# Building a Better Argument

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Building a Better Argument Summary Whether it s an ad for burger chains, the closing scene of a Law & Order spinoff, a discussion with the parents about your social life or a coach disputing a close call, arguments are an inescapable part of our lives. In this lesson, students will learn to create good arguments by getting a handle on the basic structure. The lesson will provide useful tips for picking out premises and conclusions and for analyzing the effectiveness of arguments. Objectives In this lesson students will: Discover the basic terminology of arguments. Learn strategies for reliably distinguishing between premises and conclusions. Explore the differences between arguments and explanations. Key Terms Argument: A conclusion together with the premises that support it. Premise: A reason offered as support for another claim. Conclusion: The claim being supported by a premise or premises. Explanation: A statement or set of statements designed to show why something is true rather than that it is true. Background Logic has been a formal academic discipline for almost 2,500 years now. The Greek philosopher Aristotle first systematized formal logic in the 4th century B.C.E., and university logic courses teach Aristotelian logic to this day. For much of western history, logic was one of the three legs of the trivium (or the classical curriculum, which consisted of grammar, logic and rhetoric). With the growth of more specialized disciplines and wider curricula in the 20th century, formal logic got lost in the shuffle. In its place, philosophers began formulating courses in what we now call critical thinking, or informal logic. Formal rules and the reduction of sentences to things like x y[ax [(Qx Rx) Sy]] are reserved for university logic courses. Critical thinking deals with ordinary language arguments, offering us tools for assessing those arguments without the need to learn complicated sets of rules for turning sentences into formal symbols. Instructions Make enough copies of student handouts #1 and #2 so that each student can have one.

2 Have enough blank 3 5 index cards on hand to pass out to everyone at the start of Exercise #3. Materials 1. Monty Python, The Argument Clinic 2. Student handout #1, Finding Premises and Conclusions 3. Student handout #2, Argument Examples 4. Teacher handout #1, Argument Examples Exercises Exercise #1 Identifying Arguments To the teacher: Students cannot really begin to analyze arguments until they become good at recognizing them. Many students are not very analytical to begin with, so they will require some help in identifying (a) that something is an argument and (b) what the various parts of the argument actually are. Most of what appears below also appears in condensed form on student handout #1 (except for the section on implied premises and conclusions), but you should go over it with your students. They can follow along on paper. Pass out student handouts #1 and #2, Finding Premises and Conclusions, and Argument Examples. We then begin with some basic technical vocabulary. Premise: a reason offered as support for another claim Conclusion: the claim being supported by a premise or premises Argument: a conclusion together with the premises that support it So, to take the oldest example in logic, one that Aristotle used in teaching at his Academy: 1. All men are mortal. 2. Socrates was a man. 3. Therefore Socrates is mortal. The three lines taken together constitute an argument. Line 3 is the conclusion. Lines 1 and 2 are premises. Now, there are a few important things to remember about arguments. First, arguments can be either really short (like the one about Socrates) or they can be really long (most op-eds are extended arguments; lots of books are really long extended arguments). But really long arguments will usually be broken down into series of shorter ones.

