MAKING A BETTER WORLD CARRIER, RETAILER, AND CONSUMER SUPPORT FOR SUSTAINABILITY INITIATIVES IN THE CONTEXT OF URBAN DISTRIBUTION AND RETAILING

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "MAKING A BETTER WORLD CARRIER, RETAILER, AND CONSUMER SUPPORT FOR SUSTAINABILITY INITIATIVES IN THE CONTEXT OF URBAN DISTRIBUTION AND RETAILING"

Transcription

1 MAKING A BETTER WORLD CARRIER, RETAILER, AND CONSUMER SUPPORT FOR SUSTAINABILITY INITIATIVES IN THE CONTEXT OF URBAN DISTRIBUTION AND RETAILING

2 Dianne Hofenk, 2012 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in an information or retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, photocopying or recording means without prior written permission from the author. ISBN: Cover design: Erik Crombag Printed by: Ipskamp Drukkers B.V., Enschede, The Netherlands

3 MAKING A BETTER WORLD CARRIER, RETAILER, AND CONSUMER SUPPORT FOR SUSTAINABILITY INITIATIVES IN THE CONTEXT OF URBAN DISTRIBUTION AND RETAILING PROEFSCHRIFT ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor aan de Open Universiteit op gezag van de rector magnificus prof. mr. A. Oskamp ten overstaan van een door het College voor promoties ingestelde commissie in het openbaar te verdedigen op vrijdag 19 oktober 2012 te Heerlen om uur precies door Dianne Johanna Berendina Hofenk geboren op 27 december 1983 te Voorst

4 Promotoren: Prof. dr. J. Semeijn, Open Universiteit Prof. dr. J.M.M. Bloemer, Radboud University Nijmegen Co-promotor: Dr. M.J.H. van Birgelen, Radboud University Nijmegen Overige leden van de beoordelingscommissie: Prof. dr. J.G.A.M. Lemmink, Universiteit Maastricht Prof. dr. ir. J.C.M. van Trijp, Wageningen University Prof. dr. M.C.J. Caniëls, Open Universiteit Prof. dr. ir. H.R. Krikke, Open Universiteit, Universiteit van Tilburg Faculteit Managementwetenschappen

5 Table of contents Voorwoord Introduction Introduction and managerial motivation for this dissertation Research context Theoretical motivation for this dissertation Research questions and overview of studies Outline of the dissertation Exploring the factors that enhance retailer and carrier willingness to support new urban distribution initiatives Introduction Theoretical context Urban distribution Institutional theory: Legitimacy and perceived need for change Trust Institutional entrepreneurship: Institutional work and personal legitimacy Method Rationale Research context Sample Data collection Data analysis Findings Initiative-related factors Stakeholder-related factors Initiator-related factors Discussion A model of factors that enhance retailer and carrier willingness to support new urban distribution initiatives Theoretical implications Managerial implications Limitations and suggestions for further research Conclusion On the origins of pro-environmental shopping intentions: Subjective norms, awareness of consequences, and ascription of responsibility Introduction... 56

6 3.2 Theoretical background Pro-environmental shopping behavior Norm-activation theory Theory of planned behavior Hypotheses development Personal norms Attitude toward pro-environmental shopping Subjective norms Perceived behavioral control Awareness of consequences and ascription of responsibility Interaction effects Method Study context Sample and data collection Construct measurement Measurement properties Construction of interaction terms Results Model overview Effects of personal norms, attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control Effects of awareness of consequences and ascription of responsibility Interaction effects Additional analyses: From intentions to behavior Discussion Theoretical implications Managerial implications Limitations and suggestions for further research Conclusion How consumers react to retailers sustainability initiatives: The joint manifestation of personal and social mechanisms Introduction Theoretical background and hypotheses development Sustainability Retail sustainability initiatives Consumer responses to retail sustainability initiatives Locational convenience Moderating effects of personal and subjective norms Mediation by identification and legitimacy Method Design Stimuli Dependent variables, moderators, and mediators... 88

7 4.3.4 Pilot experiment Procedure Sample Measurement properties Data preparation and hypotheses testing approach Results Manipulation checks and the control variable Model overview Manipulation effects on consumer responses Moderating effects of personal and subjective norms Discussion Theoretical implications Managerial implications Limitations and suggestions for further research Conclusion Conclusion Synopsis Discussion The influence of personal and social factors The role of instrumental, relational, and moral motives The role of credibility Theoretical implications Managerial implications A perspective on future research References Appendices Nederlandse samenvatting Curriculum vitae

8

9 Voorwoord 9

10 Mijn promotie was niet gelukt zonder de steun en hulp van heel veel mensen. Die mensen wil ik hier bedanken. Allereerst wil ik mijn promotoren Prof. dr. Janjaap Semeijn and Prof. dr. José Bloemer en mijn co-promotor Dr. Marcel van Birgelen bedanken. Jullie waren een geweldig begeleidingsteam! Janjaap, je had altijd oog voor de grote lijn in een paper en kwam vaak met verrassende ideeën en invalshoeken. Ik heb veel van je geleerd over transport en supply chains, vooral in relatie tot duurzaamheid. Daarnaast heb je een groot relativeringsvermogen, veel humor, en sta je relaxed in het leven, wat me hielp om soms afstand te nemen van mijn proefschrift en te bedenken dat er meer in het leven is dan promoveren. Tot slot heb ik veel van je opgestoken over voeding; zo heb ik alles geleerd over de gevaren van glucosefructosestroop en mijd ik sindsdien producten waar dit in zit, ik heb geleerd dat je het effect van suiker, bijv. in een zoet nagerecht, op je suikerspiegel kunt neutraliseren door er kaneel bij te eten, dat rode wijn gezonder is dan witte wijn, dat je bij elke maaltijd iets zuurs moet eten (bijv. augurken) en dat mensen die meer chocola eten een lagere BMI hebben dan mensen die minder chocola eten. José, ondanks je drukke agenda had je altijd tijd om mijn papers van grondig en gedetailleerd commentaar te voorzien. Ook al betekende dit commentaar vaak weer een week (of langer) zwoegen om een paper te verbeteren en zag ik soms echt niet meer hoe ik de introductie van het paper of een andere passage nog scherper kon formuleren, zonder dit commentaar was het proefschrift nooit geworden wat het nu is. Ik heb geleerd om nauwkeurig en consistent te zijn en mijn hersenen net zo lang te laten kraken en passages net zo vaak opnieuw te schrijven totdat alles klopt. Daarnaast heb ik geprofiteerd van je enorme kennis van consumentengedrag en was je altijd enthousiast en positief, wat me motiveerde om door te gaan. Marcel, jij was mijn dagelijkse begeleider en ik heb de afgelopen jaren dan ook heel vaak bij je aangeklopt, mijn hoofd om de hoek gestoken en gevraagd: heb je even tijd? Jouw antwoord was steevast: Ja hoor, kom binnen. Bedankt daarvoor! Je stond altijd klaar om van gedachten te wisselen als ik ergens niet uitkwam, om te helpen een oplossing te zoeken als ik vastliep of om gewoon even gezellig te kletsen. Bij het becommentariëren van mijn papers was je kritisch als het nodig was, maar ook positief wanneer je iets goed vond. Dat werkte erg motiverend. Dank aan de beoordelingscommissie, Prof. dr. Jos Lemmink, Prof. dr. ir. Hans van Trijp, Prof. dr. Marjolein Caniëls en Prof. dr. Harold Krikke, voor het lezen en beoordelen van mijn proefschrift en aan Prof. dr. Rik Pieters voor het plaatsnemen in de promotiecommissie. Mijn collega s van het Transumo project Transition to Sustainable Urban Distribution (waarin ik de data voor hoofdstuk 2 en 3 heb verzameld) wil ik graag bedanken voor de prettige samenwerking: Birgit Hendriks van Binnenstadservice en Hans Quak en Tariq van Rooijen van TNO. Daarnaast wil ik ook Cyrella Beckers, Saskia Pennings, Rik Buiting, Annelies Kleinherenbrink en Sander de Ridder bedanken voor hun hulp bij het verzamelen en analyseren van de data voor dit proefschrift. Natuurlijk gaat mijn dank ook uit naar alle respondenten: alle winkeliers in de binnenstad van 10

