 573 A Possible Detector for the Study of Weak Interactions at Fermi Clash R. Singer Argonne National Laboratory


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1  573 A Possble Detector for the Study of Weak nteractons at Ferm Clash R. Snger Argonne Natonal Laboratory The purpose of ths paper s to pont out what weak nteracton phenomena may exst for centerofmass energes near 1000 GeV and what requrements are for an experment to detect ths physcs. The man emphass wll be on ± ± lepton detecton (fl,e ), but the need for hadron detecton wll also be ds cussed. For the purpose of calculatons, t s assumed that the protons n the doubler and man rng wll have energes of 1000 GeV and 150 GeV, respectvely. Wth a crossng angle of 0 0, a lumnosty of Z x cmz sec1 s obtaned (ths excludes the duty cycle factor). The regon over whch nteractons takes place s determned by the b,eam bunch length and s about em. The man emphass. of course. wll be on the search for the ntermedate. ± vector boson. The sgnal for the W wll be a peak at MWll n the transverse... ± ± ± ± ± momentum dlstnbutlon of the decay fl or e (W  e v or fl v). The same method can be used to fnd the Zoo but t seems better to make use of a relatvely large sold angle detector to observe both charged leptons from ts decay (ths s especally true f the W± or ZO tself has large P T)' Detals on the rates expected for ntermedate vector boson producton wll not be dscussed (see. for example. the POPAE and sabelle proposals. and also the proposals for colldng beams at Fermlab). but on the order of 100ZOO W' s/day are expected for bos'on masses of  60 GeV. Puttng n the duty factor and branchng ratos (the leptonc branchng fractons are expected to be /0), rates of the order of a few detected W's/day are hoped for. For any reasonable expermental setup, backgrounds are expected to be at least two orders of magntude below the
2 574 sgnal. t s clear that f the assumptons used n calculatng rates are correct, the W wll be readly observed. Based on the quarkparton model, the dstrbuton of leptons resultng from W or ZO decay was determned (the ntermedate boson was assumed to have an exponentally damped P T dstrbuton wth <PT > GeV c). The W centerofmass longtudnal dstrbuton, shown n Fg. 1, s determned usng the parton model and shows that the W has on the average substantal longtudnal momentum. Fg. 2 shows a scatter plot of the percentage of the tme both leptons from the ZO decay wll le wthn a gven laboratory angular range. One possble expermental setup mght have a solenod subtendng the lab angles 30 _100 (about 70 _150 n the center of mass). From Fg. 2 t s seen that about 400/0 of the tme a sngle lepton from the boson decay wll be observed. Ths seems to be a qute reasonable acceptance. However, n searchng for the Zo, only about 16% of the tzne both leptons wll be observed. By addng an endcap detecton system (so laboratory angles between 50 and are covered). the dlepton detecton ncreases to about 90%. As shown prevously, the vector boson s expected to have an average longtudnal momentum of the order of ts mass. Thus, by just observng only a sngle decay product. t wll be hard to det"ermne the boson's producton and decay dstrbuton. Ths s a strong pont n the favor of attemptng to obo + serve the decay Z Another pont s the determnaton of the bosons decay wdth. Usng the decay W  lv. the resoluton s determned byboth
3 575 the measurement accuracy and the spread caused by the longtudnal momeno + tum dstrbuton of the W (ths could be ~ 2 GeV tself). For the Z  L 1 case, only the me<osurement accuracy comes nto play. However, ths may be academc snce for M = 100, t s expected that r(w  v) ~500 MeV. W Thus, the measurng accuracy would have to be on the order of O. 1% n order to determne the bosons wdth. The man pont s that just observng a hgh mass resonance s probably not enough. Knowledge of producton rates, angular dstrbutons, decay wdths, branchng ratos, and other propertes wll be necessary to be sure the partcle s really the ntermedate boson. Hadronc decays of the ntermedate boson are expected to have a large branchng rato. A sgnal would consst of a large depost of transverse momentum n an opposte arms of a hadro~c calormeter. However, due to the bosons longtudnal dstrbuton and other factors. the detecton of a large number of partcles may prove dffcult. Backgrounds also may be qute hgh. For these reasons, t seems that hadronc detecton n a frst round detector should not be top prorty. However,. snce the determnaton of branchng ratos s mportant, the expermental apparatus should be flexble enough so that hadronc calormeters can be accommodated at.some later tme. Producton of heavy lepton pars s also an mportant study that should be made. Probably. the easest detecton mode would be to look for jj. e pars and study ther angular dstrbutons. Although the decay mode