5 as a method for teaching writing, namely, when we write, we should be aware that we re always trying to get the reader to do something, even if it s just to share our point of view for the moment. But from the point of view of the logician, not everything is an argument. Remember our definition of an argument: Argument: a conclusion together with the premises that support it. Not all passages are of that sort. Sometimes we try to convince a person that something is true. Other times we want to explain why something is true. So we might contrast an argument with an explanation: Explanation: a statement or set of statements designed to show why something is the case rather than that it is the case. Consider the following exchange: Ms. Jones: You didn t turn in your homework, Katie. Katie: My cat ate my homework. Here Katie is offering an explanation for why it is that she failed to turn in her homework. Note that she is not trying to convince Ms. Jones that she failed to turn in her homework: Both Katie and Ms. Jones agree that Katie failed to turn it in. Instead, Katie is trying to tell Ms. Jones why she failed to turn it in. Katie is offering an explanation, not an argument. But now consider a similar exchange: Jason: Why did I fail this course, Mr. Smith? Mr. Smith: You didn t turn in your homework, Jason. Jason: My cat ate my homework. Jason s sentence is identical to Katie s, but Jason s sentence is best understood as offering an argument. Jason is claiming, implicitly at least, that he shouldn t fail the class because his cat ate his homework. Although Katie s and Jason s sentences are the same, they are doing two entirely different things. In other words, it is Jason s intentions that make his sentence an explanation. To determine what a passage is doing, we will often have to go beyond the words themselves and ask ourselves instead what it is that the author is trying to accomplish. Exercise: Arrange the chairs in the class into a circle. Give each student a 3 5 index card. On one side of the card, students should write either an argument or an explanation. On the other side of the card, they should write argument or explanation (whichever is appropriate to their particular example). When everyone has finished writing, have students pass their cards to the person to their right. Students should read the card and decide whether they are reading an argument or an explanation. Have the students continue to pass their cards to the right until they

6 have read all the cards. (Alternatively, this activity can be done in small groups of 5 students each, with the activity ending after all the members of the group have shared their cards.) After students have read all the cards, collect them and discuss the examples with the class. Students may find it frustrating that critical thinking doesn t always provide clear-cut answers. But remind them that life is often complicated, and our language reflects that messiness. It may be unclear whether an example is an argument or an explanation. In such cases, one can look at the various possibilities. One can, for instance, say things like: If this is an argument, then it s a good (or bad) one because, or, If this is an explanation, then it is a bad (or good) one because. About the Author Joe Miller received his Ph.D. in philosophy from the University of Virginia. He is a staff writer at FactCheck.org, a project of the University of Pennsylvania s Annenberg Public Policy Center. Prior to joining FactCheck, he served as an assistant professor of philosophy at West Point and at the University of North Carolina at Pembroke, where he taught logic, critical thinking, ethics and political theory. The winner of an Outstanding Teacher award at UNC-Pembroke and an Outstanding Graduate Teaching Assistant award at the University of Virginia, Joe has over 10 years of experience developing curricula. He is a member of American Philosophical Association and the Association for Political Theory. Correlation to National Standards National Social Studies Standards X. Civic Ideals and Practices Social studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study of the ideals, principles, and practices of citizenship in a democratic republic. Essential Skills for Social Studies Acquiring Information A. Reading Skills 1. Comprehension 2. Vocabulary B. Study Skills 1. Find Information 2. Arrange Information in Usable Forms C. Reference & Information-Search Skills

7 2. Special References D. Technical Skills Unique to Electronic Devices 1. Computer Organizing and Using Information A. Thinking Skills 1. Classify Information 2. Interpret Information 3. Analyze Information 4. Summarize Information 5. Synthesize Information 6. Evaluate Information B. Decision-Making Skills C. Metacognitive Skills Interpersonal Relationships & Social Participation A. Personal Skills C. Social and Political Participation Skills Democratic Beliefs and Values B. Freedoms of the Individual C. Responsibilities of the Individual National Mathematics Standards Process Standards Reasoning and Proof Standard

8 National Educational Technology Standards Performance Indicators: All students should have opportunities to demonstrate the following performances. 2. Make informed choices among technology systems, resources, and services. 7. Routinely and efficiently use online information resources to meet needs for collaboration, research, publication, communication, and productivity. 8. Select and apply technology tools for research, information analysis, problem solving, and decision making in content learning. Information Literacy Standards Information Literacy Standard 1 assesses information efficiently and effectively. Standard 2 evaluates information critically and competently. Standard 3 uses information accurately and creatively. Social Responsibility Standard 7 recognizes the importance of information to a democratic society. Standard 8 practices ethical behavior in regard to information and information technology. Standard 9 participates effectively in groups to pursue and generate information. English Language Arts Standards Standard 1 Students read a wide range of print and non-print texts to build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United States and the world; to acquire new information; to respond to the needs and demands of society and the workplace; and for personal fulfillment. Among these texts are fiction and nonfiction, classic and contemporary work. Standard 3 Students apply a wide range of strategies to comprehend, interpret, evaluate, and appreciate texts. They draw on their prior experience, their interactions with other readers and writers, their knowledge of word meaning and of other texts, their word identification strategies, and their understanding of textual features (e.g., sound-letter correspondence, sentence structure, context, graphics).

