Exploring user innovation in 3D city navigation

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1 Prject: URBAN ( Uitmeten, Recnstrueren, Bekijken, Animeren en Navigeren van stedelijke mgevingen ) Wrk package: WP4: Visualisatin f and User interactin with 3D City Mdels Task: 4.3 Explring user innvatin in 3D city navigatin Dcument ID: Deliverable Date: May 2009 Authrs: Marinka Vangenck J Piersn Title: Explring user innvatin in 3D city navigatin

2 1 Table f cntent 1 Table f cntent Intrductin User tests Descriptin f the URBAN prttype A preliminary 3D city mdel: A prttype? The URBAN prttype: Affrdances Descriptin f the user tests Turism user tests Selectin and descriptin f the respndents Findings f the user tests Real estate user tests Selectin and descriptin f the respndents Findings f the user tests Cnclusin References Annex Draaibek gebruikerstesten city trips Draaibek gebruikerstesten vastged Scenari based tasks fr city trip respndents Scenari based tasks fr real estate respndents Vragenlijst na gebruikerstest city trips Vragenlijst na gebruikerstest vastged Detailed descriptin f the city trip respndents Detailed descriptin f the real estate respndents URBAN Page 2 f 106

3 2 Intrductin Within task 4.3, Explring user innvatin in 3D city navigatin, we investigate hw peple wuld interact and engage with 3D navigatin in a city envirnment. This reprt deals with the secnd iteratin f the explrative in-depth user research we have cnducted in the cntext f task 4.3. The empirical field research is steered by the fllwing research questin: Which services culd ffer a genuine added value fr users in a 3D city envirnment based n their city-related needs and practices?. T answer this questin we first cnducted a desk research in rder t get a hrizntal state-f-the-art verview f pssible innvative dmains regarding the use f 3D city envirnments during the first iteratin f the user research. Based n this desk research in cmbinatin with several expert meetings with the prject partners EDM & Andrme, we identified fur vertical areas within which a 3D city mdel and its related services culd ffer pprtunities and added value fr users, namely turism, real estate, urban planning and public transprt. In a next phase we fcused n the tw areas that, based n internal meetings with user experts and researchers, seem t have the mst ptential in relatin t 3D city service innvatin, mre specifically turism and real estate. Bth areas were the cre tpics f a first rund f multi-methd ethngraphic research in rder t assess the pprtunities fr innvatin and t identify sensitizing cncepts fr a user-driven develpment f 3D city services. This research phase enabled us t identify and draft user grunded scenaris that define the pssibilities and cnstraints f a 3D digital city envirnment. Hence the first iteratin f the empirical field research prvided us with an insight in the practice f planning a city trip n the ne hand and the practice f searching fr a huse n the ther hand and the pssible innvative pprtunities f a virtual city mdel. Nevertheless, these pssible innvative pprtunities needed t be investigated in depth by means f a secnd phase f multi-methd empirical field research. During the previus research phase, the secnd iteratin f the empirical field research and thus the subject f this reprt, we cnfrnted peple with the first URBAN prttype, mre specifically the first versin f the demnstratr that has been develped by prject partners EDM & ANDROME in line with the user scenaris. The prttype cmprises a dwnsized set f affrdances that are present in the user-grunded scenaris given the time cnstraints and technical pssibilities at this phase f the URBAN prject. We will elabrate n the functinalities and pssibilities f the prttype later. By prviding users with this kind URBAN Page 3 f 106

4 f Prxy Technlgy f the main demnstratr (t be ready at the end f the prject in December 2009), we allwed them t have a rather (immersive) truthful experience f 3D urban navigatin (Trben Nielsen et. al., 2008). Mrever, by bringing users in cntact with the technlgy during its develpment prcess, the user experiences can (ideally) be integrated as feedback in the fllwing design and develpment activities, which we aim t d within task 4.4 Embedding user innvatin in technlgy design. ICT user behaviur is unpredictable as users can adpt ICT in creative and smetimes unanticipated ways that deviate frm the initial expectatins f the engineers r prduct develpers. That is why it is vital t investigate users in direct cntact with the technlgical prttype r service that is being develped. Hwever, immature technlgy that is still linked t fundamental research f engineers and technlgy develpers, which is the case fr the URBAN prject, is nt yet fully understandable fr future users. Therefre user input will nly have a genuine added value in a semi-mature technlgical envirnment. Semimature technlgies are adequate t serve as an bjet frntière (Flichy, 1995) and allw all invlved stakehlders t discuss the meaning and further develpment f the artefact (Balln et. al., 2007). Cnsequently, the URBAN prttype and thus the first versin f the URBAN demnstratr served as the bjet frntière fr the 3D city mdelling technlgy during the secnd iteratin f the empirical field research. In this reprt the respndent interviews during which users were cnfrnted with the URBAN demnstratr will be refered t as user tests. It needs t be emphasized hwever that this is nt linked t traditinal usability testing where the testing f the technlgy in itself is the actual gal f the user tests. Within ur research setting, bringing users in cntact with a preliminary mdel f the URBAN technlgy served as a means t make the 3D city mdelling technlgy understandable fr users and als served as a technlgical prbe t trigger users t reflect n the future usage f similar virtual city mdels, which is the actual gal f the URBAN user tests. By prviding users with a prxy f the URBAN technlgy, we have tried t avid the idea generatin prcess being t functinally fixed, which means that the ideas f users are fixed t their current use cntext. In ther wrds, the prvisinal demnstratr and hence the 3D urban navigatin experience enabled users t generate new ideas (Lettl, 2007). This apprach fits in the mutual shaping perspective that users and technlgical research need t feed in t each ther and where users are triggered by new (technlgical) cncepts f a prvisinal prttype. The utcme f this exercise is a reprt n the expectatins and perceptins f experienced city trippers and real estate purchasers with regard t 3D city mdels URBAN Page 4 f 106

