1 Introduction to Storage Technologies and Terminology
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3 Agenda! Introduction Drives Interfaces and Evolution Format Types and Importance! RAID Technology What is RAID Explanation of RAID levels! DAS, NAS and SAN Explanation of each technology Where each technology fits typical applications! What is Virtualization?
4 Agenda (cont.)! What is Unified Storage?! Microsoft Active Directory! Snapshot Technology! Thin Provisioning! Distributed File System! Green Technologies! Conclusion
6 Drives Interfaces and Evolution Serial ATA (SATA or Serial Advanced Technology Attachment) is a computer bus interface for connecting host bus adapters to mass storage devices such as hard disk drives and optical drives. Serial ATA was designed to replace the older parallel ATA (PATA) standard (often called by the old name IDE), offering several advantages over the older interface: reduced cable size and cost (7 conductors instead of 40), native hot swapping, faster data transfer through higher signalling rates, and more efficient transfer through an (optional) I/O queuing protocol.
7 Drive Interfaces and Evolution SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) is a set of standards for physically connecting and transferring data between computers and peripheral devices. The SCSI standards define commands, protocols, and electrical and optical interfaces. SCSI is most commonly used for hard disks and tape drives, but it can connect a wide range of other devices, including scanners and CD drives.
8 Drive Interfaces and Evolution Serial Attached SCSI (SAS) is a computer bus used to move data to and from computer storage devices such as hard drives and tape drives. SAS depends on a point-to-point serial protocol that replaces the parallel SCSI bus technology that first appeared in the mid 1980s in data centers and workstations, and it uses the standard SCSI command set. SAS offers backwards-compatibility with second-generation SATA drives. SATA 3 Gbit/s drives may be connected to SAS backplanes, but SAS drives may not be connected to SATA backplanes.
9 Drive Interfaces and Evolution SAS drives have 2 ports ie data can be transferred from 2 sources SAS backplane will accept SATA drives But SATA backplane will not accept SAS drives
10 Format type and Importance Low Level Format Disk formatting is the process of preparing a hard disk drive or flexible disk medium for data storage.
11 Format type and Importance Partitions & High Level Format Disk partitioning is the act of dividing a hard disk drive into multiple logical storage units referred to as partitions, to treat one physical disk drive as if it were multiple disks.
12 Format type and Importance Partitions & High Level Format EXT, EXT2, EXT3 and EXT4 are format types used in Linux/Unix OS FAT, FAT16 and FAT32 are format types used in Microsoft OS developed since MS-DOS NTFS was introduced with Windows NT and actually is the most extended format. Used by OS like Windows 7 and Windows 2008
14 What Is RAID?! RAID is a redundancy architecture for data storage (except RAID 0). RAID stands for Redundant Array of Independent Disks (formerly Redudant Array of Inexpensive Disks).! The RAID Level determines how redundancy is achieved and how data is distributed across the disk drives in a disk array.! The best RAID Level is determined by the type of application(s) Different applications require different RAID levels! RAID provides real-time data protection. (Except RAID 0)
15 The Driving Factors For RAID! Reliability greater than single disks! Performance greater than single disks! Capacity greater than single disks
16 RAID Levels! RAID levels defined RAID 0 RAID 1 RAID 2 (not used) RAID 3 (not typically used in networks) RAID 4 (not typically used) RAID 5 RAID 6! Hybrid or plus... RAID 0+1 (also known as 0/1, 1/0) RAID 0+5 (also known as 0/5, 5/0, or 50) RAID 0+6 (also known as 0/6, 6/0, or 60)
17 Definitions Block Level In computing (specifically data transmission and data storage), a block is a sequence of bytes or bits, having a nominal length (a block size). Data thus structured are said to be blocked. The process of putting data into blocks is called blocking. Blocking is used to facilitate the handling of the data-stream by the computer program receiving the data. Data Stripe In computer data storage, data striping is the technique of segmenting logically sequential data, such as a file, in a way that accesses of sequential segments are made to different physical storage devices. It can also be defined as the amount of data that is accessed on one disk before moving to the next disk in the array. Remember Format definition?
