2 To discuss the idea of multiple layering in data communication and networking and the interrelationship between layers. To discuss the OSI model and its layer architecture and to show the interface between the layers. To briefly discuss the functions of each layer in the OSI model. To introduce the TCP/IP protocol suite and compare its layers with the ones in the OSI model. To show the functionality of each layer in the TCP/IP protocol with some examples. To discuss the addressing mechanism used in some layers of the TCP/IP protocol suite for the delivery of a message from the source to the destination.
3 Example Assume Maria and Ann are neighbors with a lot of common ideas. However, Maria speaks only Spanish, and Ann speaks only English. Since both have learned the sign language in their childhood, they enjoy meeting in a cafe a couple of days per week and exchange their ideas using signs. Occasionally, they also use a bilingual dictionary. Communication is face to face and Happens in one layer as shown in Fig.
4 Example Now assume that Ann has to move to another town because of her job. Before she moves, the two meet for the last time in the same cafe. Although both are sad, Maria surprises Ann when she opens a packet that contains two small machines. The first machine can scan and transform a letter in English to a secret code or vice versa. The other machine can scan and translate a letter in Spanish to the same secret code or vice versa. Ann takes the first machine; Maria keeps the second one. The two friends can still communicate using the secret code, as shown in Fig.
5 THE OSI MODEL Established in 1947, the International Standards Organization (ISO) is a multinational body dedicated to worldwide agreement on international standards. Almost three-fourths of countries in the world are represented in the ISO. An ISO standard that covers all aspects of network communications is the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. It was first introduced in the late 1970s.
6 Topics Discussed in the Section Layered Architecture Layer-to-layer Communication Encapsulation Layers in the OSI Model
7 Note ISO is the organization; OSI is the model.
8 The OSI model
9 OSI layers
10 An exchange using the OSI model
11 Note The physical layer is responsible for moving individual bits from one (node) to the next.
12 Summary of OSI Layers
13 A private internet
14 Communication at the physical layer Legend Source Destination Physical layer A R1 R3 R4 B Physical layer Link 1 Link 3 Link 5 Link
15 Note The unit of communication at the physical layer is a bit.
16 Communication at the data link layer Legend Source Destination D Data H Header A R1 R3 R4 B Data link Data link Physical Link 1 Link 3 Link 5 Link 6 Physical D2 H2 Frame D2 H2 Frame D2 H2 Frame D2 H2 Frame
17 Note The unit of communication at the data link layer is a frame.
18 Communication at the network layer Legend Source Destination D Data H Header A R1 R3 R4 B Network Network Data link Data link Physical Physical D3 H3 Datagram D3 H3 Datagram
19 Note The unit of communication at the network layer is a datagram.
20 Communication at transport layer Transport A Legend Source Destination D Data R1 R3 R4 H Header B Transport Network Network Data link Data link Physical Physical D4 H4 Segment D4 H4 Segment
21 Note The unit of communication at the transport layer is a segment, user datagram, or a packet, depending on the specific protocol used in this layer.
22 Communication at application layer A B Application Legend Source Destination D Data H Header Application Transport Network Data link Physical R1 R3 R4 Transport Network Data link Physical D5 D5 Message D5 D5 Message
23 Note The unit of communication at the application layer is a message.
24 Responsible for movement of data from one node to another node. Concerned with Physical Characteristics of the medium Representation of bits- Electrical, Electromagnetic, Optical Data rate Line Configuration Synchronization Physical Topology Transmission Mode- Simplex, Duplex, Half Duplex McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000
25 Physical Layer
26 Responsible for moving frames from one node to the other- Next hop delivery Framing- divides the data from N/W layer into frames Physical Addressing- Sender and Rx if the Rx is within the N/W, otherwise next hop addressing. Data Flow Control on the sender Error detection/control with the use of trailer Access control- in case of Multi Link system
27 Data Link Layer
28 Source to Destination Delivery of Packets Not required in peer-to-peer delivery Adds Logical addresses of sender and Rx. Routing for internetwork communication.
