c+ F. F,s.g rrumben A: stated a.bve thf pb.ge rrumben is è, l2 bit quantity. Hurerrsr in the ce. e c,{ R0Hr gince ZP'l cde is Í-rcrt r'elca.ta.tle, èny given rc,utine will c'nl)'rurr crr'ectl>'rdfren placed in 3. certairr slc't. t is thene{r'e custmar'>' t u.e tfrè ter'm Ê,age rruíírbér { a. r'utine ïr- ÍrrÊ3.lr a ê t,i t euàrrt i ty, cn ta in irrg the af Fr'pr iate el t irrfc,r'ma.tian irr the tf S bite. lrr the caëe c,t RA'1, tfre s, lc,t bite 3re Ê.et tc,(t a.nd ar'e add*d ée needed r*rirêrr Er'irrgirrg in è. t,è.9e. F';.ge Z

19 rg l.letrrbna in t,aged memr.y Ferating systsnr - ssue ) Openrting sy,e.tenr call: The facilitie:. { the per.atirrg s),s.tem ar.e ma.de available tc, pr'enàítr the Eï>, Íïr B.hs a{ a. S),STEl.l C:ALL. There ma.}, te up t?sa attailae,'le E.r'.tenr calls, eech identi{ied E,r a zc:ot)e. A F,ngntsírr ÍÍrà). make a Ê)'sterÍr cal'l b)'ueing the ZEtO nestart instnuctirr nsf SA. {llr.,red b}'the zcde. c:ntnl ie pa:sed t the byte- +;ii"*;;à tfre Zcde n ctnf,letin f the sy:tenr cell. + a. RST 4Ct is useo] it fr8.s. the e++ect a{ a C:ALL Nc i.. the :>,stem ca.ll is. made nryif tfre cà.rr'i'{'l ag ie clea.rr C,tfr Êrl^ris.Ë il-rer.e is n a.ctin tatren. Tfr e e. l t;r n: t ive r egister.s àne de: tr.c,).êd in a. :),Ê.tpm cal r è.rrd c3.nlr f b'8 used tcrr' c.6n6l irrq Fa.r'à.meter: crr neceirring neeul ts. TfrÈne ar * ;.. = s'rre si's tem íac i i t iee. u.'h ich can àlr.rra),e. be acceesed E,y rrearr Ê c'{ ê. rr9r'ítri. ZËir C.ALL. irrgtr'uctic,nr brut uness c,therr^'iê.e s.tat-edr all tfre sys.ten, calls. à.r.é pericr.med hr* the r.esta.r.ts. S>'stem call: tha.t are per+r'ítred r,.rith the r.estart ar.e a.ll E,r.c,ught int s.lt 7, t^rhich ie. à.1r.^r3,y.g F,r.e:.er.ved. Slt Z ca.nnt ther.efr.e Ee us.ed {r' p i.s: irrq irr ir,r.nrà t ion i rr thes.e cáse-g. 4 ) l"lenrr.y Írra.Fr a13eítre n t The F,àgÈ,j nrenrr.,- Fer.e.tingr:),.tenr allc,r.^rs a. r. ich r.rarietl, c,f ràra.,.g. irr r,.rhicfr è Ff.OgnêÍtr Íïri,.), C,t,ta.in trt rí-hsf,aceerrd cfrs.tr.uct data s.tructuree, thugfr it i:. en,,ri:aqed tfr a.t Írrcr-et requir'enrerr t.:. r^rill be Sa.tis{ied by tl're us.e C'+ the rrêrríc,r. l fitzrtaqements>'s t em c,t l"1l.1s. 4, 'i Th e Menrc,r.r. Ma.n aepme rr t S1,:. t- em Tl-re f"1t"le; pen{r'm: rrrêíhr)' nra.fra.