9 Standard 5 Students employ a wide range of strategies as the write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes. Standard 6 Students apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions (e.g., spelling and punctuation), media techniques, figurative language, and genre to create, critique, and discuss print and non-print texts. Standard 7 Students conduct research on issues and interests by generating ideas and questions, and by posing problems. They gather, evaluate, and synthesize data from a variety of sources (e.g., print and non-print texts, artifacts, people) to communicate their discoveries in ways that suit their purpose and audience. Standard 8 Students use a variety of technological and information resources (e.g., libraries, databases, computer networks, video) to gather and synthesize information and to create and communicate knowledge. Standard 12 Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).

### Indiana Department of Education

GRADE 1 READING Guiding Principle: Students read a wide range of fiction, nonfiction, classic, and contemporary works, to build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United

### Virginia English Standards of Learning Grade 8

A Correlation of Prentice Hall Writing Coach 2012 To the Virginia English Standards of Learning A Correlation of, 2012, Introduction This document demonstrates how, 2012, meets the objectives of the. Correlation

### Poetry to Play Creating a Dramatic Scene from a Chapter of The Odyssey Lesson Plan

Poetry to Play Creating a Dramatic Scene from a Chapter of The Odyssey Grade Level: 9-12 Curriculum Focus: Literature Lesson Duration: Two or more class periods Student Objectives Materials Discover that

### xxx Lesson 11 1. Comprehend the writing process 2. Respond positively to the writing process

xxx Lesson 11 The Writing Process Overview: This lesson will focus on the writing process and how it relates to communication. Learners will be taught what the writing process is, its parts, and how they

### Barter vs. Money. Grade One. Overview. Prerequisite Skills. Lesson Objectives. Materials List

Grade One Barter vs. Money Overview Students share the book Sheep in a Shop, by Nancy Shaw, to learn about choice, making decisions, trade, and the barter system. They complete worksheets on comparing

### Savings Plan. Grade Three. Overview. Lesson Objectives. Materials List. Large-Group Activity. Materials

Grade Three Savings Plan Overview Students share the book Kermit the Hermit, by Bill Peet, to learn about the role of money, saving, needs and wants, and spending. Students complete a needs and wants worksheet,

### Units of Study 9th Grade

Units of Study 9th Grade First Semester Theme: The Journey Second Semester Theme: Choices The Big Ideas in English Language Arts that drive instruction: Independent thinkers construct meaning through language.

Expository and Writing By Grade Level Kindergarten TEKS identify the topic of an informational text heard identify the topic and details in expository text heard or read, referring to the words and/or

### Counting Change and Changing Coins

Grade Two Counting Change and Changing Coins Content Standards Overview Students share the book The Penny Pot, by Stuart J. Murphy, to learn about choices, producers and consumers, and counting money.

### Saving and Creating a Personal Budget

Grade Five Saving and Creating a Personal Budget Overview Students share several chapters of the book From the Mixed-Up Files of Mrs. Basil E. Frankweiler, by E.L. Konigsburg, to learn about the role of

### Saving Money. Grade One. Overview. Prerequisite Skills. Lesson Objectives. Materials List

Grade One Saving Money Overview Students share the book A Chair for My Mother, by Vera B. Williams, to learn about counting and saving money. They complete worksheets on coin counting and saving. Prerequisite

### MStM Reading/Language Arts Curriculum Lesson Plan Template

Grade Level: 6 th grade Standard 1: Students will use multiple strategies to read a variety of texts. Grade Level Objective: 1. A.6.1: compare/contrast the differences in fiction and non-fiction text.