11 Nijmegen en alle transporteurs, eigen vervoerders en pakketdiensten die hebben meegewerkt aan de interviews en enquêtes, en alle consumenten die hebben meegewerkt aan de enquête en het experiment. Daarnaast wil ik de Open Universiteit en in het bijzonder Herman van den Bosch, Rob Kusters en Gerard Mertens bedanken voor de gelegenheid die ik heb gekregen om bij de Open Universiteit als promovendus en later universitair docent mijn promotieonderzoek te verrichten. Verder wil ik ook alle collega s van de Faculteit Managementwetenschappen bedanken voor de prettige samenwerking en gezelligheid. Speciale dank gaat uit naar Marjolein Caniëls, Kees Gelderman en Paul Ghijssen. Bedankt voor het meedenken met mijn onderzoek en de vele leuke gesprekken! Harold Krikke, ook al is het project over retouren uiteindelijk niet in mijn proefschrift beland, toch bedankt voor de prettige samenwerking en hopelijk rolt er een mooie publicatie uit! De Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen was tijdens mijn promotie mijn tweede werkplek. Ik ben de Faculteit der Managementschappen van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen zeer dankbaar voor de nulaanstelling die ik gedurende de vier jaar van mijn promotietraject heb mogen genieten. De werkplek in Nijmegen heeft mij veel gebracht: waardevolle adviezen van een groot aantal collega s bij Bedrijfskunde en heel veel gezellige lunches en andere sociale activiteiten. Ook al had ik slechts een nulaanstelling, ik had altijd het idee dat ik er volledig bij hoorde en daarvoor wil ik iedereen bij Bedrijfskunde bedanken. In het bijzonder wil ik mijn collega s van de Marketing groep bedanken: Alain de Beuckelaer, Vera Blazevic, Paul Driessen, Ina Garnefeld, Jörg Henseler, Bas Hillebrand, Csilla Horváth, Herm Joosten, Nanne Migchels en Allard van Riel. Bedankt voor jullie feedback en adviezen en dat ik deel mocht uitmaken van de Marketing groep! Jörg Henseler: jouw kennis van methoden is voor mij van onschatbare waarde geweest. Ik heb enorm veel van je geleerd en mede daardoor heeft dit proefschrift tot stand kunnen komen. Je stond altijd klaar om mijn vragen te beantwoorden (zelfs vanaf je vakantieadres in Spanje!) en me te helpen. Heel hartelijk dank hiervoor! Stefan Heusinkveld, naast de gezellige theekransjes waarin we jouw en mijn onderzoek, promoveren in het algemeen, volleybal en atletiek bespraken, wil ik je ook bedanken voor de feedback die je op hoofdstuk 2 van dit proefschrift hebt gegeven. Voor een kwantitatieveling als ik was het een grote stap naar kwalitatief onderzoek en die overstap moest in het laatste half jaar nog even gemaakt worden. Bedankt voor je hulp hierbij. Jing Zhang, Kristina Manser en Liesbeth Gulpers, mijn kamergenoten over het gehele promotietraject: ik heb met veel plezier met jullie op een kamer gewerkt. Bedankt voor de (onderzoeks)tips en de leuke gesprekken. Kristina en Liesbeth, heel veel succes met de laatste loodjes! Gelukkig was er ook nog een leven buiten de universiteit Ik wil mijn vrienden bedanken voor hun belangstelling en de nodige afleiding en ontspanning waarvoor ze hebben gezorgd. In het bijzonder wil ik de volgende mensen bedanken. Arjen, Erwin, Kevin, Lian, Maaike en Willem, alias De Hel van het Noorden : voor een buitenstaander misschien een vreemde combinatie, 11

12 maar voor mij de ideale vriendenmix. Tjandra, we begonnen als collega s op de Open Universiteit, maar werden al snel vriendinnen. We kunnen alles met elkaar bespreken, ontzettend met elkaar lachen en lekker gek doen, leuke reizen maken (IJsland!), sushi eten, carnaval vieren, enzovoort Bedankt voor je vriendschap! Erik, bedankt voor het ontwerpen van de omslag van dit proefschrift en voor al die andere grafische/computer-gerelateerde zaken waar je me altijd mee helpt. Mensen van t Haasje, op de atletiekbaan kon ik altijd even stoom afblazen en relaxen. Bedankt voor al die gezellige trainingen, wedstrijden en andere activiteiten! Tot slot wil ik mijn familie bedanken. Lieve papa en mama, jullie hebben me altijd vrij gelaten en me op het hart gedrukt om iets te gaan doen wat ik leuk vond. Dat heb ik gedaan en het heeft me hier gebracht. Bedankt voor jullie steun en betrokkenheid. Rob en Marlies, opa en oma, oma, Marjo, en andere familieleden, bedankt voor jullie belangstelling tijdens al die jaren van studie en promoveren. Het was misschien niet altijd duidelijk waar ik nu precies mee bezig was, maar hopelijk geeft dit proefschrift eindelijk een idee. Dankzij jullie ben ik altijd met beide benen op de grond blijven staan. Lieve Paul, vooral in het laatste jaar heb je mij thuis zoveel werk uit handen genomen, mij afgeremd als ik mezelf over de kop dreigde te werken en nooit geklaagd als ik avond na avond, op vrije dagen en in de vakanties aan het werk was en dus geen tijd voor je had. Dankjewel voor je liefde en steun! (Boks!) 12

13 13

14 14

15 Chapter 1 Introduction In this chapter, we briefly introduce the central topic of this dissertation. We describe the managerial and theoretical motivation for this dissertation and sketch the research context. Subsequently, we present the research questions and provide an overview of the studies. We conclude this chapter with an outline of the remainder of this dissertation. 15

16 1.1 Introduction and managerial motivation for this dissertation Sustainability has become an important theme in society. Governments, companies, and individuals increasingly express their concern for the natural and social environment, which they are part of and which is affected by their behavior. In 1987, the World Commission on Environment and Development published Our Common Future in which they called for sustainable development, or development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (p. 43). Accordingly, companies have adopted the idea of the triple bottom line, which holds that business performance should be assessed on social justice, environmental quality, and economic prosperity also referred to as People, Planet, Profit (Elkington 1999). A concept closely related to sustainability is corporate social responsibility (CSR), which has been defined as the firm s consideration of, and response to, issues beyond the narrow economic, technical, and legal requirements of the firm. It is the firm s obligation to evaluate in its decision-making process the effects of its decisions on the external social system in a manner that will accomplish social benefits along with the traditional economic gains which the firm seeks (Davis 1973, pp ). Many companies now pay attention to their environmental and social performance in annual reports or publish separate sustainability or responsibility reports (see for example, the websites of Johnson and Johnson, Philips, and Walmart). Sustainability initiatives often transcend organizational boundaries and require the support of multiple stakeholders to be effective (Pagell and Wu 2009). For example, if retailers want to offer sustainable products to consumers, they need their supply chains, which may include manufacturers and several tiers of suppliers, to operate sustainably. Retailers also seek consumer support for their sustainability initiatives to ensure economic prosperity; such initiatives can, for example, improve a company s image among consumers (Yoon et al. 2006) and increase their loyalty (Vlachos et al. 2009). Given the importance of stakeholder support for the effectiveness of sustainability initiatives, it is essential to examine which factors influence such support and how these factors influence support. Therefore, the aim of this dissertation is to improve our understanding of (1) factors that influence stakeholder in particular, carrier, retailer, and consumer support for sustainability initiatives in the context of urban distribution and retailing, and (2) mechanisms that underlie the formation of such support. 1.2 Research context There are three reasons why urban distribution and retailing is a particularly relevant context to study stakeholder support for sustainability initiatives. First, city centers have major economic importance as hubs for trading and industrial activities, and often fulfill a vital role with regard to leisure activities. Urban distribution enables these activities, but also causes severe sustainability-related problems, such as environmental degradation and unsafe traffic situations (Quak and De Koster 2007). Current urban distribution systems lack coordination and 16

17 cooperation at the level of the city center (i.e., the system level): carriers and retailers work to optimize their own distribution performance rather than achieve system-wide optimization resulting in many small deliveries by multiple carriers, and inefficiently utilized vehicles (Crainic et al. 2004; Ljungberg and Gebresenbet 2004). These sustainability issues are particularly problematic since 50% of the worldwide population lives in urban areas and this percentage is expected to grow to almost 69% in 2050 (Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat 2009), indicating the need for effective sustainability initiatives in the context of urban distribution. Second, several initiatives have been implemented to make urban distribution more sustainable, but most of these initiatives have failed to gain sufficient carrier and retailer support and as a consequence have been discontinued. Gaining stakeholder support for urban distribution initiatives thus represents a challenge, but simultaneously is essential for success (Browne et al. 2005). Without sufficient support, these initiatives fail to reach the scale required to have an effect and be economically viable, and thus are a waste of resources. Third, urban distribution involves multiple stakeholder groups and affects wider retail supply chains. Carriers and retailers are directly involved in urban distribution as they deliver or receive goods in urban areas and their support is crucial if urban distribution initiatives want to be effective (Browne et al. 2005). However, consumers are also affected by urban distribution and, although they have largely been neglected as stakeholders, they may play an important role in creating effective urban distribution initiatives. Urban distribution influences the environment in which they shop, work, live, or otherwise spend time and initiatives to make urban distribution more sustainable may improve this environment. If such initiatives gained support from consumers, consumers might pressure retailers to also support the initiatives. They might, for example, shop at those retailers that support the initiative and avoid retailers that do not support it. Consumers are in fact the ultimate decision-makers in supply chains, because the purpose of supply chains is to create value for consumers (Vargo and Lusch 2004). Consequently, consumers can have a major impact on the effectiveness of sustainability initiatives, even if those initiatives are aimed at actors further up the supply chain. In sum, the urban distribution and retailing context provides the opportunity to study factors that influence stakeholder support for sustainability initiatives from multiple perspectives: from the perspective of stakeholders that are directly involved in urban distribution and whose support has traditionally been sought for related initiatives (retailers and carriers), and from the perspective of the ultimate decision-makers in supply chains, who are affected by urban distribution, but who have been largely neglected as stakeholders (consumers). These multiple perspectives enable us to provide a comprehensive view on factors that influence stakeholder support for sustainability initiatives and the underlying mechanisms. 17