èêírprr l. f,rp r.atins ail,tr.,,r irr et tlt* Frr L-'Qràm tc, cn\rpfr i nt l >' uê.e il-re {ul l r,aqi d nremr}. capat i i i t iee cr.t the l'jet'rrêr'ain. The {ur,danrerrtal cc,frcéft + the Mlíg ts the r.rejerlt. An E.iect is a da.ta. r.ecnd f a.n).slze Eetween 0 arrd é5sztr E,i.teg. The si:e { tl-re aeject i: iixed nce it has Eeen cr.ea.ted h,ut it cantente ma./ h,e charrpsd a.t èny time. As'sc'ciated t'.ritfr ea.tfr al,ject i: ê.n CTB.ECT l'.lul.1befi. r^rhicfr is tretrr.reen and ó5535 (tfrere càtrngt be an t,.iect whèsê nuítrb,er is È sa 0 car, t'e uged è.. a 'nul, F,inter. irr qr Èàt irrg data. :.tr.uc tur *: ). *rr t'ject u.rill altrrè>'s. hàv the :arrre rr umt,er untíl it is deleted, a.rrd cts'n Grrlv be r'efer'ed t t,' meane. c,{ that rrunrber. 0b.i ect r,umt,ers ene,. hu.re\r Fr purelv' tnarrs,i rrt quarrtities. That ie. ta se.>, tfrat re a data r'tr'ucture ie stsr'ed an r backing stne end therr nestr.ed, the l'1ms is unlikely t allc,èa.te the saírr rrumbefs t the E,.iectE. Ther'eíne rrrhen such e. date. str.ucture is bein-q placed Ë,n the backing stne a di++enerit system af ne{er.ing t; ti-,e cc,n tituent pa.r'ts c,{ the data str.ucture gtruld be enrpli.ed i+ the :tr.uctur.e { the da.ta str'uctur'e is t b'e mainta.ined (this dee. nt + cgur'ée ínval idate the ue { data e.tnuc tur.er n tra.clr irr s.tr.es th Íïrselves e.g. indexed:equêr,tibl as. the pirrters us.ed c,n thpëe er'e p,gsitic,ns tr the t,acking Etc,r.e nredium). Fege s, r!'.'.,...r.^1.';..?t -1.'.\..r

20 l0l NewBr'e. r n F,agËd menrsr), GF,er.at ing s),etem ssue 0. An ab'.iect may be ref erenced by the systenr cal.l e. 6ETOB and GETOB (used b)'a 280 CALL instnuctin). Fan CiETOBr R entí.y HL is the t,.iect number. 0;', exit the b-iect is placed in e.lts and z, and the ZErO lcetirr f il-re iiret b>.te al the bject is in HL. Registene BctrE are pr.esérved. nl>. the f irst grg0 b,>,tes { the c'è''iect ere guaraunteed t Ee a.va.ilaele. GETGB per.fr.mg. nruch the ame {unctir, à.s GETOB but tal..es E.Fr e>,: tre. F,arànreteÍ- in DE wfrich is the requined c'f{set witfrin the Eject. On exit HL ie the Ze0 lc'catir, 1 the c,e,.iect àrrd its c,ffs.et. 0rrly the sue,sequent glscl Er'te:. c'i the b,ject are therr a.rra.ilable. The bject (r.f,a.nt c,{) rrly r'eírrêirrê. a.rrailable urrtil è sut,sequent ca. ll t tfre ]'lmsr F urrtil a :.)'s.tenr call tha.t r.equir.es rírenrc,ry a.llca.tirr (e.g. c,paning a E.tneam). An c,bject ie. created t,. Í.lEf^JOE, wfrich r.equest:. tfre cr.eetirr f á.n E.rect + size'e:[: t,).tè:, [rn exit c6.r'r;,r,,rill b,e clean arrd HL will È'e the c,b',iect nuírrbèr. qi'.ren b), t-fr Ml.js; t that E,iect. Als a l'letiob alsc' penf Bnms ê.rr impl ied CiET0E and