29 Network Layer
30 A B 10 Medium 85 T2 DATA A P F R 20 G RING N T2 DATA A P R 66 P T2 DATA A P M 95 Medium 77
31 Process to Process Delivery of message b/w Tx & Rx Create connection b/w two end ports for sake of security. Service Point or Port Addressing Yahoo Messenger Segmentation and Reassembly- Divide the message received from Session layer in to Segments and number them to make a sequence for reassembly at the receiving side Flow Control End to End rather than across a link. Controls duplication of message Connection Control Connection Oriented Transport Layer, like Telephone Connectionless Transport Layer, like Error Control End to End rather than across a link. Sending transport layer makes ensure that the entire message arrives at the receiving transport layer without error.
32 A P DATA J K TL TL DATA J K DATA 2 J k A P DATA 1 J k A P NL NL DATA 1 J k A P DATA 2 J k A P T2 T2 DLL DATA 2 J k A P H2 DATA 1 J k A P H2 DLL T2 T2 DATA 1 J k A P H2 DATA 2 J k A P H2 INTERNET
33 Network dialog controller. Establishes, maintains and Synchronizes interaction b/w comm. systems Dialog Controlling Half Duplex or Full Duplex Synchronization Allows a process to add checkpoints to a stream of data
34 From PL L6 Data To PL L6 Data H5 H5 Session Layer Session Layer Syn Syn L5 Data To TL L5 Data From TL
35 Concerned with Syntax and Semantics of the information exchanged b/w the two communication systems Translation Encoding and Decoding Sender to Common format on Sending side Common to Receiving format on Rx side Encryption for security and privacy purpose Compression reducing the number of bits to sent over network.
36 From AL To AL L7 Data L7 Data Encoded, Encrypted and compress Data H6 Decoded, Decrypted and Decompress Data H6 Presentation Layer Presentation Layer Syn L6 Data L6 Data To SL From SL
37 Provides User interfaces and support for Services, like , file transfer. Network Virtual terminal File Transfer Access, and Management(FATM) Mail Services Directory Services
38 User A User B X.500 FATM X.400 X.500 FATM X.400 Application Layer Application Layer L7 Data To PL L7 Data From PL
39 2-4 ADDRESSING Four levels of addresses are used in an internet employing the TCP/IP protocols: physical address, logical address, port address, and applicationspecific address. Each address is related to a one layer in the TCP/IP architecture, as shown in Figure 2.15.
40 Topics Discussed in the Section Physical Addresses Logical Addresses Port Addresses Application-Specific Addresses
41 Figure 2.15 Addresses in the TCP/IP protocol suite
42 Example 2.3 In Figure 2.16 a node with physical address 10 sends a frame to a node with physical address 87. The two nodes are connected by a link (a LAN). At the data link layer, this frame contains physical (link) addresses in the header. These are the only addresses needed. The rest of the header contains other information needed at this level. As the figure shows, the computer with physical address 10 is the sender, and the computer with physical address 87 is the receiver. The data link layer at the sender receives data from an upper layer. It encapsulates the data in a frame. The frame is propagated through the LAN. Each station with a physical address other than 87 drops the frame because the destination address in the frame does not match its own physical address. The intended destination computer, however, finds a match between the destination address in the frame and its own physical address.
43 Figure 2.16 Example 2.3: physical addresses Data 1 packet accepted Data 4
44 Example 2.4 As we will see in Chapter 3, most local area networks use a 48- bit (6-byte) physical address written as 12 hexadecimal digits; every byte (2 hexadecimal digits) is separated by a colon, as shown below: 07:01:02:01:2C:4B A 6-byte (12 hexadecimal digits) physical address
45 Example 2.5 Figure 2.17 shows a part of an internet with two routers connecting three LANs. Each device (computer or router) has a pair of addresses (logical and physical) for each connection. In this case, each computer is connected to only one link and therefore has only one pair of addresses. Each router, however, is connected to three networks. So each router has three pairs of addresses, one for each connection. Although it may be obvious that each router must have a separate physical address for each connection, it may not be obvious why it needs a logical address for each connection. We discuss these issues in Chapters 11 and 12 when we discuss routing. The computer with logical address A and physical address 10 needs to send a packet to the computer with logical address P and physical address 95. We use letters to show the logical addresses and numbers for physical addresses, but note that both are actually numbers, as we will see in later chapters.