### Alignment of the National Standards for Learning Languages with the Common Core State Standards

Alignment of the National with the Common Core State Standards Performance Expectations The Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts (ELA) and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science,

### A Model Curriculum for Pennsylvania School Library Programs: Worksheet for Grades 6-8. Competencies What students should be able to do; key skills

Big Idea: Effective readers use appropriate strategies to construct meaning. A Model Curriculum for Pennsylvania School Library Programs: Worksheet for s 6-8 How do strategic readers create meaning from

### Grade 4 Writing Curriculum Map

Curriculum Map BOE Approval November 2013 CURRICULUM MAP WRITING GRADE 4 SEPTEMBER OCTOBER NOVEMBER DECEMBER JANUARY Creating a Buzz About : It s All About Me! Tell Me A Story Realistic Fiction Tell Me

### Language Arts Literacy Areas of Focus: Grade 5

Language Arts Literacy : Grade 5 Mission: Learning to read, write, speak, listen, and view critically, strategically and creatively enables students to discover personal and shared meaning throughout their

### Middle School Project: Final Cut Pro This Is Our School

Middle School Project: Final Cut Pro This Is Our School The Unit of Practice Invitation How can students show their community the contributions that their school makes to it? During this project, students

### This activity will work best with children in kindergarten through fourth grade.

ACTIVITY SUMMARY Reading Guide, page 1 of 3 During this activity, you and your child will actively read Martin s Big Words, using the suggested reading strategies. WHY Through this activity, your child

### Writing Thesis Defense Papers

Writing Thesis Defense Papers The point of these papers is for you to explain and defend a thesis of your own critically analyzing the reasoning offered in support of a claim made by one of the philosophers

### Students will know Vocabulary: purpose details reasons phrases conclusion point of view persuasive evaluate

Fourth Grade Writing : Text Types and Purposes Essential Questions: 1. How do writers select the genre of writing for a specific purpose and audience? 2. How do essential components of the writing process

### Integrating the Common Core Standards into the Music Curriculum

Place Photo Here, Otherwise Delete Box Integrating the Common Core Standards into the Music Curriculum Tom L. Foust January 24 th, 2013 Illinois Music Educators Conference Peoria, Illinois What is the

### Read the Directions sheets for specific instructions.

Read the Directions sheets for specific instructions. SUMMARY Parent Guide During this activity, your child will create a piece of mail and you and your child will visit a post office in your neighborhood.

### Outline. Written Communication Conveying Scientific Information Effectively. Objective of (Scientific) Writing

Written Communication Conveying Scientific Information Effectively Marie Davidian davidian@stat.ncsu.edu http://www.stat.ncsu.edu/ davidian. Outline Objectives of (scientific) writing Important issues

### Me, Myself, and I. Subject: Language Arts: Writing. Level: Grade 3

Grade 3 Lesson Plan Subject: Language Arts: Writing Level: Grade 3 Me, Myself, and I Abstract: In this lesson, students will write their life story. Reflecting on a series of key questions, students will

### Currency and Exchange Rates

Grade Five Currency and Exchange Rates Overview Students share the book The Story of Money, by Betsy Maestro, to learn about exchange and barter, the functions of money, currency, and spending money. Students

### What is your name? Do you think it reveals something about your identity and where you come from? If so, what does it reveal?

Red Dog Identity Regardless of who we are, or where we come from, we all have our own identity. Your name, the school you go to, the suburb you live in, the country in which you were raised in are just

### Saving and Investing. Grade Five. Overview. Lesson Objectives. Materials List. Content Standards

Grade Five Saving and Investing Overview Students share several chapters from the book The Young Investor: Projects and Activities for Making Your Money Grow, by Katherine R. Bateman, to learn about saving

### Technical Writing. Preparation. Objectives. Standards. Materials. Grade Level: 9-12 Group Size: 20-30 Time: 60-70 Minutes Presenters: 1

Technical Writing Preparation Grade Level: 9-12 Group Size: 20-30 Time: 60-70 Minutes Presenters: 1 Objectives This lesson will enable students to: Define technical writing. Identify characteristics of