18 1.3 Theoretical motivation for this dissertation The topic of sustainability has been addressed in several fields within business and management research, such as marketing, strategy, operations, and supply chain management, as well as in (environmental) psychology research. Moreover, multiple fields have identified sustainability as a relevant topic for future research (see e.g., Chabowski et al. 2011; Cronin et al. 2011; Tate et al. 2010). Given that we conduct our research in the context of urban distribution and retailing in which carriers, retailers, and consumers are relevant stakeholders, this dissertation draws upon and aims to contribute to the fields of transportation, (environmental) psychology, and marketing. In these fields, several limitations related to carrier, retailer, and consumer support for sustainability initiatives exist; these limitations form the motivations for this dissertation. First, urban distribution and sustainability have received quite some attention in the transportation literature, because logistics and transportation are recognized as some of the most significant environmental limiters to sustainability, particularly in urban areas, due to significant fossil fuel consumption, pollution emissions, noise congestion, decreased city access to others, etc. (Closs et al. 2011, p. 105). The transportation literature has proposed several initiatives to optimize urban distribution from a sustainability perspective and it has also shown that these initiatives have considerable potential for improving urban distribution in terms of transportation costs and environmental impacts, or so-called technical efficiency (Crainic et al. 2004; Ljungberg and Gebresenbet 2004; Tamagawa et al. 2010; Taniguchi and Van der Heijden 2000). However, to realize their potential, urban distribution initiatives must be implemented and become operational, which means that they must be supported by the stakeholders that are directly involved: retailers and carriers. The transportation literature has paid scant attention to the implementation of urban distribution initiatives and the role of retailers and carriers therein and appears to hold the implicit assumption that solutions that are technically efficient will be automatically supported by retailers and carriers. Yet research by Browne et al. (2005) suggests that many urban distribution initiatives have failed to gain sufficient carrier and/or retailer support for reasons other than lack of technical efficiency. The lack of retailer and carrier support has inhibited initiatives to survive and succeed, which suggests the need for research that provides insights into the factors that influence retailer and carrier support for urban distribution initiatives. Second, consumer support for sustainability initiatives has been addressed in the (environmental) psychology literature. This literature contains a specific stream of research on so-called pro-environmental behavior, which is behavior that is undertaken with the intention to change (normally, to benefit) the environment (Stern 2000, p. 408), for example consumers purchase of ecologically packaged beverages (Van Birgelen et al. 2009) by which consumers support retailers and/or manufacturers sustainable packaging initiatives. Retailers that wish to gain consumer support for their sustainability initiatives 18

19 must learn how to induce consumers to consider the environment in their shopping decisions, which requires a detailed understanding of the process underlying the formation of consumers pro-environmental shopping intentions (i.e., the formation of consumer support for retailers sustainability initiatives). Such understanding necessarily involves knowledge of the direct determinants of pro-environmental intentions and their antecedents. However, building on normactivation theory and the theory of planned behavior, most existing research has examined only direct effects of personal norms, attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control on pro-environmental intentions (e.g., Gardner and Abraham 2010; Wall et al. 2007). In such conceptualizations, subjective norms often emerge as the weakest determinant of intentions (e.g., Abrahamse et al. 2009; Harland et al. 1999). Yet the effect of subjective norms on intentions may have been underestimated, because they might affect intentions not only directly but also indirectly, through attitudes and personal norms. Furthermore, existing research has paid scant attention to antecedents of attitude and personal norms, while such knowledge should improve retailers abilities to influence consumers pro-environmental shopping intentions; these constructs constitute important determinants of intentions (Bamberg et al. 2007). In sum, a deeper understanding of the process underlying the formation of consumer support for retailers sustainability initiatives (in the form of consumers pro-environmental shopping intentions) seems warranted. Third, consumer support for companies sustainability initiatives has also been studied in the marketing literature. Research has examined the impact of sustainability and CSR initiatives on a range of consumer responses, such as product preference (Luchs et al. 2010), brand choice (Henderson and Arora 2010), company evaluations and purchase intentions (Brown and Dacin 1997; Mohr and Webb 2005; Sen and Bhattacharya 2001), and other forms of consumer support (Handelman and Arnold 1999). In general, prior studies indicate the clear potential for positive consumer responses (i.e., consumer support). However, recent research (Luchs et al. 2010; Wagner et al. 2009; Yoon et al. 2006) and mixed outcomes in practice suggest that consumer support is not guaranteed; the effects of sustainability and CSR initiatives on consumer responses instead appear influenced by the characteristics of the initiative and the circumstances surrounding it. But also the marketing literature has paid scant attention to the mechanisms underlying the formation of consumer support for sustainability initiatives, which has prompted several calls for further research (Bhattacharya et al. 2009; Cronin et al. 2011; Kotler 2011; Yoon et al. 2006). To improve retailers abilities to achieve returns on their sustainability investments, a more sophisticated understanding of how, when, and for which consumers sustainability initiatives affect responses is needed. To that end, both moderating and mediating mechanisms must be investigated. By examining which factors influence carrier, retailer, and consumer support for sustainability initiatives in the context of urban distribution and retailing, and mechanisms that underlie the formation of such support, we aim to contribute to 19

20 filling the above identified gaps in the transportation, (environmental) psychology, and marketing literature, and to the overall theory on sustainability. 1.4 Research questions and overview of studies We formulate the central research question of this dissertation as follows: Which factors influence carrier, retailer, and consumer support for sustainability initiatives in the context of urban distribution and retailing, and which mechanisms underlie the formation of such support? We conduct three studies to answer this central research question. The first study explores which factors influence carrier and retailer support for urban distribution initiatives. Specifically, it answers the following research question: Which factors enhance or impede retailer and carrier willingness to support new urban distribution initiatives? Whereas retailer and carrier support for new urban distribution initiatives is crucial for such initiatives to survive and succeed (Browne et al. 2005), the transportation literature has hardly addressed this topic. Using a qualitative research approach, this study identifies six factors that enhance retailer and carrier willingness to support new urban distribution initiatives. Furthermore, previous transportation studies have mainly focused on investigating the technical efficiency of (potential) urban distribution initiatives and largely neglected other relevant aspects related to such initiatives. By drawing upon institutional theory and literature on trust, we show that retailer and carrier willingness to support new urban distribution initiatives is not only influenced by the initiative s technical efficiency (i.e., pragmatic legitimacy), but also by its moral legitimacy, retailers and carriers perceived need for change and trust in the initiative, and the initiator s institutional work and personal legitimacy. The second and third study examine which factors influence consumer support for sustainability initiatives in the context of urban distribution and retailing, and particularly focus on mechanisms that underlie the formation of consumer support for such initiatives. Consumer support for retailers sustainability initiatives, such as retailers participation in sustainable urban distribution initiatives, may take several forms: e.g., intentions to shop at those retailers that operate in a sustainable way (study 2 and 3), positive retail store evaluations (study 3), stronger word-of-mouth intentions (study 3), or a higher willingness to pay more (study 3). In the second study, we draw upon (environmental) psychology literature more specifically, pro-environmental behavior research and answer the following research question: 20

21 Which process underlies the formation of consumer support for retailers sustainability initiatives, in the form of consumers pro-environmental shopping intentions? Building on norm-activation theory and the theory of planned behavior, most existing research has examined only direct effects of personal norms, attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control on pro-environmental intentions (e.g., Gardner and Abraham 2010; Wall et al. 2007), thereby limiting our understanding of the process that underlies the formation of these intentions. Such understanding would improve retailers abilities to gain consumer support for their sustainability initiatives and benefit from their sustainability investments. Our study extends prior research by shedding light on the indirect effects of subjective norms on intentions, through attitude and personal norms. Beyond subjective norms, we also investigate the role of two other antecedents of attitude and personal norms, namely awareness of consequences and ascription of responsibility. In the third study, we draw upon marketing literature and answer the following research question: How, when, and for which consumers do retailers front-end and back-end sustainability initiatives influence consumer support in the form of store evaluations, shopping intentions, word-of-mouth intentions, and willingness to pay more? The third study extends our investigation of mechanisms that underlie the formation of consumer support for retailers sustainability initiatives. The marketing literature has mainly focused on consumer-related outcomes of sustainability initiatives and has paid scant attention to the underlying mechanisms (Bhattacharya et al. 2009; Yoon et al. 2006). Our study extends prior marketing research by examining two types of mechanisms: moderating and mediating mechanisms, which contributes to a more sophisticated understanding of how, when, and for which consumers retailers sustainability initiatives affect responses. The third study builds upon and extends the second study in several ways. First, whereas pro-environmental behavior research has almost exclusively built on norm-activation theory and the theory of planned behavior an approach that we followed in study 2 the marketing literature on sustainability has drawn on other theories, such as social identity theory and institutional theory. In study 3, we use the insights that we gained from study 2 and complement this understanding with insights offered by the marketing literature; specifically, we examine the moderating effects of personal and subjective norms, and the mediating effects of consumers identification with the retail store and store legitimacy. Second, we adopt a different research design (experiment), which enables us to validate the findings of study 2, that are based on cross-sectional 21

22 survey data. Moreover, the experimental design allows us to study the effects of different types of retailers sustainability initiatives: front-end initiatives (store assortment sustainability) and back-end initiatives (store distribution sustainability); several authors have called for research that considers different sustainability initiatives and their unique effects (Aguilera et al. 2007; Godfrey et al. 2009; Peloza and Shang 2011). Third, we include other forms of consumer support (store evaluations, word-of-mouth intentions, willingness to pay more) in addition to shopping intentions. Together, study 2 and 3 offer a deeper understanding of mechanisms that underlie the formation of consumer support for retailers sustainability initiatives. Figure 1.1 depicts an overview of the three studies: this dissertation examines carrier and retailer support for sustainability initiatives in the context of urban distribution and retailing in study 1, and consumer support for such initiatives in study 2 and 3. Figure 1.1: Research framework Urban distribution and retailing context Carriers Study 1 Sustainability initiatives Study 1 Study 2 and 3 Retailers Consumers 1.5 Outline of the dissertation The next chapters of this dissertation are organized as follows. Each chapter describes a study and addresses one research question. Together these studies answer the central research question. 22