5 and services. In thers wrds, the findings f the user tests identify the innvative pprtunities fr the 3D city mdelling technlgy within the investigated dmains f turism (in particular city trips) and real estate. Figure 1: Current research phase within the URBAN prject In rder t guide yu thrugh this reprt, we give a brief verview f the cntent. The first part will describe the URBAN prttype n the level f its psitining within the field f test and experimentatin platfrms, but secndly als n the level f its affrdances and the implemented functinalities f the Task user scenari s. Then we will describe the set-up f the user tests, including the guidelines we predefined prir t the actual implementatin f the user tests. Further a detailed verview f the recruitement f the respndents will precede the actual findings f the user research. A final cnclusin will reflect n the utcme f the empirical field research and its implicatins and meaning fr future 3D city mdelling applicatins. URBAN Page 5 f 106

6 3 User tests 3.1 Descriptin f the URBAN prttype This part will first address the questin whether the URBAN prxy can indeed be referred t as prttype within the dmain f test and experimentatin platfrms befre narrwing dwn t the actual affrdances f the URBAN demnstratr that was used by the respndents. The user tests with a preliminary mdel f the URBAN demnstratr can be framed within ur verall research bjective in the URBAN prject, that is establishing a user-driven design f a 3D city mdel. Frm a user-driven innvatin (UDI) perspective, we try t have a thrugh understanding f users fr finding new pprtunities t create value and a systematic invlvement f users as early as pssible in and thrughut the whle innvatin prcess (Wise & Hgenhaven, 2008). UDI ges further than the traditinal user-centred design (UCD), a ntin that has riginally been frmalized in the field f Human-Cmputer Interactin in the eighties, that is regularly used t refer t pure usability testing and is nly brught in at the end f the prduct develpment cycle (Veryzer & Bria de Mzta, 2005; ISO, 1999). We argue that implementing test and experimentatin platfrms in an early phase f R&D activities is vital t create a UDI develpment prcess A preliminary 3D city mdel: A prttype? The unpredictability f ICT user behaviur explains why users are mre and mre investigated in direct cntact with the technlgical prttype r service that is being develped. The cnducted user tests with the first versin f the URBAN demnstratr brught (ptential) users in cntact with the 3D city mdelling technlgy during the develment prcess and hence allws t integrate user experiences as feedback in the technlgical design and develpment phases. It is nt always clear what type f test and experimentatin platfrm (TEP) is best suited t achieve the required results. Fr that reasn Balln et. al. (2007) created a typlgy f test and experimentatin platfrms (TEPs) that are defined as all facilities and envirnments fr jint innvatin including testing, prttyping, and cnfrnting technlgy with usage situatins (Balln, Piersn & Delaere, 2007:139). The researchers identify three majr ratinales fr establishing TEPs: URBAN Page 6 f 106

7 1) Invlving users in the innvatin prcess. 2) Increasing plicy awareness f the imprtance f innvatin activities fr cmpetitiveness. 3) Overcming failures in innvatin. Our user testing f the preliminary URBAN demnstratr is essentially based n the first ratinale, the invlvement f users in an early stage f the develpment prcess f the URBAN technlgy. The different TEPs are arranged n tw axes (see figure 2). The hrizntal axis represents the technlgical readiness hence the maturity f the technlgy r applicatin. The vertical scale ges frm a fcus n testing technlgy t a fcus n the design aspects. In ther wrds, d we lk mre at the prper wrking f the technlgy in technical terms r d we fcus mre n hw the technlgy shuld lk like and what it shuld be capable f ding? Thirdly the typlgy differentiates between the degree f penness, ging frm in-huse activities t pen platfrms (Balln, Piersn & Delaere, 2007). Figure 2: Cnceptual framewrk f test and experimentatin platfrms Fllwing the typlgy the first versin f the URBAN demnstratr, which we have tested in the cntext f the secnd iteratin f the user research, can indeed be cnsidered as a prttype. Prttyping platfrms can be defined as design and develpment facility used prir t mass prductin and resulting in the first prf-f- URBAN Page 7 f 106

8 cncept f a new technlgy, prduct, r service (Balln, Piersn & Delaere, 2007:151). The URBAN demnstratr definitely meets the characteristics f a prttype: 1) During the user tests, we mainly fcused n the design aspects, namely hw a 3D city mdel shuld lk like and what it shuld be capable f ding, rather than n the prper wrking f the 3D city mdeling technlgy. 2) The URBAN technlgy that is tested by means f a prxy is mre immature and thus far frm (almst) market ready. 3) The final demnstratr will definitely nt be a fully wrking end applicatin. This leaves the technical prject partners enugh rm fr technlgical changes based n ur user input. 4) A prttyping platfrm is situated between in-huse activities and pen platfrms, just like the URBAN test setting The URBAN prttype: Affrdances In this reprt we use the cncept affrdances t refer t the abilities that lie in the URBAN prttype and hence the functinalities f the Task user scenaris that are incrprated by the develpers within the prject. Nrman defines the term affrdance as a cmbinatin f perceived and actual prperties f the thing primarily thse fundamental prperties that determine just hw that thing culd pssible be used. (1988:95) 1. Fr instance a mbile phne has becme a full mbile multifunctinal multimedia device. Yet the primary affrdance is still making phne calls and sending text messages, even thugh the device can als be used fr a lt f ther services. The affrdances f the URBAN prttype are discussed by means f three tpics, namely the different views r perspectives that the user can select, the predefined pints f interest and the implemented additinal functinaltities. Frm Tp View t Street View 1 See als Gibsn, 1977; Newman, 2001; Piersn et al., URBAN Page 8 f 106