### Healthy and Safety Awareness for Working Teens Unit 5 Communicating Workplace Problems

Healthy and Safety Awareness for Working Teens Unit 5 Communicating Workplace Problems Unit 5 Communicating Workplace Problems 1 Unit 5 Overview This purpose of this unit is to help students develop the

### Language Arts Literacy Areas of Focus: Grade 6

Language Arts Literacy : Grade 6 Mission: Learning to read, write, speak, listen, and view critically, strategically and creatively enables students to discover personal and shared meaning throughout their

### Academic Standards for Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Listening June 1, 2009 FINAL Elementary Standards Grades 3-8

Academic Standards for Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Listening June 1, 2009 FINAL Elementary Standards Grades 3-8 Pennsylvania Department of Education These standards are offered as a voluntary resource

### Language Arts Core, First Grade, Standard 8 Writing-Students write daily to communicate effectively for a variety of purposes and audiences.

Genre Unit Reading and Writing Fables by Amy Kinney Language Arts Core, First Grade, Standard 7 Comprehension-Students understand, interpret, and analyze narrative and informational grade level text. Objective

The charts below were created as a common language for teachers and students in the Wallingford Public Schools in kindergarten through eighth grade. The level of the chart selected for use in the classroom

### Master Syllabus. Learning Outcomes. ENL 260: Intermediate Composition

Master Syllabus ENL 260: Intermediate Composition University Studies Cluster Requirement 1C: Intermediate Writing. This University Studies Master Syllabus serves as a guide and standard for all instructors

### Steps to Successful Student Book Review Blogging

Steps to Successful Student Book Review Blogging Abstract: In order to promote independent reading and scaffold the language arts curriculum, students write and post book recommendations on their school-based

### Neutrality s Much Needed Place In Dewey s Two-Part Criterion For Democratic Education

Neutrality s Much Needed Place In Dewey s Two-Part Criterion For Democratic Education Taylor Wisneski, Kansas State University Abstract This paper examines methods provided by both John Dewey and Amy Gutmann.

Reading: Literature Writing: Narrative RL.6.1 RL.6.2 RL.6.3 RL.6.4 RL.6.5 RL.6.6 RL.6.7 W.6.3 SIXTH GRADE UNIT 1 Key Ideas and Details Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly

### Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Language Arts Curriculum and Assessment Alignment Form Rewards Intermediate Grades 4-6

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Language Arts Curriculum and Assessment Alignment Form Rewards Intermediate Grades 4-6 4 I. READING AND LITERATURE A. Word Recognition, Analysis, and Fluency The student

Academic Standards for Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Listening Pre-K - 3 REVISED May 18, 2010 Pennsylvania Department of Education These standards are offered as a voluntary resource for Pennsylvania

### Common Core State Standards Speaking and Listening

Comprehension and Collaboration. Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others ideas and expressing their own clearly

### South Plains College: General Course Syllabus

South Plains College: General Course Syllabus Department: Behavioral Sciences Discipline: Sociology Course Number: Sociology 1301 Course Name: Introduction to Sociology Credit: 3 Lecture: 3 Lab: 0 This

### French Language and Culture. Curriculum Framework 2011 2012

AP French Language and Culture Curriculum Framework 2011 2012 Contents (click on a topic to jump to that page) Introduction... 3 Structure of the Curriculum Framework...4 Learning Objectives and Achievement

### I can not live without books.

Handbook1 Richland Academy School of Excellence Middle School Parent Handbook 2012 2013 School Year I can not live without books. - Thomas Jefferson Handbook2 Language Arts Reading We will work on reading

### Writing a Research Paper Writing a Rough Draft. Lesson Summary

Writing a Research Paper Writing a Rough Draft QuickView Topic: Projects Writing Skills Grade Levels: 9 12 Lexile Range: 1070 1140 Focus Question: From the information you gathered from all your different

GRADE 8 English Language Arts Proofreading: Lesson 6 Read aloud to the students the material that is printed in boldface type inside the boxes. Information in regular type inside the boxes and all information