23 In Chapter 2, we explore factors that enhance or impede retailer and carrier willingness to support new urban distribution initiatives. Based on the analysis of 27 in-depth interviews with supportive and unsupportive retailers and carriers, we develop a model and a set of propositions. In interpreting our data and developing our model, we draw upon institutional theory and literature on trust. In Chapter 3, we develop and empirically test a model specifying the process that underlies the formation of consumers pro-environmental shopping intentions. Based on a survey among 272 consumers, we examine direct and indirect effects of personal norms, attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, awareness of consequences, and ascription of responsibility on consumers pro-environmental shopping intentions. In Chapter 4, we extend our investigation of consumer support for retailers sustainability initiatives by means of an experiment among 672 consumers. We examine the effects of two types of sustainability initiatives (front-end and backend) on consumers store evaluations, shopping intentions, word-of-mouth intentions, and willingness to pay more. Moreover, we investigate how these effects are mediated by consumers identification with the store and store legitimacy, and moderated by personal norms and subjective norms. Finally, in Chapter 5, we provide a synopsis of this dissertation, followed by a discussion of the findings and their theoretical and managerial implications. We describe the limitations and offer several suggestions for further research. 23

24 24

25 Chapter 2 Exploring the factors that enhance retailer and carrier willingness to support new urban distribution initiatives Although gaining retailer and carrier support is crucial to the survival and success of new urban distribution initiatives, the transportation literature has paid scant attention to this topic. This study seeks to improve insight into the factors that enhance or impede retailer and carrier willingness to support new urban distribution initiatives. Based on the analysis of in-depth interviews with 27 supportive and unsupportive retailers and carriers in the context of a recently introduced urban distribution initiative, we develop a model specifying six factors that enhance retailer and carrier willingness to support new urban distribution initiatives: (1) initiative-related factors comprising moral and pragmatic legitimacy, (2) stakeholder-related factors comprising perceived need for change and trust in the initiative, and (3) initiator-related factors comprising institutional work and personal legitimacy. In developing the model the authors draw upon institutional theory and literature on trust. Several propositions are formulated, which may provide a basis for further research. An earlier version of this chapter was presented at the 21 st Nordic Logistics Research Network (NOFOMA) Conference, Jönköping, Sweden, June 11-12, 2009, in cooperation with Marcel van Birgelen, Josée Bloemer, and Janjaap Semeijn. 25

26 2.1 Introduction City centers serve many functions; they have economic importance as hubs for trading and industrial activities, which are key to wealth generation (Browne et al. 2007), and often fulfill an important role with regard to leisure activities (Quak and De Koster 2007). To fulfill these functions, distribution of goods is essential. But distribution in urban areas generally causes problems with regard to environmental and social sustainability (Anderson et al. 2005; May et al. 2003): It is responsible for fossil fuel use, global warming and acidification through global pollutant emissions, injuries and deaths resulting from traffic accidents, and the consequences of (local) emissions on public health. Furthermore, it is responsible for noise, congestion and decreased city accessibility, visual intrusion, vibration, loss of greenfield sites and open space, and damage of infrastructure and (historical) buildings from heavy vehicles (Quak and De Koster 2007, p. 1103). Current urban distribution systems are also economically inefficient; carriers and retailers work to optimize their own distribution performance rather than achieve system-wide (i.e., city center-wide) optimization resulting in many small deliveries by multiple carriers, and inefficiently utilized vehicles (Crainic et al. 2004; Ljungberg and Gebresenbet 2004). The transportation literature has proposed several solutions that aim to optimize urban distribution at the system level: city logistics initiatives (Taniguchi and Thompson 2002). Examples of such initiatives are urban consolidation centers, advanced information systems, load factor controls, and underground freight transport systems (Browne et al. 2005; Taniguchi and Van der Heijden 2000). Research has shown that such initiatives have considerable potential for improving urban distribution in terms of transportation costs and environmental impacts, or so-called technical efficiency (Crainic et al. 2004; Ljungberg and Gebresenbet 2004; Tamagawa et al. 2010; Taniguchi and Van der Heijden 2000). However, to realize their potential, urban distribution initiatives must be implemented and become operational, which means that they must be supported by the stakeholders that are directly involved: retailers and carriers. The transportation literature has paid scant attention to the implementation of urban distribution initiatives and the role of retailers and carriers therein and appears to hold the implicit assumption that solutions that are technically efficient will be automatically supported by retailers and carriers. Yet research by Browne et al. (2005) suggests that many urban distribution initiatives have failed to gain sufficient carrier and/or retailer support for reasons other than lack of technical efficiency. The lack of retailer and carrier support has inhibited initiatives to survive and succeed. Since gaining retailer and carrier support is crucial to the success of new urban distribution initiatives, this study seeks to improve insight into the factors that enhance or impede retailer and carrier willingness to support new urban distribution initiatives. Based on the analysis of in-depth interviews with 27 supportive and unsupportive retailers and carriers in the context of a recently introduced urban distribution initiative, we develop a model that specifies factors 26

27 that enhance retailer and carrier willingness to support new urban distribution initiatives. Our analysis suggests that retailer and carrier willingness to support new urban distribution initiatives is enhanced by (1) initiative-related factors comprising moral and pragmatic legitimacy, (2) stakeholder-related factors comprising perceived need for change and trust in the initiative, and (3) initiatorrelated factors comprising institutional work and personal legitimacy. During the analysis process, the emerging categories and themes led us to draw upon institutional theory and trust literature to refine our concepts and develop our model. Our research extends prior transportation literature in the following two ways: First, prior transportation literature has hardly addressed the acceptance of and support for new urban distribution initiatives by retailers and carriers while such support is crucial for the survival and success of new initiatives (Suchman 1995). This study identifies six factors that enhance retailer and carrier willingness to support those initiatives. Second, previous transportation studies have mainly focused on investigating the technical efficiency of (potential) urban distribution initiatives and largely neglected other relevant aspects related to such initiatives. Drawing upon institutional theory and literature on trust, we show that retailer and carrier willingness to support new urban distribution initiatives is not only influenced by the initiative s technical efficiency (i.e., pragmatic legitimacy), but also by its moral legitimacy, retailers and carriers perceived need for change and trust in the initiative, and the initiator s institutional work and personal legitimacy. The insights provided by this study are also relevant from a managerial perspective: they can help initiators of new urban distribution initiatives to enhance retailer and carriers willingness to support their initiatives and attract sufficient support to survive. In the next section we discuss the current literature on urban distribution initiatives. We then describe relevant concepts from institutional theory and literature on trust. After describing our method, we show which factors emerged from our analysis of retailer and carrier interviews as enhancing their willingness to support new urban distribution initiatives. We discuss our findings by formulating several propositions and conclude with theoretical and managerial implications, limitations, and suggestions for further research. 2.2 Theoretical context Urban distribution Problems related to urban distribution are mainly caused by a clash of interests of different stakeholders (Muñuzuri et al. 2005). In our study, we focus on carriers and retailers, because these stakeholders are directly involved in urban distribution: they deliver or receive goods in urban areas. Faced by a highly competitive market, carriers strive to optimize efficiency and service levels in urban distribution operations, which can best be achieved in conditions of unrestricted access to city centers. Retailers that have their stores in city centers are an important group of goods receivers and demand high service levels and 27

28 low costs from carriers, but they also do not want consumers to be hindered by delivery vehicles during store opening hours (Allen et al. 2000). Other stakeholders are the shopping public, residents, and local governments. The shopping public expects well-stocked stores and restaurants, and a nice, clean, and safe shopping area. Residents expect a livable city center, which involves clean air, safety, and the absence of noise. Local governments are responsible for regulating transport in urban areas. The problems related to urban distribution are expected to continue growing, as economic growth increases the number of goods to be distributed and thus related urban freight traffic (Browne et al. 2007; Quak 2008; Van Binsbergen and Visser 2001). Local governments put increasing restrictions, such as low emission zones, congestion charging, weight and time restrictions, on urban distribution to decrease its negative impacts. However, those restrictions often lead to lower operational efficiency and higher costs for carriers, as well as higher emissions (Anderson et al. 2005; Quak and De Koster 2006, 2007). City logistics initiatives instead aim to optimize urban distribution at the system level and consider the total costs and benefits of initiatives to the public and private sector (Taniguchi and Thompson 2002). Many studies on urban distribution focused on the evaluation of policies and initiatives in terms of their (potential) effects on transportation costs and environmental impacts (e.g., Anderson et al. 2005; Crainic et al. 2004; Quak and De Koster 2006, 2007), whereby city logistics studies strongly focused on quantification of the consequences of those initiatives through modeling (e.g., Tamagawa et al. 2010; Taniguchi and Van der Heijden 2000; Van Rooijen and Quak 2010). These studies showed that system-wide initiatives may lead to considerable improvements compared to current urban distribution systems and thus are superior in terms of technical efficiency; however, it remains crucial to gain sufficient support from retailers and carriers to become a success (Browne et al. 2005): It is important to stress that radical opposition by any of the stakeholders groups to the logistics policy reflected by the combined solution may be sufficient for the disregarding of the project (Muñuzuri et al. 2005, p. 16). The importance of retailer and carrier support for initiative success is also illustrated by the high failure rate of urban consolidation centers, the most common type of urban distribution initiative (Browne et al. 2005; Crainic et al. 2004). Urban consolidation centers are facilities involving the trans-shipment of goods directed to urban areas, aiming to consolidate deliveries, and thus provide greater efficiency in the distribution process by increasing the truck load factor and decreasing the number of trucks used, which help mitigate urban congestion and air pollution (Panero et al. 2011, p. 4). Browne et al. (2005) provided a comprehensive overview of past and existing urban consolidation center initiatives and concluded that most of these centers failed to attract sufficient users (carriers/retailers) to meet the required throughput volumes and as a consequence stopped operating. 28