9 Starting with the highest view that is implemented in the URBAN prxy, ʻTp Viewʼ (see figure belw), nce can ntice that this is actually the satellite view f Ggle Maps. ʻTp Viewʼ allwed the respndents t zm in n satellite pictures f Brussels that indicate street names and imprtant curisities f a city such as churches, statues, squares, etc. ʻTp Viewʼ is the nly view that ffers a phtrealistic twdimensinal visualisatin f Brussels. Bth ther views ffer a three-dimensinal representatin. Figure 3: Screensht f 'Tp View' within the URBAN prttype While ʻTp Viewʼ gives the mst general verview f urban envirnments frm a tpdwn perspective, ʻHelicpter Viewʼ (see figure belw), in which the user flies ver the rfs f buildings, als prvides the user with an verview f particular parts f the city, but nt f the city as a whle. Yet the three-dimensinal aspect f ʻHelicpter Viewʼ ffers an insight in the building structures and hence is mre than slely a tp-dwn perspective. Since there are n street names prjected n the grund like in ʻTp Viewʼ, the develpers have implemented an rientatin circle/map that is situated in the right tp crner. The green angle within this circle indicates the view directin f the user within the 3D mdel and the crss at the beginning f the angle indicates the userʼs current psitin. URBAN Page 9 f 106

10 Figure 4: Screensht f 'Helicpter View' within the URBAN prttype The lwest level, ʻStreet Viewʼ, allws the user t virtually walk arund thrugh the city mdel n street level. Again the rientatin circle is implemented fr the user t be able t rient himself in the virtual city. Figure 5: Screensht f 'Street View' within the URBAN prttype Pints Of Interest URBAN Page 10 f 106

11 In rder t search fr a particular lcatin, sight r facility the user has tw ptins: he can enter the address r name in ʻSearchʼ (see figure 6) r he can chse fr ne r mre Pints Of Interest (see figure 4 & 5), being predefined ʻusefulʼ lcatins. Frm the left t the right, the first POI stands fr accmmdatins, the secnd fr restaurants, the third fr shps and the furth POI is implemented specifically fr real estate purchasers and indicates the available prperties. The fllwing buttns are nt really POIs and require sme further infrmatin. The drawing-pin highlights the 3D landmarks, the ludspeaker shws the events that will take place n certain lcatins and the camera stands fr mni-directinal vide. By means f the buttn with the red crss, the user can erase his previus search actins. The 3D landmarks, prvided by Tele Atlas, can be defined as: remarkable buildings and statues that are well-knwn t residents and turists. Each landmark has a realistic texture and can be zmed-in and rtated, giving users a better understanding f their spatial envirnment. 2. Thus when the user clicks n the drawing-pin buttn the imprtant curisities f a city, which are much mre detailed than the ther buildings in the 3D mdel, will be prvided with tags (see figure 6) that can serve as rientatin supprt. Figure 6: Screensht f 3D landmarks within URBAN prttype 2 URBAN Page 11 f 106

12 Omni-directinal vide (ODV) (see figure 7) is in fact a cnstant mving interactive vide fragment recrded by a prtable ODV camera set-up within which the user can see in all directins. ODV is cmparable t the 360 panramic pictures that is achieved by stitching nrmal, perspective, phtgraphs taken frm a fixed lcatin by a camera. When the user clicks n the camera buttn in the POI search bar several lcatins in the 3D mdel where ODV fragments were recrded are highlighted. After a duble click n these specific lcatins the matching ODV fragment starts t play. Figure 7: Screensht f ODV fragment f Dansaert street in Brussels Additinal functinalities Finally we will discuss tw additinal functinalities that are implemented in the URBAN prttype, mre specifically the ʻSearch Radiusʼ and the ʻRute Calculatrʼ. The incrprated POIs are spread all ver the city centre f Brussels, which is quite a large area. The ʻSearch Radiusʼ functinality (see figure 8) enables the user t limit his search t a self-selected area. The green pin n the ʻTp Viewʼ map indicates the userʼs current psitin. After selecting the ʻSearch Radiusʼ, which can be fund under the rw f POIs, it is pssible t draw a green circle ver the area in which ne wants t search fr particular POIs, fr instance the present restaurants within a search radius as figure 8 illustrates. URBAN Page 12 f 106

13 Figure 8: Screensht f 'Search Radius' functinality within the URBAN prttype The ʻRute Calculatrʼ functinality allws the user t receive a rute descriptin frm pint A t pint B by selecting these tw pints n the ʻTp Viewʼ map. The rute is marked by a blue line, which is als prjected n the grund in ʻHelicpter Viewʼ (see figure 10) as well as ʻStreet Viewʼ. It is imprtant t add hwever that the rute summary, including the travel distance, travel time, the straight-line distance and the actual rute descriptin, is nly fitted t vehicles and hence nt t pedestrians. URBAN Page 13 f 106

14 Figure 9: Screensht f 'Rute Calculatr' functinality within the URBAN prttype Figure 10: Screensht f 'Rute Calculatr' functinality in 'Helicpter View' 3.2 Descriptin f the user tests The user tests, hence referring t the interviews with respndents during which they had the chance t experience 3D city navigatin by means f the URBAN prxy, were cmpsed f several parts. It was nt the bjective t simply test the preliminary versin f the URBAN demnstratr, but t gain an insight in the URBAN Page 14 f 106

