Hazmat Materials Training Fact Sheet Module 2 Classification. The classification of hazardous materials is based on three key factors:

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1 Hazmat Materials Training Fact Sheet Module 2 Classification The classification of hazardous materials is based on three key factors: Accident history Physical and chemical properties International hazard classification system Dangerous goods exhibit certain physical and chemical properties which may cause harm to humans, animals, or the environment. Materials can be hazardous in one or more of the following ways: Explosive Pressurized Corrosive Elevated temperature Flammable Radioactive Reactive Magnetized Toxic Explosive materials may detonate or burn when exposed to heat or flame. This would include hazardous materials such as ammunition and fireworks. In addition, because they contain small explosive initiators and/or percussion caps, the following items would be included in this category as well: Air bag modules Seat-belt pretensioners Corrosive materials like strong acids and bases can rapidly oxidize (burn) materials, metals, paper, wood, and clothing. They can cause serious burns to skin or eyes. Some may react with other chemicals or materials to release toxic or flammable vapors. Common examples include: Wet acid & wet alkaline batteries Concentrated cleaning compounds 1

2 Materials considered flammable include gases, liquids, and solids that can ignite quickly, burn rapidly, and give off intense heat. Common flammables include: Acetylene & propane Absorbent contaminated with fuel Gasoline & fuel additives Paint & paint thinners Solvents & cleaning compounds Adhesives & coating solutions Flammable materials are substances that, when transported under forced heating, at or above their flashpoint, or substances transported at elevated temperatures (e.g., molten), can cause other combustible materials to ignite through conduction (in contact with) or convection (radiation of heat). Common examples include: Molten sulfur Molten aluminum Bituminous asphalt Reactive materials are those substances that may chemically mix with air, water, or other substances to cause exothermic (liberate heat) reactions. Many produce oxygen and will burn quickly. In addition, many do not have to be near heat or flames to ignite they can burn spontaneously. Many also generate toxic and flammable vapors as well. Common reactive materials include: Benzoyl Peroxide (e.g., epoxy cream hardener) Hypochlorite solutions (e.g., bleach) Cleaning compounds Radioactive materials are substances undergoing rapid electrical and subatomic transformations, thus exhibiting radioactivity (a spontaneous discharge of energy). This energy may cause our cells to become genetically altered. Radioactive materials can include: X-ray equipment Smoke detectors 2

3 Toxic materials are substances that, if allowed to enter the body through the nose, mouth, or skin, can make you sick or even cause death. Fumes, dust, and vapors from toxic materials can be especially harmful because they can be inhaled and pass quickly through the lungs into the blood, allowing the poisons to circulate throughout the body. Common toxic materials include: Pesticides Chlorinated solvents (e.g., parts wash solution) Fumigants Pressurized materials that are contained under extreme pressure are particularly dangerous because the energy is stored within a confined volume which could be released instantly if the cylinder or fittings fail or rupture. In some cases, the gaseous materials may also be extremely cold because they are cryogenic (refrigerated) gases. Common examples include: Accumulators (e.g., shocks, struts) Acetylene & argon Fire extinguishers Refrigerants Tire inflators Certain air bag modules (e.g., air curtains) Aerosols Magnetized materials are regulated for air transport when shipped in large quantities only because the magnetic field induced by the articles may affect the aircraft's navigational instruments. Therefore, magnetized materials are required to be stowed on aircraft in specially designed compartments, or fitted with Faraday shielding, to reduce the magnetic interference. Common magnetized material include: Speakers Magnetic clutches Magnetic switches 3