46 Figure 2.17 Example 2.5: logical addresses A P Data A P Data A P Data Physical addresses changed A P Data A P Data A P Data Physical addresses changed
47 Note The physical addresses will change from hop to hop, but the logical addresses remain the same.
48 Example 2.6 Figure 2.18 shows two computers communicating via the Internet. The sending computer is running three processes at this time with port addresses a, b, and c. The receiving computer is running two processes at this time with port addresses j and k. Process a in the sending computer needs to communicate with process j in the receiving computer. Note that although both computers are using the same application, FTP, for example, the port addresses are different because one is a client program and the other is a server program, as we will see in Chapter 17.
49 Figure 2.18 Example 2.6: port numbers A Sender Receiver P Data Data a j Data a j Data A P a j Data A P a j Data H2 A P a j Data H2 A P a j Data Internet
50 Note The physical addresses change from hop to hop, but the logical and port addresses usually remain the same.
51 Example 2.7 As we will see in future chapters, a port address is a 16-bit address represented by one decimal number as shown. 753 A 16-bit port address represented as one single number
The OSI Model and the TCP/IP Protocol Suite TCP/IP Protocol Suite 1 To discuss the idea of multiple layering in data communication and networking and the interrelationship between layers. To discuss the
The OSI Model and the TCP/IP Protocol Suite Pritee Parwekar ANITS 1 To study To discuss the idea of multiple layering in data communication and networking and the interrelationship between layers. To discuss
The OSI Model and the TCP/IP Protocol Suite - the OSI model was never fully implemented. - The TCP/IP protocol suite became the dominant commercial architecture because it was used and tested extensively
Protocols and Architecture 1 Protocol Architecture Layered structure of hardware and software that supports the exchange of data between systems as well as a distributed application (e.g. email or file
524 Computer Networks Section 1: Introduction to Course Dr. E.C. Kulasekere Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology - 2005 Course Outline The Aim The course is design to establish the terminology
LAYERING ARCHITECTURE OF NETWORKS Network Software Protocol Hierarchies Design Issues for the Layers Connection-Oriented and Connectionless Services Service Primitives The Relationship of Services to Protocols
Basic Networking Concepts 1. Introduction 2. Protocols 3. Protocol Layers 4. Network Interconnection/Internet 1 1. Introduction -A network can be defined as a group of computers and other devices connected
Chapter 2: Communicating over the 51 Protocol Units and Encapsulation For application data to travel uncorrupted from one host to another, header (or control data), which contains control and addressing
Networking Test 4 Study Guide True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. 1. IPX/SPX is considered the protocol suite of the Internet, and it is the most widely used protocol suite in LANs.