15 innvative pprtunities f a 3D city mdel fr peple wh plan a city trip n the ne hand and peple wh are lking fr a new hme n the ther hand. That is why we als interviewed the respndents with regard t their current city trip r real estate practices, why we let the respndents cnduct n nline search t see t what extent they currently use nline infrmatin in their city trip r real estate practices, why the respndents were given scenari-based tasks t cnduct in the URBAN prxy, etc. In rder t create cnsistency between the differend user tests, we created a step-bystep plan (that can be fund in the annex) that served as a guideline fr the researcher. The step-by-step plan indicates what needs t be dne in which rder, which means are needed t realise this and wh has which tasks. The step-by-step plan illustrates that the user tests actually cmpsed f ten parts. The ten steps are partly based n the eight guidelines indentified by Tim Fidgen (Head f Usability at Webcredible 3 ) fr usability testing 4, but are adjusted t ur research set-up and bjective. First we will shrtly describe the eight guidelines fr user testing t cntinue with the ten steps we identified in the cntext f the URBAN user tests. It is imprtant t clarify that even thugh the ten steps f the user tests are partly inspired by Fidgen s usability testing guidelines, we have framed the guidelines in a brader perspective. As we have emphasized befre, the URBAN user tests cannt be cnsidered as usability testing as traditinally cnducted within the humancmputer interactin (HCI) dmain. Nevertheless we need t pint ut the way the HCI dmain is currently evlving and bradening by pursuing a cnstant feedback and dialgue between users, designers and engineers. We ntice a shift twards the develpment f technical systems based n user experiences and needs rather than starting frm a cmpleted system and basing user experience arund it (Wise & Hgenhaven, 2008). In additin Bannn (1991) argues that in the HCI dmain it is mre apprpriate t talk abut human actrs instead f human factrs. Bannn uses the term human actrs t place emphasis n the persn as an autnmus agent that has the capacity t regulate and crdinate his r her behaviur, rather than simply being a passive element in a human-machine system (Bannn, 1991:26). Hence Bannn wants t step away frm a passive, fragmented and depersnalised cnntatin f the user and g twards a mre active, cntrlling cnntatin. Cnsequently ur usage f Fidgen s testing guidelins within a much 3 Webcredible ffers a range f usability, accessibility and design services fr websites, intranets, mbile devices and applicatins. 4 The eight guidelines can be fund n: URBAN Page 15 f 106

16 brader perspective actually fits within the way the HCI dmain is currently bradening itself. 8 guidelines by Fidgen (2005): 1. Chsing yur subjects: The results f tests depends n the peple yu test. Fidgen argues that it is best t nt test peple frm yur wn scial netwrk and t utsurce the selectin. Link t URBAN: Hw we have recruited ur respndents fr the URBAN user tests will later be discussed in detail in part Selectin and descriptin f the respndents. 2. Befre the testing: Each participant must be put at ease as the testing envirnment is ften a very artificial envirnment. In additin the participants shuld be prvided with clear instructins n what they can expect frm the test. Link t URBAN: In rder t put the URBAN respndents at ease, we have cnsciusly chsen t install the prttype n a prtable cmputer t enable the users t test the 3D city mdel in the safe and natural envirnment f their wn hme. Cnducting the user tests at the university might impse an intellectual framewrk, within which users may feel that they can nly give intellectual answers, and hence cause sme reservatin amng pssible respndents. By ging t the hme setting, we intented t create a cmfrtable atmsphere in which users culd pssibly have an immersive experience f 3D urban navigatin (Trben Nielsen et al., 2008). Hwever, we are well aware that bringing an unknwn laptp with a new applicatin int the hme envirnment f peple cannt be cnsidered as genuine ethngraphic research in the hme. 3. Beginning the testing: Befre cnducting the actual tasks, participants need t get familiar with the envirnment, fr instance by letting them take a first lk at the website they will be testing and gauging their first impressins. Link t URBAN: Will becme clear in the descriptin f the ten steps f the URBAN user tests. 4. Chsing tasks: URBAN Page 16 f 106

17 The tasks that the participants need t cnduct need t be essential fr the new applicatin s success. One can als ask the user t suggest tasks that can indicate new functinalities r pririties. Link t URBAN: Thrughut the whle user tests the respndents were encuraged t think freely abut pssible additinal useful functinalities and services f 3D city mdels frm their wn perspective. 5. Hw t wrd tasks: Peple tend t perfrm mre naturally if yu prvide them with scenaris and gals rather than instructins. Link t URBAN: Will becme clear in the descriptin f the ten steps f the URBAN user tests. 6. Presenting tasks: Only give participants ne task at a time. Mre than this may intimidate them, r alter their apprach t the test. Link t URBAN: The respndents were prvided with very accessible scenari-based tasks n which we will elabrate later. 7. Hw t behave during the testing: The researcher must stay neutral, quiet and ut f sight during the test t avid that ne alters the test results by prviding clues, suggesting directins r by reacting t things the participants say r d. Link t URBAN: We did nt want t give the respndents the feeling that they were simply testing an applicatin by themselves and wanted the respndents t be able t imagine themselves in a particular situatin/scenari, mre specifically in the situatin f planning a city trip r searching fr a prperty by means f a 3D city mdel. Therefre we chse t let the researcher read each scène f the scenari tgether with the respndent t ensure that the latter tk the time t reflect n the cntent f the scenari. The researcher als regularly intervened t help the respndents with sme technical prblems that ccurred during the user tests as we aimed at prviding users with a smth experience f 3D city navigatin. Hence the researcher did nt take-up the passive and quiet rle as the usability testing guideline prescribes. Yet since we are transparent cncerning the way the researcher guided the user tests, this guidance des nt frm any prblem. URBAN Page 17 f 106