### English 110. Course Objectives/Competencies

English 110 Course Objectives/Competencies The following competencies reflect the contribution of College Composition I to the General Education Objectives and thus are assessed as part of the course as

### Chapter Four: How to Collaborate and Write With Others

Chapter Four: How to Collaborate and Write With Others Why Collaborate on Writing? Considering (and Balancing) the Two Extremes of Collaboration Peer Review as Collaboration * A sample recipe for how peer

Grade Five Starting Your Own Business Overview Students listen to several chapters from The Toothpaste Millionaire, by Jean Merrill, to learn about starting a business and earning a profit. They complete

### Lesson: Editing Guidelines and Response Writing: Essay Exam (Part 1)

Put That In Writing - Level Two 113 UNIT 9 Lesson: Editing Guidelines and Response Writing: Essay Exam (Part 1) 9.1 Learning Objectives A. To know the guidelines for editing an essay. B. To edit and improve

### Unit 5 Employees, Taxes, and Ethics Lesson 13 Ethics

0 Employees, Taxes, and Ethics Lesson 13: Ethics 1 Lesson: 13 Ethics Getting Started Lesson 13, Ethics, is the third lesson in Employees, Taxes, and Ethics, the fifth unit within the AOF Principles of

### Savings Accounts and Interest

Grade One Savings Accounts and Interest Overview Students share the book Berenstain Bears Trouble with Money, by Stan and Jan Berenstain, to learn about saving money, banks, and interest. Prerequisite

### Indiana University East Faculty Senate

Indiana University East Faculty Senate General Education Curriculum for Baccalaureate Degree Programs at Indiana University East The purpose of the General Education Curriculum is to ensure that every

### IAC Ch 13, p.1. b. Oral communication.

IAC Ch 13, p.1 282 13.28 (272) Minimum content requirements for teaching endorsements. 13.28(1) Agriculture. 5-12. Completion of 24 semester credit hours in agriculture and agriculture education to include:

### Note to Teachers/Parents

Note to Teachers/Parents Legend has it that when Ernest Hemingway was challenged to write a six-word novel, he came up with, For Sale: baby shoes, never worn. Inspired by Hemingway s short story, SMITH

### What Have I Learned In This Class?

xxx Lesson 26 Learning Skills Review What Have I Learned In This Class? Overview: The Learning Skills review focuses on what a learner has learned during Learning Skills. More importantly this lesson gives

### Tier One: Possess and Exercise Fundamental Knowledge of the Human and Physical Worlds

SHARED LEARNING OUTCOMES - To meet the Institute s mission, the curriculum is designed to achieve a series of learning outcomes organized in five tiers. Tier One are the top level, primary outcomes derived

### WRITING EFFECTIVE REPORTS AND ESSAYS

WRITING EFFECTIVE REPORTS AND ESSAYS A. What are Reports? Writing Effective Reports Reports are documents which both give a reader information and ask the reader to do something with that information.

### B4. Timing 70 90 minutes. Lesson can be extended over two days.

B4. Comparing Financial Aid Packages Introduction When a student applies for financial aid by completing the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), the federal financial aid processor uses information

### A Short Course in Logic Example 8

A Short ourse in Logic xample 8 I) Recognizing Arguments III) valuating Arguments II) Analyzing Arguments valuating Arguments with More than one Line of Reasoning valuating If then Premises Independent

### Technology Integration Learning Plan: Fostering Authentic Writing through Blogging in the Classroom

Technology Integration Learning Plan: Fostering Authentic Writing through Blogging in the Classroom I. Overview: This unit will address students understanding, performance, and achievement in literacy

### STEP 5: Giving Feedback

STEP 5: Giving Feedback Introduction You are now aware of the responsibilities of workplace mentoring, the six step approach to teaching skills, the importance of identifying the point of the lesson, and

### Short-Term and Long-Term Savings Goals

Grade Five Short-Term and Long-Term Savings Goals Content Standards Overview Students share several chapters from the book The Leaves in October, by Karen Ackerman, to learn about earning an income, saving,

### Components of a Reading Workshop Mini-Lesson

Components of a Reading Workshop Mini-Lesson Mini-Lesson: The Connection How will you begin the Reading Workshop mini-lesson with a connection in which you tell students what you ll be teaching them &

### ONLINE SAFETY TEACHER S GUIDE:

TEACHER S GUIDE: ONLINE SAFETY LEARNING OBJECTIVES Students will learn how to use the Internet safely and effectively. Students will understand that people online are not always who they say they are.

