# Left Jordan derivations on Banach algebras

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1 Iranian Journal of Mathematical Sciences and Informatics Vol. 6, No. 1 (2011), pp 1-6 Left Jordan derivations on Banach algebras A. Ebadian a and M. Eshaghi Gordji b, a Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran b Department of Mathematics, Semnan University, P. O. Box , Semnan, Iran Abstract. In this paper we characterize the left Jordan derivations on Banach algebras. Also, it is shown that every bounded linear map d : A Mfrom a von Neumann algebra A into a Banach A module M with property that d(p 2 )=2pd(d) for every projection p in A is a left Jordan derivation. Keywords: Left Jordan derivation, von Neumann algebra Mathematics subject classification: Primary 46L10; Secondary 46L05, 46H25, 46L Introduction Let A be a unital Banach algebra. We denote the identity of A by 1. A Banach A module M is called unital provided that 1x = x = x1 foreach x M. A linear (additive) mapping d : A Mis called a left derivations (left ring derivation) if d(ab) =ad(b)+bd(a) (a, b A). (1) Corresponding Author Received 21 July 2009; Accepted 12 April 2010 c 2011 Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research TMU 1

2 2 A. Ebadian and M. Eshaghi Gordji Also, d is called a left Jordan derivation (or Jordan left derivation) if d(a 2 )=2ad(a) (a A). (2) Bresar, Vukman [4], Ashraf et al. [1, 2], Jung and Park [8], Vukman [13, 14] studied left Jordan derivations and left derivations on prime rings and semiprime rings, which are in a close connection with so-called commuting mappings (see also [7, 10, 11, 12]). Suppose that A is a Banach algebra and M is an A module. Let S be in A. We say that S is a left separating point of M if the condition Sm =0for m Mimplies m =0. We refer to [3] for the general theory of Banach algebras. Theorem 1.1. Let A be a unital Banach algebra and M be a Banach A module. Let S be in Z(A) such that S is a left separating point of M. Letf : A M be a bounded linear map. Then the following assertions are equivalent a) f(ab) =af(b)+bf(a) for all a, b Awith ab = ba = S. b) f is a left Jordan derivation which satisfies f(sa) =Sf(a)+af(S) for all a A. Proof. First suppose that (a) holds. Then we have f(s) =f(1s) =f(s)1 + f(1)s = f(s)+f(1)s hence, by assumption, we get that f(1) = 0. Let a A. For scalars λ with λ < 1 a, 1 λa is invertible in A. Indeed, (1 λa) 1 = n=0 λn a n.then So f(s) =f[(1 λa)(1 λa) 1 S] = ((1 λa) 1 S)f((1 λa)) +(1 λa)f((1 λa) 1 S) = λ( λ n a n S)f(a)+(1 λa)f( λ n a n S) n=0 = f(s)+ n=1 λ n [f(a n S) a n 1 Sf(a) af(a n 1 S)]. n=1 λ n [f(a n S) a n 1 Sf(a) af(a n 1 S)] = 0 n=1 for all λ with λ < 1 a. Consequently for all n N. Putn =1in(3)toget for all a A. f(a n S) a n 1 Sf(a) af(a n 1 S)=0 (3) f(sa)=f(as) =af(s)+sf(a). (4)

3 Left Jordan derivations on Banach algebras 3 Now, put n =2in(3)toget f(a 2 S)=aSf(a)+af(aS) =asf(a)+a(af(s)+sf(a)) = a 2 f(s)+2saf(a). (5) Replacing a by a 2 in (4), we get It follows from (5), (6) that f(a 2 S)=a 2 f(s)+sf(a 2 ). (6) S(f(a 2 ) 2af(a)) = 0. (7) On the other hand S is right separating point of M. Then by (7), f is a left Jordan derivation. Now suppose that the condition (b) holds. We denote aob := ab + ba for all a, b A. It follows from left Jordan derivation identity that f(aob) =2(bf(a)+af(b)) (8) for all a, b A(see proposition 1.1 of [4]). On the other hand, we have for all a, b A. Then a (a b) =a (ab + ba) =a 2 b +2aba 2f(aba) =f(a (a b)) f(a 2 b) =2[(a b)f(a)+af(a b)] 2[bf(a 2 )+a 2 f(b)] =2[(ab + ba)f(a)+2a(bf(a)+af(b))] 2[2baf(a)+a 2 f(b)] =6abf(a)+2a 2 f(b) 2baf(a). Hence, f(aba) =3abf(a)+a 2 f(b) baf(a) (9) for all a, b A. Now suppose that ab = ba = S, then f(sa)=3abf(a)+a 2 f(b) baf(a) =2abf(a)+a 2 f(b). (10) On the other hand S Z(A). Then by multiplying both sides of (10) by b to get Sf(S) Sbf(a) Saf(b) = 0 (11) since S Z(A), then it follows from (11) that [f(s) f(a)b f(b)a]s =0 then we have f(s) =f(a)b + f(b)a. Now, we characterize the left Jordan derivations on von Neumann algebras.