18 8. After the testing: After all the tasks have been cmpleted, the researcher shuld gather as much infrmatin as pssible. Asking fr verall impressins f the applicatin will allw the researcher t judge whether expectatins have been met, and whether the participant's view f the applicatin has changed during the prcess. Link t URBAN: During their first acquaintance with the URBAN prttype, we prbed int the respndent s first impressins f the prttype. Once the respndent had finished all the scenari-based tasks and befre elabrating n the different functinalities f the prttype, we sunded t the respndents verall impressins. By ding s it became apparent that the respndents first impressin did nt change during the prcess f scenari-based task perfrmance. It is clear that Fidgen s eight guidelines fr testing are situated in the user-centred design (UCD) traditin, within which the user input that is integrated int the design prcess is ften mre fcused n individual experiences. Thugh we argue that media technlgies are dmesticated in the everyday scial life wrld f peple. Therefre we prefer t talk abut ʻpeple-centred designʼ, within which the scial cntext and pssibly the dmesticatin perspective are included t btain user insights. PCD prpses a heuristic apprach and cmbines anthrplgy, scilgy and design t identify pprtunities and shape rganisatins, prducts and services t best explit thse pprtunities. (Wakefrd, 2004) In ther wrds, PCD extends the UCD scpe (see figure 11) by cnsidering the user within his/her scial cntext rather than task-centric users as a fundamental surce f innvatin. User-centred design Peple-centred design Needs Practices Tasks Gals Individuals Scial cntext & Cmmunities Explicit knwledge Tacit knwledge Figure 11: Characteristics f UCD versus PCD URBAN Page 18 f 106

19 The ten steps f the URBAN user tests are actually a cmbinatin f the needbased lens f UCD as well as the practice-based lens f PCD (Van Lier, et. al., In press). The user tests sunded t the respndents needs as well as practices, we gave them tasks as well as gals, we fcussed n the individual level as well as cntextual aspects (e.g. Have the respndents already been n city trip? Are the respndents inhabitants r nn-inhabitants f Brussels?), we prbed int the respndents explicit knwledge as well as tacit knwledge (e.g. by bringing the respndents int cntact with a 3D city prttype we were able t btain knwledge that wuld nt have been pssible by means f slely interviews). 10 steps f the URBAN user tests: 1. Descriptin f the bjective and set-up f the user test : Taking the secnd guideline f Fidgen int accunt, which is putting the respndents at ease, we started the user test by clearly infrming the respndents n what they culd expect frm the user test, n its set-up and n its bjective. We emphasised that the scenari-based tasks wuld nt be difficult and that the respndents were definitely nt the nes being tested. We cmmunicated that the tasks and interviews nly aimed at generating their feedback n and mapping their experiences with the URBAN technlgy. 2. Establishing a prfile sketch : In view f making a prfile sketch f each respndent, we prbed int their relevant city trip r real estate experiences, their average internet usage and ther prfile data. 3. Cnducting an nline search : In rder t gain a better insight in the practice f planning a city trip and searching fr a prperty and the rle the internet has within these practices, we asked the respndents t cnduct an nline search and shw us hw they wuld lk fr turist r real estate infrmatin and what kind f infrmatin they wuld lk fr. The chice t give the respndents an nline search assignments is based n the hypthesis that the take-up f a 3D digital city mdel in the prcess f planning a city trip r searching fr a new hme is partly linked t the current user practices and the rle that ther existing digital applicatins, e.g. websites such as Tripadvisr fr city trippers and Immweb fr real estate purchasers, plays URBAN Page 19 f 106

20 in these planning practices. Fr example, a turist wh always plans a city trip by means f a traditinal paper travel guide and des nt cnsult any additinal (digital) infrmatin surces, will prbably have mre reservatins twards using a 3D city mdel in his planning practices than a city tripper wh exclusively plans a city trip by means f nline turist infrmatin and nline maps. 4. Interview n current dmesticated practices : After the nline search, an interview further prbed int the respndents dmesticated practices. The first iteratin f the user research already prvided us with a first insight in the practice f planning a city trip and searching fr a prperty. Nevertheless we again sunded t the respndents current practices t pssibly validate the Task findings n the ne hand and t frame the user test respndents n the ther hand. 5. Presenting the URBAN prttype : In rder t give the respndents the pprtunity t have a first 3D city navigatin experience, we briefly explained hw t navigate thrugh the 3D envirnment and the different functinalities and buttns that are implemented in the prxy. 6. The respndent s first acquaintance with the URBAN prttype : In relatin t the third guideline f Fidgen, i.e. letting the respndents familiarize with the applicatin, the respndents had the chance t navigate freely thrugh the 3D city mdel fr apprximately ten minutes. Hence befre cntinuing t the predefined scenari-based tasks, the user had the chance t familiarize with 3D city navigatin. During this first acquaintance with the URBAN prttype, we used the think alud methd (Van Smeren et. al., 1994) t gain insight in the respndents first impressins. Thus the respndents were encuraged t say ut lud what came t their mind while explring the 3D city mdel. 7. Gauging the respndent s first impressin f the URBAN prttype : The think alud methd used during the previus step f the user test already gave an insight in the respndents first impressin f the URBAN prttype. Nevertheless after the respndents first acquaintance with 3D city navigatin, we explicitly prbed int their first impressin, thus what they nticed and what they liked and disliked. 8. Installing the URBAN prttype fr the scenari-based task perfrmance : URBAN Page 20 f 106