Protocols and Architecture Protocol Architecture. Layered structure of hardware and software to support exchange of data between systems/distributed applications Set of rules for transmission of data between
Network Architecture and the OSI Reference Model Advanced Computer Networks D12 Architecture Outline The Internet and IP Network Architecture Protocols and s Encapsulation The OSI Reference Model The Seven
Computer Networks CS321 Dr. Ramana I.I.T Jodhpur Dr. Ramana ( I.I.T Jodhpur ) Computer Networks CS321 1 / 22 Outline of the Lectures 1 Introduction OSI Reference Model Internet Protocol Performance Metrics
DATA COMMUNICATION (Basics of data communication, OSI layers.) K.K.DHUPAR SDE (NP-II) ALTTC ALTTC/NP/KKD/Data Communication 1 Data Communications History 1838: Samuel Morse & Alfred Veil Invent Morse Code
CPS221 Lecture: Layered Network Architecture Objectives last revised 9/10/12 1. To discuss the OSI layered architecture model 2. To discuss the specific implementation of this model in TCP/IP Materials:
A Layered Approach to Computer Networks Physical Layer Data Link Layer Network Layer Transport Layer Session Layer Presentation Layer Application Layer Different layer of abstraction Different error control
How Networks Differ Differences that can occur at network layer, which makes internetworking difficult: It is impossible to resolve all differences, and the solution is to take a simple approach (as in
Packet Switching and Computer Networks Switching As computer networks became more pervasive, more and more data and also less voice was transmitted over telephone lines. Circuit Switching The telephone
Objectives of Lecture Network Architecture Show how network architecture can be understood using a layered approach. Introduce the OSI seven layer reference model. Introduce the concepts of internetworking
Introduction to Networking CS 40: INTRODUCTION TO U NIX A ND L I NUX O P E R AT ING S Y STEMS Objectives Introduce networking, including what it is and what it contains, which includes: Networking layers
1 Network Reference Models - OSI Reference Model - A computer network connects two or more devices together to share information and services. Multiple networks connected together form an internetwork.
Data Communications Prof. Ajit Pal Dept. of Computer Science & Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture # 02 Layered Architecture Hello viewers, welcome to the second lecture of the
Introduction Computer Network. Interconnected collection of autonomous computers that are able to exchange information No master/slave relationship between the computers in the network Data Communications.
Understand the OSI Model Part 2 Lesson Overview In this lesson, you will learn information about: Frames Packets Segments TCP TCP/IP Model Well-known ports for most-used purposes Anticipatory Set Review
Mathatma Gandhi University BSc Computer Science IV th semester BCS 402 Computer Network &Internet MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. The computer network is A) Network computer with cable B) Network computer
COMPUTER NETWORKS NETWORK ARCHITECTURE AND PROTOCOLS The Need for Standards Computers have different architectures, store data in different formats and communicate at different rates Agreeing on a particular
Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur TCP/IP Part I Prof Indranil Sengupta Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur Lecture 3: TCP/IP Part I On completion, the student
Protocol Architecture ed Protocol Architectures OSI Reference Model TCP/IP Protocol Stack Need for Protocols The task of exchanging information between devices requires a high degree of cooperation between
OSI Reference Model: An Overview Gaurav Bora 1, Saurabh Bora 2, Shivendra Singh 3, Sheikh Mohamad Arsalan 4 ( 1 Department of Electronics, Uttarakhand Technical University, Dehradun, INDIA) ( 2 Department
Data Communication Networks and Converged Networks The OSI Model and Encapsulation Layer traversal through networks Protocol Stacks Converged Data/Telecommunication Networks From Telecom to Datacom, Asynchronous
Module 6 Internetworking Lesson 2 Internet Protocol (IP) Specific Instructional Objectives At the end of this lesson, the students will be able to: Explain the relationship between TCP/IP and OSI model
Protocol Stack: ISO OSI Model CSCE 515: Computer Programming OSI Models & layer Wenyuan Xu Department of Computer Science and Engineering University of South Carolina Some slides are made by Dave Hollinger
Overview Dipl.-Ing. Peter Schrotter Institute of Communication Networks and Satellite Communications Graz University of Technology, Austria Fundamentals of Communicating over the Network Application Layer