4 4 A. Ebadian and M. Eshaghi Gordji Theorem 1.2. Let A be a von Neumann algebra and let M be a Banach A module and d : A Mbe a bounded linear map with property that d(p 2 )= 2pd(p) for every projection p in A. Thend is a left Jordan derivation. Proof. Let p, q Abe orthogonal projections in A. Thenp + q is a projection wherefore by assumption, 2pd(p)+2qd(q) =d(p)+d(q) =d(p + q) =2(p + q)d(p + q) =2[pd(p)+pd(q)+qd(q)+qd(p)]. It follows that pd(q)+qd(p) =0. (12) Let a = n λ jp j be a combination of mutually orthogonal projections p 1,p 2,..., p n A. Then we have for all i, j {1, 2,..., n} with i j. So d(a 2 )=d( p i d(p j )+p j d(p i ) = 0 (13) n λ 2 j p j )= On the other hand by (13), we obtain that i=1 n λ 2 j d(p j ). (14) n n ad(a) =( λ i p i ) λ j d(p j )=λ 1 p 1 n + λ 2 p 2 λ j d(p j ) λ n p n = n λ 2 j p jd(p j ). n n λ j d(p j ) λ j d(p j ) It follows from above equation and (14) that d(a 2 )=2ad(a). By the spectral theorem (see Theorem of [9]), every self adjoint element a A sa is the norm limit of a sequence of finite combinations of mutually orthogonal projections. Since d is bounded, then d(a 2 )=2ad(a) (15) for all a A sa. Replacing a by a + b in (15), we obtain d(a 2 + b 2 + ab + ba) =2(a + b)(d(a)+d(b) =2ad(a)+2bd(b)+2ad(b)+2bd(a), d(ab + ba) = 2ad(b)+ 2bd(a) (16)

5 Left Jordan derivations on Banach algebras 5 for all a, b A sa.leta A. Then there are a 1,a 2 A sa such that a = a 1 +ia 2. Hence, d(a 2 )=d(a a i(a 1 a 2 + a 2 a 1 )) =2a 1 d(a 1 )+2a 2 d(a 2 )+i[2a 1 d(a 2 )+2a 2 d(a 1 )] =2ad(a). This completes the proof of theorem. Corollary 1.3. Let A be a von Neumann algebra and let M be a Banach A module and d : A M be a bounded linear map. Then the following assertions are equivalent a) ad(a 1 )+a 1 d(a) =0for all invertible a A. b) d is a left Jordan derivation. c) d(p 2 )=2pd(p) for every projection p in A. Proof. (a) (b) follows from Theorem 1.1, and (b) (c) follows from Theorem 1.2. In 1996, Johnson [6] proved the following theorem (see also Theorem 2.4 of [5]). Theorem 1.4. Suppose A is a C algebra and M is a Banach A module. Then each Jordan derivation d : A Mis a derivation. We do not know whether or not every left Jordan derivation on a C algebra is a left derivation. References [1] M. Ashraf, On Jordan left derivations of Lie ideals in prime rings, Southeast Asian Bull. Math., 25(3), (2001), [2] M. Ashraf and S. Ali, On generalized Jordan left derivations in rings, Bull. Korean Math. Soc., 45(2), (2008), [3] F. F. BonsallandJ. Duncan, Complete normed algebras, Springer Verlag, [4] M. Brešar and J. Vukman, On left derivations and related mappings, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc., 110, (1990), [5] U. Haagerup and N. Laustsen, Weak amenability of C -algebras and a theorem of Goldstein, Banach algebras 97 (Blaubeuren), , de Gruyter, Berlin, [6] B. E. Johnson, Symmetric amenability and the nonexistence of Lie and Jordan derivations, Math.Proc.Camb.Phil.Soc., 120, (1996), [7] K.W.JunandB.D.Kim,AnoteonJordanleftderivations,Bull. Korean Math. Soc., 33(2), (1996), [8] Y.S. Jung and K.H. Park, Left Jordan derivations on Banach algebras and related mappings, Bull. Korean Math. Soc., 47(1), (2010), [9] R. V. Kadison and J. R. Ringrose, Fundamentals of the theory of operator algebras, I-II, Academic Press, [10] H. M. Kim, S. Y. Kang and I. S. Chang, On functional inequalities originating from module Jordan left derivations, Journal of Inequalities and Applications, 2008, Article ID , 9 pages doi: /2008/

6 6 A. Ebadian and M. Eshaghi Gordji [11] K. H. Park and Y. S. Jung, Jordan derivations and Jordan left derivations of Banach algebras, Commun. Korean Math. Soc., 17(2), (2002), [12] J. Vukman, On left Jordan derivations of rings and Banach algebras, Aequationes Math., 75, (2008) [13] J. Vukman, Jordan left derivations on semiprime rings, Math.J.OkayamaUniv., 39 (1997), 1 6. [14] J. Vukman, A note on generalized derivations of semiprime rings, Taiwanese J. Math., 11(2), (2007),

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