4 International standards have been established by the UN Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods. They have assigned hazardous materials into one of nine internationally recognized and adopted hazard classes, including: Class 1 - explosives Class 2 - gases Class 3 - flammable liquids Class 4 - flammable solids & pyrophoric liquids Class 5 - oxidizers & organic peroxides Class 6 - toxic materials Class 7 - radioactive materials Class 8 - corrosive materials Class 9 - miscellaneous dangerous goods, substances, & articles Class 1 hazardous materials are explosive substances. There are six divisions of explosives, including: Division mass explosion (e.g. TNT, dynamite) Division projection hazard (e.g., missiles, grenades) Division fire hazard (e.g., flares, fireworks) Division no significant blast (e.g., air bags, small arms cartridges) Division very insensitive (e.g., blasting agents, ammonium nitrate) Division extremely insensitive (e.g., squibs) Class 2 is comprised of compressed, liquefied, and cryogenic (refrigerated) gases and gases in solution. This class also includes articles containing substances of Class 2 such as shock absorbers, brake boosters, and hood stays. There are three divisions of Class 2 gases: Class flammable gases (e.g., propane, acetylene) Class non-flammable gases (e.g., fire extinguishers, refrigerants) Class toxic gases (e.g., fumigants, carbon monoxide) 4

5 Class 3 substances are comprised of: Flammable liquids Liquid desensitized explosives Flammable liquids are further defined as liquids, mixtures of liquids, or liquids containing solids in solution or suspension (e.g., paints, lacquers) that emit flammable vapors and which have a flashpoint (temperature at which the vapor-air mixture can ignite) of 60 C (140 F), as determined by a closed-cup flammability testing apparatus. Common flammable liquids include gasoline, fuel additives, paint, adhesives, coating solutions, solvents, and alcohols. Class 4 includes substances and articles, other than those classified as explosives, which are readily combustible, self-reactive, or which may cause or contribute to a fire. Class 4 is divided into three divisions: Class flammable solids Class substances liable to spontaneous combustion Class substances that, in contact with water, emit flammable or toxic gas Class 5 is divided into two divisions: Class oxidizing substances Class organic peroxides Class 5.1 oxidizers are substances that may yield oxygen which causes, or may contribute to, the combustion of the substance or other materials. A common example of an oxidizer is 8 percent or greater concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. Class 5.2 organic peroxides are derivatives of hydrogen peroxide with a special chemical structure which may be thermally and chemically unstable. Class 5.2 substances may undergo an exothermic, self-accelerating decomposition to the point where they can suddenly explode. In addition, they may have one or more of the following properties: Liable to explosive decomposition Burn rapidly Sensitive to impact or friction React dangerously with other substances 5

6 Class 6 hazardous materials have two divisions: Class toxic materials Class infectious substances Class 6.1 toxic materials are solid or liquid substances that may cause death or serious illness, or which may be harmful to humans or animals, if swallowed, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin. Common examples include: pesticides, arsenic, and common chlorinated degreasing solvents such as trichloroethylene and dichloromethane. Class 6.2 infectious substances are those substances which are known to, or which can be reasonably expected to, contain pathogens. Pathogens are defined as micro-organisms, which may cause infectious disease in animals or humans. Class 6.2 infectious substances may include: Anthrax Hepatitis C E. coli Class 7 radioactive substances and articles contain radionuclides (radioactive particles) that are electrically charged and which can emit one or more different types of radiation. Although there are not divisions within Class 7, there are four different radioactive labels that correspond to the radioactivity of the substance or article. Common examples of radioactive material include: Smoke detectors Radiography equipment Fissile materials Radioactive soils Class 8 hazardous materials are a corrosive substance that may cause necrosis (death of living tissue) or which will corrode aluminum or steel more than 6.25 mm (1/4 inch) per year. Corrosives may be acidic (have a low ph) or alkaline (have a high ph). The phscale is a measure of the concentration and type of chemically reactive particles in a solution. Common corrosive hazardous materials include: Battery electrolyte Window etch kits Cleaning compounds 6

7 Class 9 miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles are those which do not meet the definition of the other eight hazard classes but which, based on human experience, pose a threat to health, safety, property, or the environment. This class may include marine pollutants (e.g., aldrin) which are harmful to the aquatic environment. Common automotive examples include: Air bag modules (reclassed from Division 1.4) * Used engines (containing fuel residues) Used fuel system components Vehicles Seat-belt pretensioners (reclassed from Division 1.4) * * collectively referred to as Safety Devices 7

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