21 Befre cntinuing t the actual scenari-based task perfrmance, we erased the search actins the respndent cnducted during his first acquaintance with the URBAN prttype and installed the prttype in accrdance with the first scene f the scenari. 9. Scenari-based task perfrmance : With regard t the fifth guideline fr user testing, the fact that peple tend t perfrm mre naturally when they are prvided with scenaris rather than with instructins, we wrded the tasks in the frm f a stry (that can be fund in the annex), mre specifically a dwnsized versin f the user scenaris that fits the technical pssibilities f the prttype. An imprtant questin that shuld be addressed in this cntext is why we have assigned tasks t the respndents instead f slely letting them navigate freely thrugh the URBAN prttype. First the tasks enabled the respndents t explre all the pssibilities and functinalities f the applicatin. Secndly as the users experience f 3D city navigatin had a central rle during the user tests, the guiding tasks preserved the user frm pure usability issues. In ther wrds, in rder t enable the user t pssibly have an immersive experience, the interactin between the user and the prttype cannt be disturbed by technical shrtcmings. Furthermre the scenari-based tasks als avided the user tests being t task-riented in the sense f being purely a user task analysis dminantly used t assess the usability f a new applicatin. 10. Evaluative interview n the URBAN prttype : In line with the eight guideline fr user testing, the evaluative interview (the questinnaire can be fund in the annex) that tk place right after the scenaribased task perfrmance began with sunding t the respndent s verall impressin f the prttype befre elabrating n his thughts n the different functinalities f the prttype. Nw that the set-up f the user tests is clear, we can cntinue t the actual findings f the respndents user tests. The findings will be preceded by a detailed descriptin f the selectin f the respndents. URBAN Page 21 f 106

22 3.3 Turism user tests Selectin and descriptin f the respndents The respndents were selected via purpseful sampling. Fr this we used the snwball methd. By means f different selectin criteria we aimed at creating a gd variatin amng the respndents in rder t be able t cmpare different types f users. We have mbilised peple we knw t lk fr peple in their scial netwrks wh match the predefined selectin criteria. The basic criteria t which each respndent had t respnd: - The respndent is nt an inhabitant f Brussels since explring the 3D mdel f Brussels frm a turist perspective is nt relevant fr inhabitants. - The respndent has t be interested in a pssible future visit t Brussels in rder t emulate the everyday life practice f planning a city trip as best as pssible. - The respndent must already have been n at least 2 city trips in the past in rder t insure that he/she is familiar with the everyday life practice f a city trip. - The respndent needs t be familiar with cnducting nline searches and basic cmputer tasks as the flw f the user tests shuld nt be disturbed by the lack f cmputer skills, which wuld prevent the respndent f having an immersive experience. - The respndent shuld already have searched fr turist infrmatin n the internet t allw him/her t imagine him-/herself using an (internet) applicatin in the prcess f planning a city trip. Next t these basic criteria that are shared by all the respndents, we differentiated the respndents by means f tw additinal criteria, namely age and the degree f initial city trip planning. We invlved the tw age categries < 40 years and 40 t 60 years t create mre variatin amng the respndents in cmparisn t the first iteratin f the empirical field research where we investigated a dminantly yung grup f respndents with high cmputer skills. The final additinal selectin criterin we have chsen, namely the degree f initial city trip planning, is guided by frmer research. The user research cnducted during the first iteratin f Task 4.3 has shwn that all turists plan, mre r less frmally, a city trip, whether r nt depending n nline infrmatin surces. Hwever, the carefulness and the level f detail f this initial planning substantially varies amng turists and depends n varius circumstances, such as the turist s previus knwledge f the destinatin, earlier city trip experiences, the duratin f the vacatin, etc. (Mllerup, 2005; URBAN Page 22 f 106

23 Rubben, 2006). Peple can take up different rles, depending n the aim f the visit and the specific situatin. Within the ROMAS prject (Research On Mbile Applicatins and Services), researchers identified seven different rles (illustrated by the figure belw and described in detail in D ) that a persn can assume when ging int twn. Each rle can lead t specific requirements fr future urban services and applicatins (Piersn et al., 2008). Figure 12: Typlgy f rles in the practice f 'ging int twn' Nevertheless, the Ging int twn mdel (Figure 12) is still under develpment as there is nt yet a frmal identificatin f each f the seven rles. Therefre the final additinal selectin criterin based n which we recruited the URBAN respndents, the degree f initial city trip planning, is nly based n the basic prfiles and thus the hrizntal axis, mre specifically the planner n the ne hand and the explrer n the ther hand. We keep in mind thugh that there are several gradatins within these tw basic prfiles. While the Ging int twn mdel differentiates between fficial surces f infrmatin versus infrmal surces f infrmatin based n which peple plan a city visit, we differentiated the URBAN planners between planners wh mainly prepare their city trip n the basis f nline infrmatin (e.g. nline travel guides, nline travel diaries, user-generated turist cntent, etc.) versus planners whse preparatin is mainly based n ffline infrmatin (e.g. travel guides, magazines, brchures, wrd-f-muth, etc.). In the cntext f URBAN the distinctin URBAN Page 23 f 106

24 between nline and ffline is mre useful than a distinctin n the level f the character f the surces f infrmatin (fficial versus infrmal). The questin whether ne wuld actually use a 3D digital city mdel with turist functinalities t plan a city trip is t a certain extent linked t the current user planning practices and the rle that ther existing digital turist applicatins, fr instance nline turist websites as Tripadvisr, already plays in these planning practices. Whether users cnsult fficial r infrmal nline turist infrmatin is less f imprtance in the case f URBAN. The selectin criteria have led t the fllwing matrix f respndents 5 : < 40 years 40 t 60 years The (mainly) nline planner Annelies Rb The (mainly) ffline planner Thmas Els The explrer Evelien Nëlla Nw that we have elabrated n the selectin and descriptin f the respndents that were subjected t a secnd rund f multi-methd ethngraphic research, we will detail the actual findings f the user research Findings f the user tests Whether a 3-dimensinal city mdel and its related services culd ffer pprtunities and added value fr city trippers depends n the everyday life practice f planning a city trip. D the existing turist infrmatin surces and tls have certain shrtcmings and if yes, culd future 3D digital city applicatins serve as an answer t these shrtcmings? The city trip practice was the scpe f the first iteratin f the empirical field research. Yet the secnd iteratin f the user research again investigated the practices f the recruited city trip respndents in rder t frame the respndents n the ne hand and t pssibly validate the findings n the practice f planning a city trip, hence the first iteratin f the user research, n the ther hand. 5 A detailed descriptin f the respndents with regard t the predefined selectin criteria can be fund in the annex. URBAN Page 24 f 106