Transport Layer Protocols Version. Transport layer performs two main tasks for the application layer by using the network layer. It provides end to end communication between two applications, and implements
Expert Reference Series of White Papers The OSI Model: Understanding the Seven Layers of Computer Networks 1-800-COURSES www.globalknowledge.com The OSI Model: Understanding the Seven Layers of Computer
Data Communication Networks Data communication networks typically do not send real time data As a result, packet switching is often used OPTI 500, Spring 2011, Lecture 6, Data Networks 1 Packet Switching
Lecture 28: Internet Protocols 15-110 Principles of Computing, Spring 2016 Dilsun Kaynar, Margaret Reid-Miller, Stephanie Balzer Reminder: Exam 2 Exam 2 will take place next Monday, on April 4. Further
Internet Packets Packets at the network layer level are called datagrams They are encapsulated in frames for delivery across physical networks Frames are packets at the data link layer Datagrams are formed
1 Data communication principles, types and working principles of modems, Network principles, OSI model, functions of data link layer and network layer, networking components, communication protocols- X
Ethernet Babak Kia Adjunct Professor Boston University College of Engineering ENG SC757 - Advanced Microprocessor Design Ethernet Ethernet is a term used to refer to a diverse set of frame based networking
What Is an Internetwork? An internetwork is a collection of individual networks, connected by intermediate networking devices, that functions as a single large network. Internetworking refers to the industry,
Communication Networks MAP-TELE 2011/12 José Ruela Network basic mechanisms Network Architectures Protocol Layering Network architecture concept A network architecture is an abstract model used to describe
Module 1 Introduction Lesson 2 Layered Network Architecture Specific Functional Objectives On Completion of this lesson, the students will be able to: State the requirement for layered approach Explain
Mobile IP Network Layer Lesson 02 TCP/IP Suite and IP Protocol 1 TCP/IP protocol suite A suite of protocols for networking for the Internet Transmission control protocol (TCP) or User Datagram protocol
Page 1 of 8 Prev Introduction to Networking: and Data Communications Next Chapter 27. Introduction to the ISO - OSI Model Introduction to the ISO - OSI Model The ISO (International Standards Organization)
TCP/IP: An overview Syed A. Rizvi TCP/IP The Internet uses TCP/IP protocol suite to establish a connection between two computers. TCP/IP suite includes two protocols (1) Transmission Control Protocol or
PART OF THE PICTURE: The / Communications Architecture 1 PART OF THE PICTURE: The / Communications Architecture BY WILLIAM STALLINGS The key to the success of distributed applications is that all the terminals
1 Unit 1. Introduction to data communications and networking 1 NETWORKING FUNDAMENTALS Unit Structure 1.0 Objectives 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Data & Information 1.3 Data Communication 1.3.1 Characteristics
William Stallings Data and Computer Communications Chapter 15 Internetwork Protocols Internetworking Terms (1) Communications Network Facility that provides data transfer service An internet Collection
TCP/IP Concepts Review A CEH Perspective 1 Objectives At the end of this unit, you will be able to: Describe the TCP/IP protocol stack For each level, explain roles and vulnerabilities Explain basic IP
Course Outline: Fundamental Topics System View of Network Security Network Security Model Security Threat Model & Security Services Model Overview of Network Security Security Basis: Cryptography Secret
NETWORK DRIVE MAPPING, SHARING,TESTING AND AN IMPLEMENTATION BY WRITING A PROGRAM TO RETRIEVE THE DATA FILE FROM A NETWORK DRIVE OF ANOTHER COMPUTER. BY SAKIL AHMED ID: 102 33 205 This Report Presented
Local Area Network (LAN) Page 10.1 DigiPoints Volume 1 Module 10 Local Area Network (LAN) Summary This module describes the -peed data networks found on customers premises that make possible connections
Computer Networking: A Survey M. Benaiah Deva Kumar and B. Deepa, 1 Scholar, 2 Assistant Professor, IT Department, Sri Krishna College of Arts and Science College, Coimbatore, India. Abstract- Computer
TCP/IP Concepts Review A CEH Perspective 1 Objectives At the end of this unit, you will be able to: Describe the TCP/IP protocol stack For each level, explain roles and vulnerabilities Explain basic IP