the cat in { the f ir's.t È,>'te f the E,jÉct ie irr t)e rr e:: it. BC: is t,rèserved. l+ rrr4er/er the cà.r'r')'{lag i: set rr exit tfren a.n er.rr.ha.e c,ëcur.red á.n àfr er'r.r.rrijítreen is. leit irr A (tf,e c,è,.i ect rarill Frcrt h3.ve Eeerr cr'eatedl. An t,.i ect i:. del*ted bi't)elcre,, r..rhicfr tal,.es. in HL t-hê b,,i ect rrume,èr' c{ tfre c,e.i ect t b* deleted. E)EHL 3.re F,re=.Êr.\red. All l'11'í5 ca.l le. destrc,),slts arrd?. Ê'i ths,ggh the fíf.1'3 ha.s a.:imple inrer.{ace it hói qr'eë.t p,crt^rèf., è.ftd is u:.ed h'y th* p-,,.g*d irrput..rutput E.).stenr rl :ee Eel '.^r) fr creat i r'cr bu{fene. {r-'r.deuice dr.irrere, àrrd all th; data Etr'uctunes íc,n the l.lev.rer'ain C:Ctl.lÊL s.i.steírr ther. tha.n its r.urr-tinre :tacl.:. 4,2) \/i de meítctr.'t, e c;.t i n nlz certa.in pa.r'ts c,f the RAl.1 harre the necès:.à.r.l. hardr+rar.e aseccia.ted with it sg that it càn Ee used ftrr Er:r.eÊn di:.plar f ileg' Tfrus a separ'ate szetenr is.used t e.licrcate rride mèrrr)' apeè.s (c,tfren ÍD Írrr.r. allcatian s),stenre vjill ue.e nn_vide menrcr.,,_ P:fl: usirrq rridec, rreítrr)). Lilre the l"1tíg il-rer.e a.re NEJVf)EÊr! DEL\t;EO arrd CiETr..'lFEt--l furrctin: arra.ilaele, n a.dditin there a.r.e rre-b)'te vide E,iect rrumbéns, t is imp::.ib,le {r. tfrer-e ta be c. rride ar'ea. rrunrerêr. ZSS. t is rbcrítrtír rrded tfrat vide ÍÍreÍrrÊt-) al C,cat in rrl ). be uëed {c,r. v ideo meítrn), pur.f,ses.. The s ize { àneae requested will be rc,undêd utt t multiplrr ai lzg E)rter. 6ET.lrEir t,rirrgs int slt 4rjré,, and T ttre uideg, Ë.reà plh=,e rruítrt,pr. ie. irr A, retuí rrir,g in HL the lscatic,n f it. prcê.êrved. BCC)E GETVDEO neeidee. irr the system F,eg :.nd is cal ed wi il-r 3 Z8O CALL instruc t ic,n. l.let^j'..'loec allca.tes è. vide merrr.r, a.r.ee c,{ retur'nin tlitfr càr.í.y eet arrd A=er.r.r rrjnre,er. n f ; i A=rr i decr t, j ec t rruíírber.. ECJEHL t r eé.er ved. ize Et. E)'tes, ur'e. c,therwis.e Pa.ge 4

21 ?t Neu.rBrai n F s.ged memr)' per at ing sys.tem ssue 0.1 r)el\jdec' deletee prnters in the a.r e as mrre d a.í ê videc e.r'ea. nunrb'er A. n additin centain E.ystem pàge B.re updeted i+ the>' pirrt int vide reeul t. BCDEHL Fneserved. 4.3) Page a.'l lcatin This is B. {acilit>'r^rhse use shc,uld be extnenrely spaning. There urill t,ê t inres urherr à F'nenam rrril nequ ire 3 Pêg? cf t^tnkgf,s.ce t e.g. l1l-ls: t^rhen its curr'ent t'ages ar'e Ê)íhà.uEted. A -.l'etenr call F:ECTUES;TF*6E is Fnv ided f n tfr is F,ur F5e. l t Ehul d E str eesed tha.t tfr ts i: the l rtest l eve l { C,vÊr.