### Literature Circle Role Sheet. Summarizer. Book

Literature Circle Role Sheet Summarizer Book Summarizer: Your job is to prepare a brief summary of today s reading. Your group discussion will start with your 1-2 minute statement that covers the key points,

### Common Core Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects

A Correlation of Miller & Levine Biology To the Common Core Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects INTRODUCTION This document demonstrates how meets the Common Core Standards for Literacy

### some ideas on essays and essay writing

Disability and Dyslexia Service: Study Skills for Students some ideas on essays and essay writing why this document might be helpful for students: Before beginning work on an essay, it is vital to know

### The University of Texas at Austin

The University of Texas at Austin Performing Arts Center Curriculum Guide Series Music Reviews A Genre Study Includes introduction, resources, standards, and student handouts. Educational Programs Coordinator

### English 2 - Journalism Mitch Martin: mmartin@naperville203.org

Mission English 2 - Journalism Mitch Martin: mmartin@naperville203.org To educate students to be self-directed learners, collaborative workers, complex thinkers, quality producers, and community contributors

### Why Do Authors Use Text Features?

Why Do Authors Use Text Features? Text Features Sticker Lesson Use this lesson as an introduction or review of what text features are and why authors use them. IRA/NCTE Standard Students apply a wide range

### 8 Strategies for Designing Lesson Plans to Meet the CCSS Opinion and Argument Writing Requirements

8 Strategies for Designing Lesson Plans to Meet the CCSS Opinion and Argument Writing Requirements By Lauren Davis Eye On Education 6 Depot Way West Larchmont, NY 10538 www.eyeoneducation.com (888) 299-5350

### Literacy across learning Principles and practice

Literacy across learning Principles and practice Language and literacy are of personal, social and economic importance. Our ability to use language lies at the centre of the development and expression

### Regular and Irregular Plurals. for. All Language Learners. in the. Sixth Grade

Regular and Irregular Plurals for All Language Learners in the Sixth Grade Lesson Overview Grade Level: Language Level: Content Category: Content Subcategory: Materials Needed: Technology Tool: Lesson

### Students will know Vocabulary: claims evidence reasons relevant accurate phrases/clauses credible source (inc. oral) formal style clarify

Sixth Grade Writing : Text Types and Purposes Essential Questions: 1. How do writers select the genre of writing for a specific purpose and audience? 2. How do essential components of the writing process

### The Great Debate. Handouts: (1) Famous Supreme Court Cases, (2) Persuasive Essay Outline, (3) Persuasive Essay Score Sheet 1 per student

The Great Debate OVERVIEW This lesson introduces students to the judicial branch and the Constitution, and engages students in creating a debate. First, the teacher has students review one of four landmark

### WRITING A CRITICAL ARTICLE REVIEW

WRITING A CRITICAL ARTICLE REVIEW A critical article review briefly describes the content of an article and, more importantly, provides an in-depth analysis and evaluation of its ideas and purpose. The

### Center for Rural Health Grant Writing Tips

Center for Rural Health Grant Writing Tips The grant writing process can be complex and even intimidating. The following tips are intended to assist you in getting started on your own grant writing experience.

### Arguments and Dialogues

ONE Arguments and Dialogues The three goals of critical argumentation are to identify, analyze, and evaluate arguments. The term argument is used in a special sense, referring to the giving of reasons

### Newspaper Activities for Students

Newspaper Activities for Students Newspaper Activities for Students Page 2 Higher Learning By the year 2010, millions of the jobs available in the United States will require more than a high school diploma.

