# Fraction Basics. 1. Identify the numerator and denominator of a

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1 . Fraction Basics. OBJECTIVES 1. Identify the numerator and denominator of a fraction. Use fractions to name parts of a whole. Identify proper fractions. Write improper fractions as mixed numbers. Write mixed numbers as improper fractions Previous sections dealt with whole numbers and the operations that are performed on them. We are now ready to consider a new kind of number, a fraction. Definitions: Fraction Whenever a unit or a whole quantity is divided into parts, we call those parts fractions of the unit. NOTE Our word fraction comes from the Latin stem fractio, which means breaking into pieces. In Figure 1, the whole has been divided into five equal parts. We use the symbol to represent the shaded portion of the whole. Figure 1 NOTE Common fraction is technically the correct term. We will normally just use fraction in these materials if there is no room for confusion. The symbol is called a common fraction, or more simply a fraction. A fraction is a written in the form, in which a and b represent whole numbers and b cannot be equal to 0. b We give the numbers a and b special names. The denominator, b, is the number on the bottom. This tells us into how many equal parts the unit or whole has been divided. The numerator, a, is the number on the top. This tells us how many parts of the unit are used. In Figure 1, the denominator is ; the unit or whole (the circle) has been divided into five equal parts. The numerator is. We have taken two parts of the unit. Numerator Denominator Example 1 Labeling Fraction Components The fraction names the shaded part of the rectangle in Figure. 1

2 1 CHAPTER MULTIPLYING AND DIVIDING FRACTIONS Figure The unit or whole is divided into seven equal parts, so the denominator is. We have shaded four of those parts, and so we have a numerator of. CHECK YOURSELF 1 What fraction names the shaded part of this diagram? Identify the numerator and denominator. Fractions can also be used to name a part of a collection or a set of identical objects. Example Naming a Fractional Part The fraction objects. names the shaded part of Figure. We have shaded five of the six identical Figure CHECK YOURSELF What fraction names the shaded part of this diagram?

3 FRACTION BASICS SECTION. 19 Example Naming a Fractional Part NOTE Of course, the fraction names the part of the class that is not women. In a class of students, 1 are women. We can name the part of the class that is women as 1. CHECK YOURSELF Seven replacement parts out of a shipment of 0 were faulty. What fraction names the portion of the shipment that was faulty? a NOTE names the quotient b when a is divided by b. Of course, b cannot be 0. a A fraction can also be thought of as indicating division. The symbol also means a b. b Example Interpreting Division as a Fraction names the quotient when is divided by. So. Note: can be read as two-thirds or as divided by. CHECK YOURSELF Using the numbers and 9, write 9 in another way. We can use the relative size of the numerator and denominator of a fraction to separate fractions into different categories. Definitions: Proper Fraction If the numerator is less than the denominator, the fraction names a number less than 1 and is called a proper fraction. Definitions: Improper Fraction If the numerator is greater than or equal to the denominator, the fraction names a number greater than or equal to 1 and is called an improper fraction. Example Categorizing Fractions (a) is a proper fraction because the numerator is less than the denominator (Figure ). (b) is an improper fraction because the numerator is larger than the denominator (Figure )

4 10 CHAPTER MULTIPLYING AND DIVIDING FRACTIONS (c) Also, is an improper fraction becaused it names exactly 1 unit; the numerator is equal to the denominator (Figure ). names less than 1 unit and. Numerator Denominator Figure names more than 1 unit and. Numerator Denominator Figure 1 Figure CHECK YOURSELF List the proper fractions and the improper fractions in the following group:, 10 11,,,, 1 10,, 1 Another way to write a fraction that is larger than 1 is called a mixed number. Definitions: Mixed Number A mixed number is the sum of a whole number and a proper fraction. Example Identifying a Mixed Number NOTE means In fact,. we read the mixed number as and three-fourths. The addition sign is usually not written. is a mixed number. It represents the sum of the whole number and the fraction Look at the diagram below, which represents.. 1 unit 1 unit unit CHECK YOURSELF Give the mixed number that names the shaded portion of the given diagram.

5 FRACTION BASICS SECTION. 11 For our later work it will be important to be able to change back and forth between improper fractions and mixed numbers. Because an improper fraction represents a number that is greater than or equal to 1, we have the following rule: NOTE In subsequent courses, you will find that improper fractions are preferred to mixed numbers. Rules and Properties: Improper Fractions to Mixed Numbers An improper fraction can always be written as either a mixed number or as a whole number. NOTE You can write the fraction as. We divide the numerator by the denominator. To do this, remember that you can think of a fraction as indicating division. The numerator is divided by the denominator. This leads us to the following rule: Step by Step: To Change an Improper Fraction to a Mixed Number NOTE In step 1, the quotient gives the whole-number portion of the mixed number. Step gives the fractional portion of the mixed number. Step 1 Step Divide the numerator by the denominator. If there is a remainder, write the remainder over the original denominator. Example Converting a Fraction to a Mixed Number 1 Convert to a mixed number. Divide 1 by In diagram form: Quotient Remainder Original denominator 1 CHECK YOURSELF Convert to a mixed number.