Ë.l l FarJ? a.ll c'cat ic,rr E.nd r,jhen tl-r i: {ac i i t>' is used tfrè pr'er'anr hae t E,e3r' ir, mind tu.r;' th irrge: l) The [rrqr'àít1 trràintains t.p,er{r'n, fris. c,urrr Qa.r'b'a,ge gr3, llectin Ë.rrd trrè.)'be nequined tc' nrcve his. pagee fr'urírr ne F'lace tc, anthen ttrt neque:.t {r'm the per'ating s}'etenr (the exceptin t t-his being tfre user' prgrram) e.nd 2) Page Fer'a.tir-'r' E. ce.n E,E ext-nemel)'êltrr 3. tta.rje nequest ca.n caus.e è. cítrprlete EyÊtenr ga.re,;ge cllecti;,n t take plê.ce. 4,3.1) Tfre r'eeic'n E.tÊtÈm All RA''i F,:.9Ês a.llcated, tfrer' tha.n tfre st'etem Ftsge, all belc,ng tc' a. r'errirr. Th r'e a.r'p lé eerr ràl pur'fee reqir's. (.rrur'rbened(t- 15). Tfr e Fàee:. t'er'r;irrr=r t ea.cf' r'eeic,n hê.r,re cntiqut'ue nunrber'er èirui l-,;,,t i,i,iirèf i'ltmt'ere ths.n thgê Ë'{ a le:êer rrunr!,èi-ed r'êqion. t^jfr err a. reque:.t {ar' a t,a,lê is. nre,j*. the ;sqi6'n FrUÍrEpr.ÍTrU-ct :. lwa.i': E* :p c i{ i ed. A sf,ec ial r eg irr ( rr urírb,er' 255) uë.*d t.'' tfrë t'id* írt?trter"tr e. lca.tn, rrrfrich is ent ir'el:,' 5.eF'arste è.ë tfre ttide g.up'g,c,rtinq RA'1 frêê. the fr igfre:t F,3g huírrtr?fê.. 4,3.?) The reeicrr tahle The r'eqirr table is.kept in the s)'sterír ts.ge è.rrd trgnta.in:. tir? stetu: c'i eeclr negin. Each r.ein h:.s a. eiv-bi'te entr,'-. Tfre {ir'st tr^rc'h>'tes arê tfre Fage number + tl-re lc,t{es.i- F,age E,elngirrg t tfrat r.eqirr (tfre Ênd { the negin ie. {c'und {r'nr tfre e.ub'sequen t err tri'). The ther {ur E,>'tes ar'e tfre real a.ddr'ess af tfr e r'eeic,n marr è.ger. (page number {llwed lr'/ l.:at-in irr p'age). The rer--rin rranaq r'ccnsiste f tw r'utines., CiTiFFAGECCTLLEC.T0R B.rrd l'1ove[tf. The íovelf rutine is àê uíïrpd ta be a.t a. lca.tin thr'ee b>'tei gn?eten than tha.t f tfre regin Íïra.rràe tp whicl-r it. wl'rene tfre GARBAGECOLLEC:TOR nutine resides.. The M0VEUP r'utine ÍÍrË/ be mitted in the ctsëe B{ r'egin 0. Ther'e i: rrb entr'y fr negirr 255. At tlre end f tfre ta.b'le is. a. dumn,i' entr>, t marll tfre end c,+ negin 15. Th ie is al sc, cal ed REGTCTF, F'age 5