29 A few studies have investigated carrier and receiver support for urban distribution initiatives by means of stated preference data (Holguín-Veras et al. 2007, 2008; Marcucci and Danielis 2008; Regan and Golob 2005). In explaining the variance in stated preferences by respondents, they largely focused on determinants related to technical efficiency, such as costs, and company characteristics. However, institutional theorists have shown that the acceptance of new ideas and practices is not only affected by their technical efficiency but also by existing institutions (Barley and Tolbert 1997; Tracey et al. 2011). Organizations are often driven by considerations of legitimacy rather than efficiency (Seo and Creed 2002). Also, a perceived need for change must be present to accept new practices (Maguire et al. 2004). In addition, literature on trust suggests that in the absence of a track record, which is by definition the case for new urban distribution initiatives, trust may be a critical determinant of initiative success (Aldrich and Fiol 1994). In the next sections, we describe concepts from institutional theory and literature on trust that emerged from our analysis as relevant to the examination of retailer and carrier support for new urban distribution initiatives Institutional theory: Legitimacy and perceived need for change Institutional theory focuses on the tendency of organizational structures and procedures to converge (DiMaggio and Powell 1983). In contrast to economic approaches to organizational decision-making which propose that organizations seek to maximize efficiency and adopt those structures and procedures that contribute to that goal, institutional theory contends that organizations are constrained by the institutional environment in which they operate and that, to ensure survival, they adopt those structures and procedures that add to their legitimacy (Roberts and Greenwood 1997). We define legitimacy as a generalized perception or assumption that the actions of an entity are desirable, proper, or appropriate within some socially constructed system of norms, values, beliefs, and definitions (Suchman 1995, p. 574). Organizations need legitimacy to gain access to resources, such as capital, personnel, and customer goodwill (Zimmerman and Zeitz 2002). An organization s efforts to gain and maintain legitimacy prompt it to adopt those practices that other organizations operating in the same environmental conditions have also adopted, a process termed isomorphism. Through this process, organizations that are part of the same organizational field a recognized area of institutional life involving for example suppliers, consumers, regulatory agencies, and competitors become more similar (DiMaggio and Powell 1983, p. 148). Existing institutions, defined as rules, norms, and beliefs that describe reality for the organization, explaining what is and is not, what can be acted upon and what cannot (Hoffman 1999, p. 351), constrain organizational behavior and explain why organizations often adopt structures and practices that may be suboptimal in terms of efficiency (Seo and Creed 2002). 29

The information in this report is confidential. So keep this report in a safe place!

The information in this report is confidential. So keep this report in a safe place! Bram Voorbeeld About this Bridge 360 report 2 CONTENT About this Bridge 360 report... 2 Introduction to the Bridge 360... 3 About the Bridge 360 Profile...4 Bridge Behaviour Profile-Directing...6 Bridge

More information

~ We are all goddesses, the only problem is that we forget that when we grow up ~

~ We are all goddesses, the only problem is that we forget that when we grow up ~ ~ We are all goddesses, the only problem is that we forget that when we grow up ~ This brochure is Deze brochure is in in English and Dutch het Engels en Nederlands Come and re-discover your divine self

More information

Asking what. a person looks like some persons look like

Asking what. a person looks like some persons look like 1 Asking what people are wearing: What are you wearing? = Wat heb jij aan? I m / I am wearing jeans (or a dress or ) = Ik heb jeans aan. What is he / she wearing? = Wat heeft hij / zij aan? He / she s

More information

Research Report. Ingelien Poutsma Marnienke van der Maal Sabina Idler

Research Report. Ingelien Poutsma Marnienke van der Maal Sabina Idler Research Report Ingelien Poutsma Marnienke van der Maal Sabina Idler Research report ABSTRACT This research investigates what the ideal bank for adolescents (10 16 years) looks like. The research was initiated

More information

M.A.Lips. Copyright 2014, M.A.Lips, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

M.A.Lips. Copyright 2014, M.A.Lips, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass and Calorie Restriction: Differences and Similarities of Endocrine and Metabolic Effects in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Mirjam Anne Lips Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass and Calorie

More information

Style Characterization of Machine Printed Texts

Style Characterization of Machine Printed Texts Style Characterization of Machine Printed Texts Andrew D. Bagdanov This book is typeset by the author using L A TEX2 ε. The main body of the text is set using the Computer Modern family of fonts. The images

More information

Opening the psychological black box in genetic counseling

Opening the psychological black box in genetic counseling Opening the psychological black box in genetic counseling A counselee-oriented, integrative approach on the impact of DNA-testing for breast and ovarian cancer on the lives of counselees Joël Vos 1 2 Opening

More information

Strategic Interactions in Franchise Relationships. Evelien Croonen

Strategic Interactions in Franchise Relationships. Evelien Croonen Strategic Interactions in Franchise Relationships Evelien Croonen Publisher: Labyrinth Publications Pottenbakkerstraat 15 17 2984 AX Ridderkerk The Netherlands Print: Offsetdrukkerij Ridderprint B.V.,

More information

Cover Page. The handle http://hdl.handle.net/1887/38352 holds various files of this Leiden University dissertation.

Cover Page. The handle http://hdl.handle.net/1887/38352 holds various files of this Leiden University dissertation. Cover Page The handle http://hdl.handle.net/1887/38352 holds various files of this Leiden University dissertation. Author: Font Vivanco, David Title: The rebound effect through industrial ecology s eyes

More information

total dutch speak Dutch instantly no books no writing absolute confi dence

total dutch speak Dutch instantly no books no writing absolute confi dence total dutch speak Dutch instantly no books no writing absolute confi dence d To find out more, please get in touch with us. For general enquiries and for information on Michel Thomas: Call: 020 7873 6400

More information

Shopper Marketing Model: case Chocomel Hot. Eric van Blanken 20th October 2009

Shopper Marketing Model: case Chocomel Hot. Eric van Blanken 20th October 2009 Shopper Marketing Model: case Chocomel Hot Eric van Blanken 20th October 2009 Introduction Chocomel Hot out-of-home: hot consumption > cold consumption 2004: launch of the Chocomel Hot machine for out-of-home

More information

Specification by Example (methoden, technieken en tools) Remco Snelders Product owner & Business analyst

Specification by Example (methoden, technieken en tools) Remco Snelders Product owner & Business analyst Specification by Example (methoden, technieken en tools) Remco Snelders Product owner & Business analyst Terminologie Specification by Example (SBE) Acceptance Test Driven Development (ATDD) Behaviour

More information

Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Treatment: Benefits and Pitfalls in the Currently Indicated Population. Carel Jan Willem Borleffs

Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Treatment: Benefits and Pitfalls in the Currently Indicated Population. Carel Jan Willem Borleffs Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Treatment: Benefits and Pitfalls in the Currently Indicated Population Carel Jan Willem Borleffs The studies described in this thesis were performed at the Department

More information

Illustrations: Your Illustrator Cover design: Joke Herstel, Wenk

Illustrations: Your Illustrator Cover design: Joke Herstel, Wenk blabla It s me Illustrations: Your Illustrator Cover design: Joke Herstel, Wenk blabla Proefschrift ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor aan de Technische Universiteit Delft, op gezag van de Rector

More information

Enhancing the wellbeing of older people in Mauritius

Enhancing the wellbeing of older people in Mauritius Enhancing the wellbeing of older people in Mauritius Proefschrift ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor aan Tilburg University op gezag van de rector magnificus, prof. dr. Ph. Eijlander, in het openbaar

More information

GMP-Z Annex 15: Kwalificatie en validatie

GMP-Z Annex 15: Kwalificatie en validatie -Z Annex 15: Kwalificatie en validatie item Gewijzigd richtsnoer -Z Toelichting Principle 1. This Annex describes the principles of qualification and validation which are applicable to the manufacture

More information

Daan & Rembrandt Research Wendelien Daan By Willemijn Jongbloed Group D October 2009

Daan & Rembrandt Research Wendelien Daan By Willemijn Jongbloed Group D October 2009 Daan & Rembrandt Research Wendelien Daan By Willemijn Jongbloed Group D October 2009 Doing Dutch Often, the work of many Dutch artist; photographers, designers, and painters is easy to recognize among

More information

IT-waardeketen management op basis van eeuwenoude supply chain kennis

IT-waardeketen management op basis van eeuwenoude supply chain kennis IT-waardeketen management op basis van eeuwenoude supply chain kennis Hans van Aken / November 28, 2012 Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject

More information

Multi-objective Optimisation of Multimodal Passenger Transportation Networks

Multi-objective Optimisation of Multimodal Passenger Transportation Networks THESIS SERIES T2015/15 The resolution of measures related to multimodal trip making and objective optimisation problem. Methods to analyse the resulting Pareto set provide insight into how total travel

More information

Why participation works

Why participation works Why participation works Full title Why participation works: the role of employee involvement in the implementation of the customer relationship management type of organizational change. Key words Participation,

More information

Students Conceptions of Constructivist Learning. Sofie Loyens

Students Conceptions of Constructivist Learning. Sofie Loyens Students Conceptions of Constructivist Learning Sofie Loyens ISBN 978-90-8559-275-4 Copyright 2007 S.M.M. Loyens All rights reserved. No part of this thesis may be reproduced or transmitted in any form,

More information

Understanding Crowd Behaviour Simulating Situated Individuals

Understanding Crowd Behaviour Simulating Situated Individuals Understanding Crowd Behaviour Simulating Situated Individuals Nanda Wijermans The research reported in this thesis was funded by the Netherlands Ministry of Defence ("DO-AIO" fund contract no TM-12). The