25 Therefre the first tpic will address the findings n the dminant turist infrmatin tls. Next t the pssible shrtcmings f the dmesticated turist infrmatin tls, the innvative pprtunities f a 3D city mdel are als linked t its affrdances, hence the different functinalities and services that is ffers. We will see that wayfinding tgether with lcalizatin is perceived as the primary affrdance f the URBAN prttype. The fact that a virtual three-dimensinal mdel is primarily perceived as a practical navigatin and lcalizatin tl, which is especially useful when ne is n the spt in an unfamiliar surrunding, identifies the pssible added value f mbile 3D city applicatins. As a result the perceptins f and expectatins twards mbile 3D urban applicatins will be addressed as a third tpic. Thugh the perceived usefulness and added value f a 3D city mdel als depends n the latter s ability t create an immersive urban experience. Immersin is linked t the degree t which the virtual reality is perceived as real. Therefre we will discuss the perceived realism f bth the three-dimensinal mdel and the mnidirectinal vide. Finally the innvative pprtunities f a 3D city mdel are als situated in the field f the ffered Pints f Interest. POIs can nly have added value in case they fit the persnal interests f the user. In the cntext f POIs we see that tw imprtant elements need t be taken int accunt, mre specifically persnalisatin/categrisatin and synpsis. All these findings have implicatins fr the willingness-t-pay f the respndents and will be discussed as a final tpic. The practice f planning and ging n a city trip: The dminant turist infrmatin tls The main advantage f a travel guide is its mbility and thus its ability t prvide sme (navigatin) guidance n the spt. The turist infrmatin that is ffered by a travel guide is perceived as mre synptic and well rganised in cmparisn t the diffuse nline turist infrmatin. URBAN Page 25 f 106

26 Turists prefer t decide which restaurants, bars and shps they will visit n the spt in rder t keep the city trip mre r less spntaneus. Future mbile turist applicatins shuld be able t respnd t this need t nt plan everything in advance. City trippers are interested in up-t-date infrmatin such as pening hurs, events, exhibitins and the schedules f public transprt. Three-dimensinal city mdels shuld therefre play a part in this particular need f turists that a traditinal guidebk cannt fulfil. The first rund f multi-methd ethngraphic research, f which the results can be fund in D4.3.1, has already indicated the dminant psitin f the traditinal travel guide. The practical paper guide can serve as a tl t plan a trip befrehand, ffers supprt n the spt t lk up sme extra infrmatin abut certain sights, cntains several maps f different parts f the city, gives an verview and descriptin f restaurants, bars, shps, etc. The URBAN prxy, as it was tested by the respndents, is nt a digital travel guide in itself, but it has the fllwing functinalities f a traditinal paper travel guide: 1. The static 3D city mdel can als be used t plan mre r less a city trip in advance frm the hme setting. 2. The 3D landmark functinality can give the user an idea f the mst imprtant sights f a particular city. Thugh it des nt prvide any additinal infrmatin abut these sights like a travel guide des and it is nt cnsultative n the spt since the 3D city mdel is nt mbile. 3. The 3D city mdel als visualizes all the different parts f the city like the street maps and pictures in a travel guide d. 4. The 3D city mdel gives an verview f (a selectin f) the available restaurants, htels and shps as well, but it des nt prvide a descriptin r ranking f these facilities. First we nticed that the travel guide clearly respnds t the needs f varius types f city trippers as even the tw respndents we recruited in the cntext f the user tests as the archetypal nline planner, thus mainly planning a city trip n the basis f nline infrmatin, admitted t always take alng a paper travel guide n a city visit. The nline planners make use f the city maps in the guide t rient themselves in unfamiliar urban envirnments and read the backgrund infrmatin f certain URBAN Page 26 f 106

27 curisities. Our empirical research, hence bth iteratins, has already highlighted the great significance f city maps fr city trippers. Later we will elabrate n the tpic f wayfinding/navigatin. Yu knw it is practical the mment that yu have planned everything that yu take a small atlas r a small guide with yu fr, as I have said, a street map r t. Els (= his wife) des it ften when yu are smewhere when yu are at that place t read sme mre details in that guide r facts r t nt always have t buy a guide at a museum r smething like that. 6 (Rb, Online planner, 48 years) Yet next t its ptential t serve as a navigatin supprt and a persnal (museum) guide, the travel guide is als frequently applied n the spt t lk up particular things that even well prepared planners d nt like t lk up befrehand, namely restaurants, bars and shps. Obviusly the chice f such facilities is ften based n serendipity and cntextual factrs. ( ) I can imagine that yu are nt ging t plan everything cncerning fd and shps befrehand. When yu are smewhere in the neighburhd and yu are hungry then it is practical t knw where there is a nice restaurants in the neighburhd. (Annelies, Online planner, 23 years) Nevertheless, the users tests have pinted ut sme shrtcmings f the traditinal paper guide t which the internet can respnd t and that can create pprtunities fr virtual city applicatins. The internet is the medium pre-eminently that lends itself t up-t-date infrmatin, while a paper guide carries a certain inertia in itself. Cnsequently the internet is much mre suitable t anticipate n temprary activities such as events, exhibitins, cncerts, etc. All types f city trippers can benefit frm up-t-date turist infrmatin. Cnsequently the tw recruited archetypal ffline planners, wh plan a city trip mainly by means f ffline infrmatin surces, still cnsulted the internet t search fr sme up-t-date infrmatin like pening hurs r events. Obviusly a 3D city mdel can als be cnsidered as a fast medium that can lend itself t up-t-date infrmatin. 6 All respndent interviews were cnducted in Dutch. We have translated the citatins as literal as pssible frm Dutch int English. URBAN Page 27 f 106