DIN 2012 Tutorial (Q1a) In the IEEE 802.15 standard (Bluetooth), describe the following two types of : physical links between primary and secondary stations: (i) (ii) Synchronous Connection Oriented (SCO);
Networking and Protocol Architectures ITS323: Introduction to Data Communications CSS331: Fundamentals of Data Communications Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology Thammasat University Prepared
TCP/IP Protocol Architecture CSE 3213 Fall 2011 1 The Need For Protocol Architecture 1.) the source must activate communications path or inform network of destination 2.) the source must make sure that
TCP/IP Concepts Review Ed Crowley 1 Objectives At the end of this unit, you will be able to: Describe the TCP/IP protocol stack For each level, explain roles and vulnerabilities Explain basic IP addressing
SFWR 4C03: Computer Networks & Computer Security Jan 3-7, 2005 Lecturer: Kartik Krishnan Lecture 1-3 Communications and Computer Networks The fundamental purpose of a communication network is the exchange
Lecture 17 Overview Last Lecture Wide Area Networking (2) This Lecture Internet Protocol (1) Source: chapters 2.2, 2.3,18.4, 19.1, 9.2 Next Lecture Internet Protocol (2) Source: chapters 19.1, 19.2, 22,1
Part I: The problem specifications NTNU The Norwegian University of Science and Technology Department of Telematics Note! The problem set consists of two parts: Part I: The problem specifications pages
Chapter 2 NETWORK LAYER This chapter provides an overview of the most important and common protocols associated with the TCP/IP network layer. These include: Internet Protocol (IP), Routing protocols Routing
Introduction To Computer Networking Alex S. 1 Introduction 1.1 Serial Lines Serial lines are generally the most basic and most common communication medium you can have between computers and/or equipment.
DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKS 1. Define the term Computer Networks. A Computer network is a number if computers interconnected by one or more transmission paths. The transmission path often is the telephone
Review of ing Concepts Part 2: Protocols and Services ed Protocol Architectures Services OSI Reference Model Summary of Topics Protocol, s, Encapsulation Services Protocol Architecture OSI Reference Model
FIREWALLS & NETWORK SECURITY with Intrusion Detection and VPNs, 2 nd ed. Chapter 2 An Introduction to Networking Learning Objectives Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to: Describe the
52-20-40 DATA COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT UPPER LAYER SWITCHING Gilbert Held INSIDE Upper Layer Operations; Address Translation; Layer 3 Switching; Layer 4 Switching OVERVIEW The first series of LAN switches
CS413: Computer Networks 2005 Fall Term Midterm Exam Solution Student ID: Name: Problem No. Marks Your Marks 1 16 2 5 3 5 4 7 5 4 6 7 7 3 8 3 Total 50 1 [Marking schemes are given in blue color and the
ECE 333: Introduction to Communication Networks Fall 2001 Lecture 2: Network Architectures Layering Motivation Terminology Examples 1 Many issues to address in networks: Addressing, connection setup, code
CCNA1 V3.0 Mod 11 (Ch 9) 1. When conversing with an individual whose primary language is different than yours, you might need to repeat your words and speak more slowly. Repeating your words can be compared
Layered Standards Architectures Chapter 2 Panko s Business Data Networks and Telecommunications, 5 th edition Copyright 2005 Prentice-Hall Why Layers Breaking up large tasks into smaller tasks and assigning
Network Models OSI vs. TCP/IP Network Models Using a formal model allows us to deal with various aspects of Networks abstractly. We will look at two popular models OSI reference model TCP/IP model Both
Chapter 6 Network Communications and Protocols Objectives Explain the function of protocols in a network Describe common protocol suites Guide to Networking Essentials, Fifth Edition 2 Protocols Strictly
The tutorial questions illustrate the style of examination questions for EG/ES 3567. The paper will be of 3 hours duration, and each student should attempt four questions during this time. You should aim
CSE 123 Computer Networks Fall 2009 Lecture 2: Protocols & Layering Today What s a protocol? Organizing protocols via layering Encoding layers in packets The OSI & Internet layering models The end-to-end
Chapter 2 - The TCP/IP and OSI Networking Models TCP/IP : Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol OSI : Open System Interconnection RFC Request for Comments TCP/IP Architecture Layers Application
The IP Networks Introduction to Computer Networks Chapter 2 Part 3 of 3 CA M S Mehta, FCA 1 The IP Networks Learning Objectives Task Statements 1.1 Identify deployment of different components of IT and