More information

Item Analysis of Single-Peaked Response Data. The Psychometric Evaluation of Bipolar Measurement Scales

Item Analysis of Single-Peaked Response Data. The Psychometric Evaluation of Bipolar Measurement Scales Item Analysis of Single-Peaked Response Data The Psychometric Evaluation of Bipolar Measurement Scales Acknowledgement Financial support for the printing costs of this thesis was provided by the Developmental

More information

binnenzijde omslag FITNESS IN CHRONIC HEART FAILURE: EFFECTS OF EXERCISE TRAINING AND OF BIVENTRICULAR PACING

binnenzijde omslag FITNESS IN CHRONIC HEART FAILURE: EFFECTS OF EXERCISE TRAINING AND OF BIVENTRICULAR PACING binnenzijde omslag FITNESS IN CHRONIC HEART FAILURE: EFFECTS OF EXERCISE TRAINING AND OF BIVENTRICULAR PACING FITNESS IN CHRONIC HEART FAILURE: EFFECTS OF EXERCISE TRAINING AND OF BIVENTRICULAR PACING

More information

Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education

Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education DUTCH 0515/01 Paper 1 Listening For Examination from 2015 SPECIMEN MARK SCHEME Approx. 45 minutes

More information

EVALUATION FORM STUDY-VISIT OULU

EVALUATION FORM STUDY-VISIT OULU EVALUATION FORM STUDY-VISIT OULU NAME: I CONTENT QUESTIONS -- - + ++ 1 What is your opinion about the introduction of the study visit on Sunday xx xxxx xxxx evening? Missed this presentation Absent delayed

More information

Welkom in de wereld van EDI en de zakelijke kansen op langer termijn

Welkom in de wereld van EDI en de zakelijke kansen op langer termijn Welkom in de wereld van EDI en de zakelijke kansen op langer termijn Sectorsessie mode 23 maart 2016 ISRID VAN GEUNS IS WORKS IS BOUTIQUES Let s get connected! Triumph Without EDI Triumph Let s get connected

More information

Management control in creative firms

Management control in creative firms Management control in creative firms Nathalie Beckers Lessius KU Leuven Martine Cools Lessius KU Leuven- Rotterdam School of Management Alexandra Van den Abbeele KU Leuven Leerstoel Tindemans - February

More information

Changes in Pilot Control Behaviour across Stewart Platform Motion Systems

Changes in Pilot Control Behaviour across Stewart Platform Motion Systems Changes in Pilot Control Behaviour across Stewart Platform Motion Systems PROEFSCHRIFT ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor aan de Technische Universiteit Delft, op gezag van de Rector Magnificus prof.

More information

Relationele Databases 2002/2003

Relationele Databases 2002/2003 1 Relationele Databases 2002/2003 Hoorcollege 5 22 mei 2003 Jaap Kamps & Maarten de Rijke April Juli 2003 Plan voor Vandaag Praktische dingen 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 4.1, 4.4 en 4.5 SQL Aantekeningen 3 Meer Queries.

More information

Implementations of tests on the exogeneity of selected. variables and their Performance in practice ACADEMISCH PROEFSCHRIFT

Implementations of tests on the exogeneity of selected. variables and their Performance in practice ACADEMISCH PROEFSCHRIFT Implementations of tests on the exogeneity of selected variables and their Performance in practice ACADEMISCH PROEFSCHRIFT ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam op gezag

More information

employager 1.0 design challenge

employager 1.0 design challenge employager 1.0 design challenge a voyage to employ(ment) EMPLOYAGER 1.0 On the initiative of the City of Eindhoven, the Red Bluejay Foundation organizes a new design challenge around people with a distance

More information

Shop floor design: layout, investments, cross-training, and labor allocation. Jos Bokhorst

Shop floor design: layout, investments, cross-training, and labor allocation. Jos Bokhorst Shop floor design: layout, investments, cross-training, and labor allocation Jos Bokhorst Published by: Labyrint Publications Pottenbakkerstraat 15-17 2984 AX Ridderkerk The Netherlands Tel: +31 (0) 1804-63962

More information

IC Rating NPSP Composieten BV. 9 juni 2010 Variopool

IC Rating NPSP Composieten BV. 9 juni 2010 Variopool IC Rating NPSP Composieten BV 9 juni 2010 Variopool AGENDA: The future of NPSP Future IC Rating TM NPSP Composieten BV 2 Bottom line 3 Bottom line 4 Definition of Intangibles The factors not shown in the

More information

EEN HUIS BESTUREN ALS EEN FABRIEK,

EEN HUIS BESTUREN ALS EEN FABRIEK, EEN HUIS BESTUREN ALS EEN FABRIEK, HOE DOE JE DAT? Henk Akkermans World Class Maintenance & Tilburg University Lezing HomeLab 2050, KIVI, 6 oktober, 2015 The opportunity: an industrial revolution is happening

More information

Authenticity and Architecture

Authenticity and Architecture Authenticity and Architecture Representation and Reconstruction in Context Proefschrift ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor aan Tilburg University, op gezag van de rector magnificus, prof. dr. Ph.

More information

Two Generations of Crime: The Intergenerational Transmission of Criminal Convictions over the Life Course

Two Generations of Crime: The Intergenerational Transmission of Criminal Convictions over the Life Course Two Generations of Crime: The Intergenerational Transmission of Criminal Convictions over the Life Course Van de Rakt, M.G.A. Two Generations of Crime: The Intergenerational Transmission of Criminal Convictions

More information

A new perspective on punishments and rewards in marketing channel relationships Chow, M.W.

A new perspective on punishments and rewards in marketing channel relationships Chow, M.W. Tilburg University A new perspective on punishments and rewards in marketing channel relationships Chow, M.W. Publication date: 2007 Link to publication Citation for published version (APA): Chow, M. W.

More information

AANMELDING. International student - Berkeley College

AANMELDING. International student - Berkeley College AANMELDING International student - Berkeley College KILROY education helpt je met de aanmelding aan Berkeley College. Onze studieadviseurs informeren je over opleidingen, toelatingseisen, collegegelden,

More information

Timing of Information Presentation and the Acquisition of Complex Skills

Timing of Information Presentation and the Acquisition of Complex Skills Timing of Information Presentation and the Acquisition of Complex Skills Interuniversitair centrum voor onderwijsonderzoek ISBN: 90-9017127-4 Druk: Datawyse Maastricht Omslag: Yvo de Ruiter Liesbeth Kester,

More information

Inhoud. Xclusief Verzekeringen 4. Xclusief Auto 7. Xclusief Wonen 8. Xclusief Jacht 11. Xclusief Evenementen 12. Contact 15

Inhoud. Xclusief Verzekeringen 4. Xclusief Auto 7. Xclusief Wonen 8. Xclusief Jacht 11. Xclusief Evenementen 12. Contact 15 Inhoud Xclusief Verzekeringen 4 Xclusief Auto 7 Xclusief Wonen 8 Xclusief Jacht 11 Xclusief Evenementen 12 Contact 15 Xclusief Verzekeringen Hebt u exclusief bezit? Dan komt de productlijn Xclusief Verzekeringen

More information

September 26. More information about the events on www.provu.nl

September 26. More information about the events on www.provu.nl September 2015 Agenda September 10 -- ProVU SUMMER BBQ September 26 -- Zuiderzeeklassieker (Bike race) October 3&5 -- i-provu PhD introduction days October 16 -- Explore program Beta sciences October 22

More information

Serious Game for Amsterdam Nieuw-West

Serious Game for Amsterdam Nieuw-West Serious Game for Amsterdam Nieuw-West User Research - Quantitative Date: By: Coaches: September 2013 G. Kijne Dr. Ir. R. Mugge Dr. Ir. N.A. Romero Herrera V. Bolsius Dr. I. Wenzler User Research Methodology

More information

Cutaneous B-cell lymphoma: classification, prognostic factors and management recommendations. Nancy J. Senff

Cutaneous B-cell lymphoma: classification, prognostic factors and management recommendations. Nancy J. Senff Cutaneous B-cell lymphoma: classification, prognostic factors and management recommendations Nancy J. Senff The studies described in this thesis were financially supported by a grant from the Dutch Cancer

More information

ESSAYS ON MONTE CARLO METHODS FOR STATE SPACE MODELS

ESSAYS ON MONTE CARLO METHODS FOR STATE SPACE MODELS VRIJE UNIVERSITEIT ESSAYS ON MONTE CARLO METHODS FOR STATE SPACE MODELS ACADEMISCH PROEFSCHRIFT ter verkrijging van de graad Doctor aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, op gezag van de rector magnificus

More information

Implementing Sustainable Public Procurement

Implementing Sustainable Public Procurement Implementing Sustainable Public Procurement An organisational change perspective Jolien Grandia Implementing Sustainable Public Procurement An organisational change perspective Jolien Grandia This research

More information

Dutch Mortgage Market Pricing On the NMa report. Marco Haan University of Groningen November 18, 2011

Dutch Mortgage Market Pricing On the NMa report. Marco Haan University of Groningen November 18, 2011 Dutch Mortgage Market Pricing On the NMa report Marco Haan University of Groningen November 18, 2011 Introductory remarks My comments are complementary: I do not focus so much on this market as such, more

More information

Virtualisatie. voor desktop en beginners. Gert Schepens Slides & Notities op gertschepens.be

Virtualisatie. voor desktop en beginners. Gert Schepens Slides & Notities op gertschepens.be Virtualisatie voor desktop en beginners Gert Schepens Slides & Notities op gertschepens.be Op deze teksten is de Creative Commons Naamsvermelding- Niet-commercieel-Gelijk delen 2.0 van toepassing. Wat