28 Like events, the latest new things, fr that I wuld rather g t the internet. Fr what has changed, happened r is being rganised the last mnths, years, but fr the classics, fr example the places, the sights ffline infrmatin might even be easier and mre rganised than nline. (Thmas, Offline planner, 25 years) Yet at the same time, as the previus citatin illustrates, Thmas as an ffline planner indicates his preference fr the well rganised and synptic structure f the paper travel guide in cmparisn t the mre widespread and diffuse nline turist infrmatin. The first iteratin f the user research has already identified the perceived abundance f nline turist infrmatin, which makes it smetimes very difficult and time-cnsuming t gain an verview and t find the required infrmatin. As a result well-structured turist applicatins that ffer a quick verview wuld be useful. In additin, similarly t the previus empirical field research, we ntice that nline turist infrmatin is als appreciated fr its user-generated cntent created by ther turists (review, rankings, etc.), its strng visual feature and its ease-f-use fr nline bkings (flight tickets and accmmdatins). The cmparisn between the tw ppular turist infrmatin surces prvides a clear insight in the dmesticated practices f turist infrmatin retrieval and highlights the needs and expectatins f city trippers. These insights are indispensable t be able t identify user innvatin in the cntext f 3D urban navigatin. Wayfinding and lcalizatin as primary affrdance All city trippers regularly struggle with wayfinding issues. Frm this perspective navigatin supprt is perceived as the primary service f 3D city mdels. Cnsequently navigatin shuld be a basic functin n all urban turist applicatins. Three-dimensinal visualisatin f urban envirnments prvides a clear insight in a city, a better rientatin and allws users t better link particular places t each ther. URBAN Page 28 f 106

29 Turist applicatins shuld enable users t lcalize traditinal turist facilities, such as htels, restaurants and turists centres. By means f the users tests we addressed the fllwing research sub questin: Which services culd ffer a genuine added value fr city trippers in a 3D city envirnments? The first iteratin f the empirical field research already shwed that turists ften struggle with wayfinding issues and strngly rely n a city map t navigate thrugh an unfamiliar city. Hw t get frm pint A t pint B, n ft r by public transprt, is actually the main cncern f city trippers during their visit t a city (especially their first visit). The interviews with the test users als express and thus cnfirm this need fr navigatin supprt in unfamiliar urban envirnments. This als explains why the respndents primarily situate the added value f the tested URBAN applicatin in the cntext f wayfinding and navigatin. It is imprtant t add that wayfinding n the ne hand, hw t get frm ne place t anther, and lcalizatin n the ther hand, determining where particular things and yurself are lcalized, are usually linked t each ther, but they can als be cnsidered separately. While cnducting the scenari-based tasks, the respndents came in cntact with all the affrdances f the 3D city mdel. One specific functinality is the ability t calculate a rute, which is the primary functin f GPS devices. During the evaluatin f the mdel this well-knwn GPS functinality repeatedly came frward as ne f the mst interesting functinalities f the 3D city mdel. Fr the mment the rute descriptins are tailred t vehicles. It is bvius that, in rder t be relevant fr city trippers, the user shuld als be prvided with rutes fr pedestrians and ideally even with public transprt schedules. The mst practical is prbably the rute descriptin that yu receive autmatically when yu click n Cntrl ( ) that yu can actually frm yur rute and then yu dn t even need yur map anymre. (Thmas, Offline planner, 25 years) The URBAN prttype als enables turists t search fr htels, restaurants and shps. Lcalising and finding yur way t these facilities and t ther turist lcatins, including turist centres, is bviusly perceived as the primary affrdance f 3D city mdels by the respndents. All ther functinalities and additinal infrmatin are perceived as practical extras. With regard t wayfinding and lcalizatin the three-dimensinal aspect f the city mdel can cntribute t a better URBAN Page 29 f 106

30 spatial insight in the cmpsitin f the city and hence can facilitate the navigatin practices accrding t the respndents. Nw it is just practical t have a spatial view and t knw where everything is lcated gegraphically, but if yu receive extra ptins with that like cmments and reviews and additinal infrmatin, as cnsumer yu g as far as yu want with that, but it wuld be practical if yu have that pssibility. (Evelien, Explrer, 23 years) Fr me it is just purely a manner f rientatin t knw where htels, restaurants, shps are lcated and pssibly t find the way thrughut the city. (Annelies, Online planner, 23 years) The female respndents frequently mentined their lack f rientatin skills and the difficulties they experience with reading cmmn 2D street maps during city trips. They smetimes even generalised these prblems t all wmen with citatins such as it is just practical fr wmen wh ften get lst (Evelien, Explrer, 23 years). Frm this perspective, the three-dimensinal representatin f urban envirnments, especially in Helicpter View (in which the user is lcated just abve the rf f buildings), is perceived as interesting t prvide users with a clear insight in (parts f) the city and thus t link different lcatins t each ther. Several respndents even indicated that thanks t the 3D representatin f Brussels, they culd nw link several imprtant sights r buildings in Brussels t each ther. I have abslutely n rientatin skills and this (i.e. helicpter view) gives me an insight ah the Dôme is lcated ver there, t say smething, r ah it is psitined in that way. It is difficult fr me t visualise that and this gives me sme depth view, literally and figuratively. (Nëlla, Explrer, 48 years) After navigating thrugh the 3D city mdel Evelien t mentins that the 3D visualisatin, in case f a mbile versin, can be a genuine added value t rient herself and t navigate thrugh the city in cmparisn t an rdinary plan. She cmpares the three-dimensinal visuals with the visual applicatin f a GPS. Again the tested URBAN prttype with all its functinalities is thus mainly perceived as an interesting urban navigatin tl. URBAN Page 30 f 106

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