4 576,f + + fl  fl fl fl s supposed to be suppressed, searches for trreptons seem to be mportant. The mportance of these studes and. at present, unknow:l physcs shows the need for a large acceptance detector. Weak nteractons effects may be observed n other ways. Crag! ) has made calculatons on weak nteracton effects for the producton of hgh P T hadrons. For.,fs = 800, at P T  20 GeV/ c weak producton of hadrons wjll become equal to the strong producton (by P T = GeV / c, weak producton s an order of magntude hgher). Thus, a strong break n the P T dstrbuton wll be observed. To prove ths effect s due to a weak nteracton wll be more dffcult. A possble expermental setup to accomplsh the. above physcs s shown n Fg. 3. The characterstcs of a central solenodal detector wll be taken up n another paper and wll not be dscussed n detal here. Electron detecton wll be by leadglass Cerenkov shower detectors and s dscussed n Proposal 491. Penetraton of a partcle through ron wll be the sgnature of a muon. Approxmately, one meter of ron must be transversed. correspondng to about 5 absorpton lengths. Thus, the probablty of a hadron penetratng the ron s  0.5Ofa. Of course, a partcle must have at least 2 GeV to penetrate the ron. Together wth a trgger requrement of large P, the false trgger T rate from hadrons wll be small. n addton, hadronc decays wll produce muons but calculatons show that ths background s very small. n fact,
5 577 the man background below a boson sgnal wll be from prompt muons due to a DrellYantype process. Drft chambers wll be used for partcle pos 302 ton determnaton. Wth a lumnosty of l x 10 cm sec, the rates on ndvdual wres are easly handled. The "endcap" magnet s a horntype superconductng magnet. The current flows on the surface and produces a l/r torodal feld (the arrows n Fg. 3 show the current drecton). No ron s used except for structural support. The horn magnets cover the laboratory angles 5 0 _45 0 and _175 The nner feld wll be  40 kg and at 1 meter from the beam ppe wll decrease to  5 kg. However. even wth such a low feld, a 1. 5 to 2.0 meter path length gves a momentum resoluton on the order of 2"/. for a transverse momentum of 50 GeV/c. The nner conductors thckness can be up to a few centmeters so that current denstes wll be reasonable. Detaled studes of a "horn" magnet have not been carred out. but constructon of such a magnet seems qute feasble. The reason for usng an ar core magnet nstead of magnetzed ron s to allow for good momentum resoluton, snce wth ron multple scatterng gves an nherent 15% uncertanty. Ths s especally crtcal for the ZO detecton where measurement resoluton determnes how well the wdth can be determned. Snce the apparatus s lmted to a total of 10 meters longtudnally, there doesn't seem to be enough room for hadronc calormeters n the end regons. However, at a later t:rne, the ron may be replaced by a calormeter (n the central regon calormeters can be placed outsde the solenod as long as gaps are left n
6 578 t~e ron) so that hadronc decay modes may be studed. n summary, have tred to pont out the need for a large acceptance detecton system for the study of weak nteractons usng the man rng and doubler n a colldng beam mode. The apparatus conssts of central and endcap detectors. each beng ndependent of the other so that they could be nstalled and operated ndependently. Ths flexblty factor s very mportant.
7  579 Reference 1. K. H. Crag. Nucl. Physcs B (1976).
8 580 ',... 5 J ". ',. ' '\.'!...! :... ! !..... r ~ j 3 1 :, ,. f ' r...! 2," ',, ! \ l' W : : : long (GeV/c) Fg. 1...:.~:JL~.~~.~L.":_~_~...:.:..~...:J_' _.. ':':"':.,~...:L. ':':'_.:.._..1..!! ~J,. '! ..,.. J : ::. '
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