6 1 CHAPTER MULTIPLYING AND DIVIDING FRACTIONS Example Converting a Fraction to a Mixed Number 1 Convert to a mixed or a whole number. Divide 1 by. NOTE If there is no remainder, the improper fraction is equal to some whole number; in this case CHECK YOURSELF Convert to a mixed or a whole number. It is also easy to convert mixed numbers to improper fractions. Just use the following rule: Step by Step: To Change a Mixed Number to an Improper Fraction Step 1 Step Step Multiply the denominator of the fraction by the whole-number portion of the mixed number. Add the numerator of the fraction to that product. Write that sum over the original denominator to form the improper fraction. Example 9 Converting Mixed Numbers to Improper Fractions (a) Convert to an improper fraction. Whole Denominator number Numerator 1 In diagram form: ( ) Denominator Multiply the denominator by the whole number ( 1). Add the numerator. We now have 1. Write 1 over the original denominator.

7 FRACTION BASICS SECTION. 1 Each of the three units has fifths, so the whole-number portion is, or 1, fifths. Then add the fifths from the fractional portion for 1 fifths. (b) Convert to an improper fraction. NOTE Multiply the denominator,, by the whole number,, and add the numerator,. ( ) CHECK YOURSELF 9 Convert to an improper fraction. One special kind of improper fraction should be mentioned at this point: a fraction with a denominator of 1. Definitions: Fractions with a Denominator of 1 NOTE This is the same as our earlier rule for dividing by 1. Any fraction with a denominator of 1 is equal to the numerator alone. For example, and You probably do many conversions between mixed and whole numbers without even thinking about the process that you follow, as Example 10 illustrates. Example 10 Converting Quarter Dollars to Dollars Maritza has quarters in her bank. How many dollars does she have? Because there are quarters in each dollar, quarters can be written as Converting the amount to dollars is the same as rewriting it as a mixed number. 11 She has 1 1 dollars, which you would probably write as \$1.. (Note: We will discuss decimal point usage later in this text.) CHECK YOURSELF 10 Kevin is doing the inventory in the convenience store in which he works. He finds there are 11 half gallons (gal) of milk. Write the amount of milk as a mixed number of gallons.

8 1 CHAPTER MULTIPLYING AND DIVIDING FRACTIONS CHECK YOURSELF ANSWERS Numerator 1. Denominator Proper fractions: Improper fractions: ,,, 1 10, 1 11,, gal

9 Name. Exercises Section Date Identify the numerator and denominator of each fraction What fraction names the shaded part of each of the following figures? ANSWERS Solve the following applications. 1. Test scores. You missed questions on a 0-question test. What fraction names the part you got correct? The part you got wrong? 1. Basketball. Of the five starters on a basketball team, two fouled out of a game. What fraction names the part of the starting team that fouled out?

10 ANSWERS Car sales. A used-car dealer sold 11 of the 1 cars in stock. What fraction names the portion sold? What fraction names the portion not sold? 1. Purchases. At lunch, five people out of a group of nine had hamburgers. What fraction names the part of the group who had hamburgers? What fraction names the part who did not have hamburgers? 19. Using the numbers and, show another way of writing. 0. Using the numbers and, show another way of writing Identify each number as a proper fraction, an improper fraction, or a mixed number Give the mixed number that names the shaded portion of each diagram Change to a mixed or whole number

11 ANSWERS Change to an improper fraction Solve the following applications.. Savings. Clayton has quarters in his bank. How many dollars does he have? Savings. Amy has 19 quarters in her purse. How many dollars does she have?. Inventory. Manuel counted half gallons of orange juice in his store. Write the amount of orange juice as a mixed number of gallons Inventory. Sarah has 19 half gallons of turpentine in her paint store. Write the amount of turpentine as a mixed number of gallons. 9. The U.S. census information can be found in your library, or on the Web, at Use the 1990 census to determine the following: (a) Fraction of the population of the United States contained in your state (b) Fraction of the population of the United States years of age or older (c) Fraction of the United States that is female 0. Using the information on the given label, determine the following: (a) Fraction of calories that comes from fat (b) Fraction of fat grams that comes from saturated fat

12 ANSWERS (c) Fraction of the total carbohydrates that comes from sugar Nutrition Facts Serving Size 1 bar (g) Serving Per Container Amount Per Serving Calories 90 Calories from Fat 0 % Daily Value* Total Fat g % Saturated Fat 1.g % Cholesterol 0mg 0% Sodium 110mg % Total Carbohydrate 1g % Sugars 9g Protein 1g 1. Based on a 000-calorie diet, consult with your local health officials and determine what fraction of your daily diet each of the following should contribute. (a) Fat (b) Carbohydrate (c) Unsaturated fat (d) Protein Using this information, work with your classmates to plan a daily menu that will satisfy the requirements.. Suppose the national debt had to be paid by individuals. (a) How would the amount each individual owed be determined? (b) Would this be a proper or improper fraction?. In statistics, we describe the probability of an event by dividing the number of ways the event can happen by the total number of possibilities. Using this definition, determine the probability of each of the following: (a) Obtaining a head on a single toss of a coin (b) Obtaining a prime number when a die is tossed Answers 1. is the numerator; 11 is the denominator. is the numerator; 11 is the denominator Proper 1, 0, 0 1. Mixed number. Improper. Improper 9. Mixed number Proper There is no remainder in the division ( ) ( 10) 1... \$ (a) (b) 1 gal ; 9 1 1

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