22 L] l*leurbr'a i rr paged nremny F,erat i ng :.>'stem ssue 0.1 4,3,=1) Respnsibilities. { the regirr managen Tfre l''l\,'elf rutine is caled witfr A equà. 1 t tt,e numben f thàt F a.gé Ë tfre r'egic'rr must m\re UF,. The reqirr manager :.heuld mere ), mve h ie F,i.geE up the r equested àírrc,ufrt end upda.te ite. data. :tnuctunes i+ necefsen>.. [..rhen ca.lle,j the t,à.s t,c,inter. wi nat have been uf,da ted thc,ugf' tfre pinter {r. the r.eginr et'vr it r,,rrll h;.ve. Ttre ÍTràitr regrstens càtr be destr.),ed. Tfre CiAFÊ*[iE[:0LLE--T0F. is ca.l ed rrri tf, A Êqua l tc, tfre rruíïrer r. ai F,ègÉS tfre f eq i On hes to mf,r.rg glg,r:rh. Tfr,S r.eg ion ríràhagér. Sl-r C,u d ÍTrrtr\rÉ thè regin drr,rrr tha.t nuírrben í F.6geSr B.rrd alsc, a.tiemp,t t reduce tfr e ÍTr ÍnË,r',r, requinee t,r tt b>, per{br.nrirr q a ganb,a.ge cc, llectic,n Gr trrhatê\'èr' is apprprrate, l^lfrêrr ca. lle il-r e te.se pinter. r..r ill hal,e beerr updated b,ut rrc,t tfra.t c,i tfre regic,rr É.Eve. On exit A s.huld tre the rlunreer' { Pa.gps tfra.t the errd f tfre regin ha.s mued (this is' tfren p;'ssed n t the r'egirr e.t'l-n,e fc,r' its gar-ba.ge callectr), Eut the ther marn reë;isters cà.rr ts d*:.tr.>.ed..j.!r.4) Oper'a.tin c'f tf,è F,a.gÉ a.lj,r;atar [^herr RE ]{ - ES;TFAC;E i'- c;lled, A is the number f r.equíred F,3geE àrrct B is tfré r'eeiurr nuriibêí^. Crn exit the carr), tla.g-r is set i{ tfrerê wèg s ta.ilure, a.rrd Ê cc,fri-airr : a.n er'rn numter.. Cr ther.u,ri:.e nc, r'eeul t is retur.rr d. Et.t,EHL are t,r.ee.êrued. The alnithm us*ci E,t'the [,à,-ie allcàturr is l) Checl{ rl-rat the SFacÉ e>1 -l) ists i rrc,t c:. ll all tfr e r'ec,ic,rr Íïrènaqer.s ('l c,w neins. í ir sf-) t cl ec t qàr t,àqe and checfr a.ea irr ( if tfrer.e is st i irrsuíiicient sf,aee then Frrcr, g) c.a. ll il-re r.eqic,n ffra.frigèr-a. c,f thc's* r'egirrg. r^rith fr iefrer rerri,:,rr Í-rurrrbÊ[ thaír that { tfre ;6,r_.,iGr, in r,.rhich the Fa.ge is ta t,e a.l ic,cated tc, nrcrre uf, (high regins {ir':.t). { a. regin h;.:. n pè,_ies then the r.egian marrager. ie l.rc,t cal led. A ceírrrrrn Êr'r'r' irr r,rritirrq r'egirr Írranaqer.g. is the.t the iata. s'tr'uctur'* in tfre regin is let in B.Ír incn:ietent :.ta.tr r{fiêrr calirrq FjE&LESTFAGE lr'the reqic,n. è.hd e Fc'ssiEle r.èeulting cs t the GARETnËEC:0LLE[:TOF: i tfre r.egin fi.r.r-rêê F c,f,erate: incr'rectl>'. Atterrtirr shuld!,ê pa.id tc, tfris. pintl 4.3.5) Regirr rruíírtêr s.l lcatin Ther'e is n dynan'ic r'eqic,n a.llcatr' negin rrumher.s ere iixed. F:egin 0 is. reser'ved fer the user p.gr:,m. F:egin is ueé Ey the D9C0 svs'tem. Regirr E; i.- used b), tfre f4l.15. Otr,er. r.egrsns witfr evcrr nuítre Í8. l.r'3 r' Ë,3r'vÊd f c,r {utune uee, a.rr ct d,j t,uiir;rírêd rcgians &ng fr us.cr. uêe. Page ó

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