More information

D-ID. Module 3.2.2 WP 3 Version 1.0 14/02/2014. Project Author(s) Dynamic Identity EF. Reviewer(s)

D-ID. Module 3.2.2 WP 3 Version 1.0 14/02/2014. Project Author(s) Dynamic Identity EF. Reviewer(s) D-ID Module 3.2.2 WP 3 Version 1.0 14/02/2014 Project Author(s) Dynamic Identity Reviewer(s) This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This document reflects the views only

More information

101 Inspirerende Quotes - Eelco de boer - winst.nl/ebooks/ Inleiding

101 Inspirerende Quotes - Eelco de boer - winst.nl/ebooks/ Inleiding Inleiding Elke keer dat ik een uitspraak of een inspirerende quote hoor of zie dan noteer ik deze (iets wat ik iedereen aanraad om te doen). Ik ben hier even doorheen gegaan en het leek me een leuk idee

More information

The Role of the Customer Contact Center in Relationship Marketing

The Role of the Customer Contact Center in Relationship Marketing The Role of the Customer Contact Center in Relationship Marketing Empirical studies on the added value of the quality of the customer contact center in relationship marketing, from a customer and employee

More information

Private Equity Survey 2011

Private Equity Survey 2011 Private Equity Survey 2011 Success of portfolio companies through quality of management and organization. Herman D. Koning Ron Jansen February 9, 2011 1 This afternoon 14.30 Reception 15.00 Welcome by

More information

Behavioral Corporate Governance: Four Empirical Studies. Gerwin van der Laan

Behavioral Corporate Governance: Four Empirical Studies. Gerwin van der Laan Behavioral Corporate Governance: Four Empirical Studies Gerwin van der Laan RIJKSUNIVERSITEIT GRONINGEN BEHAVIORAL CORPORATE GOVERNACE: Four Empirical Studies Proefschrift ter verkrijging van het doctoraat

More information

VIDEO CREATIVE IN A DIGITAL WORLD Digital analytics afternoon. Hugo.schurink@millwardbrown.com emmy.brand@millwardbrown.com

VIDEO CREATIVE IN A DIGITAL WORLD Digital analytics afternoon. Hugo.schurink@millwardbrown.com emmy.brand@millwardbrown.com VIDEO CREATIVE IN A DIGITAL WORLD Digital analytics afternoon Hugo.schurink@millwardbrown.com emmy.brand@millwardbrown.com AdReaction Video: 42 countries 13,000+ Multiscreen Users 2 3 Screentime is enormous

More information

If farming becomes surviving! Ton Duffhues Specialist Agriculture and society ZLTO Director Atelier Waarden van het Land 4 juni 2014, Wageningen

If farming becomes surviving! Ton Duffhues Specialist Agriculture and society ZLTO Director Atelier Waarden van het Land 4 juni 2014, Wageningen If farming becomes surviving! Ton Duffhues Specialist Agriculture and society ZLTO Director Atelier Waarden van het Land 4 juni 2014, Wageningen About myself Study - Cultural and social Anthropology, specialised

More information

Dierenwelzijn in Nederland & Europa

Dierenwelzijn in Nederland & Europa Dierenwelzijn in Nederland & Europa Gluren bij de buren: Dierenwelzijn in internationaal verband 12 maart 2014 - Hans Spoolder Op dierenwelzijnsgebied behoort Nederland tot de koplopers Van belang is dat

More information

0515 DUTCH (FOREIGN LANGUAGE)

0515 DUTCH (FOREIGN LANGUAGE) UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certificate of Secondary Education MARK SCHEME for the May/June 2012 question paper for the guidance of teachers 0515 DUTCH (FOREIGN

More information

Becoming a critical websearcher Effects of instruction to foster transfer

Becoming a critical websearcher Effects of instruction to foster transfer Becoming a critical websearcher Effects of instruction to foster transfer Titelblad 1 The research reported here was carried out at the was funded by: Project no. 411-03-106 In the context of the research

More information

Behavioral Changes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and their Sociotherapists through Implementation of the Pivotal Response Treatment

Behavioral Changes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and their Sociotherapists through Implementation of the Pivotal Response Treatment Behavioral Changes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and their Sociotherapists through Implementation of the Pivotal Response Treatment Master thesis J.D. Barnhoorn Orthopedagogiek: Gezin en Gedrag

More information

Title page. Title: A conversation-analytic study of time-outs in the Dutch national volleyball. competition. Author: Maarten Breyten van der Meulen

Title page. Title: A conversation-analytic study of time-outs in the Dutch national volleyball. competition. Author: Maarten Breyten van der Meulen Title page Title: A conversation-analytic study of time-outs in the Dutch national volleyball competition Author: Maarten Breyten van der Meulen A conversation-analytic study of time-outs in the Dutch

More information

Making Leaders Successful Every Day

Making Leaders Successful Every Day Making Leaders Successful Every Day Smart Governments Embrace And Enable Digital Disruption In The Age of the Citizen Forrester Research Jennifer Belissent Principal Analyst March 27, 2014 Those who don

More information

The Relation between Profession Development and Job (Re)Design:

The Relation between Profession Development and Job (Re)Design: The Relation between Profession Development and Job (Re)Design: The Case of Dental Hygiene in the Netherlands Katarina Jerković-Ćosić Additional financial support for the printing of this thesis has been

More information

Cover Page. The handle http://hdl.handle.net/1887/36077 holds various files of this Leiden University dissertation

Cover Page. The handle http://hdl.handle.net/1887/36077 holds various files of this Leiden University dissertation Cover Page The handle http://hdl.handle.net/1887/36077 holds various files of this Leiden University dissertation Author: Boekholt, Tjarda Title: Chaotic dynamics in N-body systems Issue Date: 2015-11-10

More information

IP-NBM. Copyright Capgemini 2012. All Rights Reserved

IP-NBM. Copyright Capgemini 2012. All Rights Reserved IP-NBM 1 De bescheidenheid van een schaker 2 Maar wat betekent dat nu 3 De drie elementen richting onsterfelijkheid Genomics Artifical Intelligence (nano)robotics 4 De impact van automatisering en robotisering

More information

PDF hosted at the Radboud Repository of the Radboud University Nijmegen

PDF hosted at the Radboud Repository of the Radboud University Nijmegen PDF hosted at the Radboud Repository of the Radboud University Nijmegen The following full text is a publisher's version. For additional information about this publication click this link. http://hdl.handle.net/2066/75254

More information

Dutch Foundation Course

Dutch Foundation Course Dutch Foundation Course Cobie Adkins-de Jong and Els Van Geyte Learn another language the way you learnt your own Succeed with the and learn another language the way you learnt your own Developed over

More information

Portfolio use in vocational education. Helping students to direct their learning

Portfolio use in vocational education. Helping students to direct their learning Portfolio use in vocational education Helping students to direct their learning The research reported here was carried out at the in the context of the research school Interuniversity Center for Educational

More information

O V E R V I E W 2010

O V E R V I E W 2010 OVERVIEW 2010 PREFACE This overview will enable you to get an idea of our activities in 2010 within a glance. We thank all our partners, hosts and the participants from abroad and The Netherlands for making

More information

ACCESS CONTROL AND SERVICE-ORIENTED ARCHITECTURES

ACCESS CONTROL AND SERVICE-ORIENTED ARCHITECTURES ACCESS CONTROL AND SERVICE-ORIENTED ARCHITECTURES PROEFSCHRIFT ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor aan de Universiteit van Tilburg, op gezag van de rector magnificus, prof.dr. F.A. van der Duyn Schouten,

More information

De groepsleider als evenwichtskunstenaar

De groepsleider als evenwichtskunstenaar De groepsleider als evenwichtskunstenaar Leescommissie Prof. dr. P.H. van der Laan Prof. dr. T.V.M. Pels Prof. dr. I. Weijers Prof. dr. M. de Winter Omslagontwerp: Primo!studio Delft Foto omslag: [stockbureau

More information

Thomas van Manen Researcher & Digital Strategist @VINTlabs MA. New Media & Digital Culture

Thomas van Manen Researcher & Digital Strategist @VINTlabs MA. New Media & Digital Culture V I N T Vision Inspiration Navigation Trends Thomas van Manen Researcher & Digital Strategist @VINTlabs MA. New Media & Digital Culture V I N T Vision Inspiration Navigation Trends Gamifica'on /? /! /

More information

THE EMOTIONAL VALUE OF PAID FOR MAGAZINES. Intomart GfK 2013 Emotionele Waarde Betaald vs. Gratis Tijdschrift April 2013 1

THE EMOTIONAL VALUE OF PAID FOR MAGAZINES. Intomart GfK 2013 Emotionele Waarde Betaald vs. Gratis Tijdschrift April 2013 1 THE EMOTIONAL VALUE OF PAID FOR MAGAZINES Intomart GfK 2013 Emotionele Waarde Betaald vs. Gratis Tijdschrift April 2013 1 CONTENT 1. CONCLUSIONS 2. RESULTS Reading behaviour Appreciation Engagement Advertising

More information

Career Guide. Career Guide. Faculty of Spatial Sciences

Career Guide. Career Guide. Faculty of Spatial Sciences Career Guide Faculty of Spatial Sciences Start thinking about your future today! How can the university and the faculty help you prepare for the labour market? Find out what steps you can take to be more

More information

CMMI version 1.3. How agile is CMMI?