### Long-term Transfer Goals TRANSFER GOALS

TRANSFER GOALS Definition Transfer Goals highlight the effective uses of understanding, knowledge, and skill that we seek in the long run; i.e., what we want students to be able to do when they confront

### MEDIA ETHICS. Unit Overview

Unit Overview We believe that your visit to the Newseum, along with this unit of study on media ethics, will help you and your students better understand the guidelines and principles journalists use to

### Finding Inspiration in the Funny Pages

Finding Inspiration in the Funny Pages Using comic strips to inspire young writers makes sense for many reasons. First, comics can ease one of the toughest parts of the writing process: finding ideas and

### Students will participate in a cold-write of an opinion.

: Instructional Strategies: DAY 1 Students will participate in a cold-write of an opinion. Advanced Graphic Organizers, Instructional Conversations facilitated by purposeful use of Participation and Discussion

### Unit 2 Module 3: Generating Examples and Nonexamples

Unit 2 Module 3: Generating Examples and Nonexamples Section 1 Slide 1 Title Slide Welcome to the third module in the Vocabulary Instructional Routines unit, Generating Examples and Nonexamples. Slide

### Theories of Personality Psyc 314-001, Fall 2014

Theories of Personality Psyc 314-001, Fall 2014 Dr. Mary E. McKemy (pronounced Mc-KAY-me) Kinard 123 (down the hall from the Psychology Office) 323-2643 (Office) and 328-9978 (Home -- please call before

### Philosophical argument

Michael Lacewing Philosophical argument At the heart of philosophy is philosophical argument. Arguments are different from assertions. Assertions are simply stated; arguments always involve giving reasons.

### The Newspaper Front Page

LESSON PLAN Level: Grades 7 to 10 About the Author: This unit was adapted from lessons created by Rosalind Ross, David Halliday and John Crocker of the Durham Board of Education in The AML Anthology (1990),

### Crosswalk of the Common Core Standards and the Standards for the 21st-Century Learner Writing Standards

Crosswalk of the Common Core Standards and the Standards for the 21st-Century Learner Writing Standards AASL Standards 1. Inquire, think critically, and gain knowledge. 1.1 Skills 1.1.1 Follow an inquiry-based

### Online Courses: During the Course

Online Courses: During the Course Keep up Keeping up is essential to your success in an online course. Without weekly lectures, online courses can easily be put on the back burner. It is critical to stay

Bebop Books Guided Reading with Emergent Readers by Jeanne Clidas, Ph.D. What Is Guided Reading? Guided reading involves a small group of children thinking, talking, and reading through a new text with

### EXAMS Leaving Certificate English

EXAMS Leaving Certificate English Theme Language focus Learning focus Learning Support Language Support Exams: English Key vocabulary for exam questions, type and structure of questions. Understanding

READING SPECIALIST STANDARDS Standard I. Standard II. Standard III. Standard IV. Components of Reading: The Reading Specialist applies knowledge of the interrelated components of reading across all developmental

Learning styles Topic: Idioms Aims: - To apply listening skills to an audio extract of non-native speakers - To raise awareness of personal learning styles - To provide concrete learning aids to enable

### Student Writing Guide. Fall 2009. Lab Reports

Student Writing Guide Fall 2009 Lab Reports The manuscript has been written three times, and each rewriting has discovered errors. Many must still remain; the improvement of the part is sacrificed to the

### Writing a Scholarship Essay. Making the essay work for you!

Writing a Scholarship Essay Making the essay work for you! Reasons why students don t write scholarship essays (and lose out on scholarships!) They hate to write. They don t think they will win anyway.

### Requirements & Guidelines for the Preparation of the New Mexico Online Portfolio for Alternative Licensure

Requirements & Guidelines for the Preparation of the New Mexico Online Portfolio for Alternative Licensure Prepared for the New Mexico Public Education Department Educator Quality Division http://www.ped.state.nm.us/