CMMI version 1.3. How agile is CMMI? CMMI version 1.3 How agile is CMMI? A small poll Who uses CMMI without Agile? Who uses Agile without CMMI? Who combines both? Who is interested in SCAMPI? 2 Agenda Big Picture of CMMI changes Details for

More information

SAFE BUT SORRY. Theory, assesment, and treatment of pain-related fear in chronic low back pain patients

SAFE BUT SORRY. Theory, assesment, and treatment of pain-related fear in chronic low back pain patients SAFE BUT SORRY Theory, assesment, and treatment of pain-related fear in chronic low back pain patients SAFE but SORRY: Theory, assessment, and treatment of pain-related fear in chronic low back pain patients

More information

Remaining childless Causes and consequences from a life course perspective. Renske Keizer

Remaining childless Causes and consequences from a life course perspective. Renske Keizer Remaining childless Causes and consequences from a life course perspective Renske Keizer 1 Keizer, R. Remaining childless Causes and consequences from a life course perspective Dissertation Utrecht University,

More information

Load Balancing Lync 2013. Jaap Wesselius

Load Balancing Lync 2013. Jaap Wesselius Load Balancing Lync 2013 Jaap Wesselius Agenda Introductie Interne Load Balancing Externe Load Balancing Reverse Proxy Samenvatting & Best Practices Introductie Load Balancing Lync 2013 Waarom Load Balancing?

More information

Co-evolution of Author IDs and Research Information Infrastructure in the Netherlands

Co-evolution of Author IDs and Research Information Infrastructure in the Netherlands Co-evolution of Author IDs and Research Information Infrastructure in the Netherlands Clifford Tatum, SURF Market - L'identité du publiant à l'épreuve du numérique Enjeux et perspectives pour l'identification

More information

Legal Knowledge Based Systems JURIX 97. JURIX: The Tenth Conference

Legal Knowledge Based Systems JURIX 97. JURIX: The Tenth Conference 5 november 1997 15:36 rik2 Sheet number 5 Page number 5 Legal Knowledge Based Systems JURIX 97 JURIX: The Tenth Conference The Foundation for Legal Knowledge Systems Editors: A. Oskamp R.V. De Mulder C.

More information

BEGRIJP JE DOELGROEP BETER DOOR KENNIS OVER TRENDS. Spreker: Aljan de Boer Moderator: Mascha Buiting

BEGRIJP JE DOELGROEP BETER DOOR KENNIS OVER TRENDS. Spreker: Aljan de Boer Moderator: Mascha Buiting BEGRIJP JE DOELGROEP BETER DOOR KENNIS OVER TRENDS Spreker: Aljan de Boer Moderator: Mascha Buiting 2 WIE ZIJN WIJ? mascha@masmarketing.nl aljan@trendsactive.com Vragen of support over dit webinar: +31

More information

Childhood onset MS and MS during Pregnancy

Childhood onset MS and MS during Pregnancy Childhood onset MS and MS during Pregnancy Rinze Frederik Neuteboom -The studies in this thesis were financially supported by Stichting MS Research -Financial support for publication: Erasmus University

More information

12/17/2012. Business Information Systems. Portbase. Critical Factors for ICT Success. Master Business Information Systems (BIS)

12/17/2012. Business Information Systems. Portbase. Critical Factors for ICT Success. Master Business Information Systems (BIS) Master (BIS) Remco Dijkman Joris Penders 1 Portbase Information Office Rotterdam Harbor Passes on all information Additional services: brokering advanced planning macro-economic prediction 2 Copyright

More information

Maximizer Synergy. info@adafi.be BE 0415.642.030. Houwaartstraat 200/1 BE 3270 Scherpenheuvel. Tel: +32 495 300612 Fax: +32 13 777372

Maximizer Synergy. info@adafi.be BE 0415.642.030. Houwaartstraat 200/1 BE 3270 Scherpenheuvel. Tel: +32 495 300612 Fax: +32 13 777372 Maximizer Synergy Adafi Software is een samenwerking gestart met Advoco Solutions, een Maximizer Business Partner uit Groot Brittannië. Advoco Solutions heeft een technologie ontwikkeld, genaamd Synergy,

More information

Examen Software Engineering 2010-2011 05/09/2011

Examen Software Engineering 2010-2011 05/09/2011 Belangrijk: Schrijf je antwoorden kort en bondig in de daartoe voorziene velden. Elke theorie-vraag staat op 2 punten (totaal op 24). De oefening staan in totaal op 16 punten. Het geheel staat op 40 punten.

More information

CO-BRANDING RICHTLIJNEN

CO-BRANDING RICHTLIJNEN A minimum margin surrounding the logo keeps CO-BRANDING RICHTLIJNEN 22 Last mei revised, 2013 30 April 2013 The preferred version of the co-branding logo is white on a Magenta background. Depending on

More information

Accelerating Technological Change Towards a more sustainable transport system

Accelerating Technological Change Towards a more sustainable transport system Accelerating Technological Change Towards a more sustainable transport system ISBN 978 90 6266 351 4 c 2014 A. van der Vooren Cover: sjaakvandervooren.nl Printing: GVO drukkers & vormgevers B.V. All rights

More information

Constructief omgaan met conflicten

Constructief omgaan met conflicten Authentic Leadership ent programme es, trainers and Constructief omgaan met conflicten s, trainers and to grow in their 16 ability maart to coach 2012 and mentor leaders, so they can ntial and values ging

More information

Spread. B&R Beurs. March 2010

Spread. B&R Beurs. March 2010 B&R Beurs March 2010 Spread Find out about the latest investment proposals of B&R's investment groups. Check the agenda, and the upcoming activities we organized for you! B&R Beurs Website: www.bnrbeurs.nl

More information

Making Sense of Dutch Word Order

Making Sense of Dutch Word Order Making Sense of Dutch Word Order Dick Grune dick@dickgrune.com Version 1.2.1 (October 10, 2013) Note: Although Dutch and Flemish are officially the same language, the explanation below does not apply as

More information

Lean in het digitale tijdperk. Hans Toebak, Arjen Markus, 13 november 2013

Lean in het digitale tijdperk. Hans Toebak, Arjen Markus, 13 november 2013 Lean in het digitale tijdperk Hans Toebak, Arjen Markus, 13 november 2013 Back to the future 2 2054 lijkt in 2013 toch al erg dichtbij 3 Klanten passen zich sneller aan dan ooit. 4 5 6 De hedendaagse consument

More information

Innovatiekracht van het MKB. Prof. Dr. Dries Faems Full Professor Innovation & Organization University of Groningen d.l.m.faems@rug.

Innovatiekracht van het MKB. Prof. Dr. Dries Faems Full Professor Innovation & Organization University of Groningen d.l.m.faems@rug. 1 Innovatiekracht van het MKB Prof. Dr. Dries Faems Full Professor Innovation & Organization University of Groningen d.l.m.faems@rug.nl 2 Onderzoek Noord- Nederlandse Innovatiekracht (RUG en SNN) 3 Waarom

More information

Career conversations in senior secondary vocational education

Career conversations in senior secondary vocational education Career conversations in senior secondary vocational education 1 Proefschrift.indd 1 26-01-2010 16:26:00 The research reported here was carried out at the and the in the context of the research school (Inter

More information

MAYORGAME (BURGEMEESTERGAME)

MAYORGAME (BURGEMEESTERGAME) GATE Pilot Safety MAYORGAME (BURGEMEESTERGAME) Twan Boerenkamp Who is it about? Local council Beleidsteam = GBT or Regional Beleidsteam = RBT Mayor = Chairman Advisors now = Voorlichting? Official context

More information

NAAR NEDERLAND HANDLEIDING

NAAR NEDERLAND HANDLEIDING NAAR NEDERLAND HANDLEIDING www.naarnederland.nl 1. Introduction As of 15 March 2006, certain foreign nationals wishing to settle in the Netherlands for a prolonged period who require a provisional residence

More information

It s all about relevance! De financiële professional als hoeder van waarde

It s all about relevance! De financiële professional als hoeder van waarde www.pwc.nl De financiële professional als hoeder van waarde Robert van der Laan 31 oktober 2012 NBA-VRC Jaarcongres Headlines Integrated Reporting 2 Nothing in the world is so powerful as an idea whose

More information

Verticale tuin maken van een pallet

Verticale tuin maken van een pallet Daar krijg je dan je groendakmaterialen geleverd op een pallet. Waar moet je naar toe met zo'n pallet. Retour brengen? Gebruiken in de open haard? Maar je kunt creatiever zijn met pallets. Zo kun je er

More information

De rol van requirements bij global development

De rol van requirements bij global development De rol van requirements bij global development 19 & 25 november 2008 Rini van Solingen Requirements zijn een noodzakelijk kwaad Immers, als wij elkaars gedachten konden lezen hadden we geen requirements

More information

Promotiecommissie. Printed: NIBE-SVV (www.nibesvv.nl)

Promotiecommissie. Printed: NIBE-SVV (www.nibesvv.nl) Risk Management for Insurance Firms A Framework for Fair Value and Economic Capital Promotiecommissie Promotoren Leden prof. dr. J. Bilderbeek prof. dr. ir. A. Bruggink prof. dr. A. Bagchi prof. dr. M.W.M.

More information

OGH: : 11g in de praktijk

OGH: : 11g in de praktijk OGH: : 11g in de praktijk Real Application Testing SPREKER : E-MAIL : PATRICK MUNNE PMUNNE@TRANSFER-SOLUTIONS.COM DATUM : 14-09-2010 WWW.TRANSFER-SOLUTIONS.COM Real Application Testing Uitleg Real Application

More information

Graphical tasks to aid in diagnosing and monitoring Parkinson s disease

Graphical tasks to aid in diagnosing and monitoring Parkinson s disease Graphical tasks to aid in diagnosing and monitoring Parkinson s disease Esther J. Smits The studies described in this thesis were part of the DiPAR project for which funding was received from the EC in

More information