18 JBOD! JBOD Concatenation or spanning of disks is not one of the numbered RAID levels, but it is a popular method for combining multiple physical disk drives into one single large virtual disk. It provides no data redundancy. Capacity = (HDD * X)
19 RAID 0! RAID 0 (Striping with NO Redundancy) A RAID 0 (block-level striping) stripes the data between the drives that conforms the array. Reads and Writes can occur simultaneously on all drives allowing the system to improve the performance by reading/writing more data at same time. This configuration has no redundancy. In case of failure of any of the array components the whole RAID fails. Capacity = HDD * X Data Stripes A1 A2 A3. An Logical Disk Physical Disks
20 RAID 1! RAID 1 (Mirroring) A RAID 1 (block-level mirroring) striping creates an exact copy (or mirror) of a set of data on two or more disks. This is useful when read performance or reliability is more important than data storage capacity. Data is written to both disk simultaneously. Read requests can be satisfied by data reads from either disk or both disks. Capacity = (HDD * X) / X Data Stripes A1 A2 A3. An Logical Disk Physical Disks
21 RAID 1 Practical example 3 copies of the data
22 RAID 5! RAID 5 A RAID 5 (block-level striping with distributed parity) distributes parity along with the data and requires all drives but one to be present to operate; the array is not destroyed by a single drive failure. Writes require parity update. Data can be read from each disk independently. Capacity = (HDD * X) (HDD * 1) A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 X B3 C1. X Dn Logical Disk
23 RAID 6! RAID 6 A RAID 6 (block-level striping with double distributed parity) provides fault tolerance of two drive failures; the array continues to operate with up to two (2) failed drives. This makes larger RAID groups more practical, especially for highavailability systems. Each write requires two (2) parity updates (on different drives). Data can be read from each disk independently. Capacity = (HDD * X) (HDD * 2) A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 X B3 C1. X En Logical Disk
24 RAID 10 (1+0)! RAID 10 (1+0) A RAID 10 subsystem that increases safety by writing the same data on two drives (mirroring), while increasing speed by interleaving data across two or more mirrored "virtual" drives (striping). RAID 10 provides the most security and speed but uses more drives than the more common RAID 5 method. Capacity = (HDD * X) /Y X=Disk Space Y= Bottom level division
25 RAID 50 (5+0)! RAID 50 (5+0) A RAID 50 combines the straight block-level striping of RAID 0 with the distributed parity of RAID 5. This is a RAID 0 array striped across RAID 5 elements. It requires at least 6 drives. Capacity = (HDD * X) (Y * 1) X=Disk Space Y= Bottom level division
26 RAID levels compared Feature RAID 0 RAID 1 RAID 5 RAID 6 Minimum No of Drives Data Protection Read Performance Write Performance Capacity Utilisation Typical Applications No Protection Single Drive Failure Single Drive Failure 2 drive Failure High High High High High Medium Low Low 100% 50% 67% - 94% 50% to 88% High end workstations Video production and editing Operating system, transaction databases File server, web server Data warehousing web server, database server, NVR, DVR Data Archive, back-up to disk, large capacity, high availability solutions,
27 RAID levels compared RAID 0 RAID 1 No Data Protection! Each RAID level has tradeoffs. Choose the RAID level that best meets your requirements. 50% 100% 50% 100% RAID 5 RAID 6 Data Protection Read Performance Write Performance Usable Data Capacity 50% 100% 50% 100%
28 DAS, NAS and SAN
29 DAS! Direct Attached Storage
30 NAS! Network Attached Storage
31 SAN! Storage Area Network
32 IP SAN! Internet Protocol Storage Area Network Ethernet Switch iscsi Storage iscsi Storage iscsi Storage Ethernet (iscsi)
33 iscsi (Internet Small Computer System Interface) In computing, iscsi, is an abbreviation of Internet Small Computer System Interface, an Internet Protocol (IP)-based storage networking standard for linking data storage facilities. By carrying SCSI commands over IP networks, iscsi is used to facilitate data transfers over intranets and to manage storage over long distances. iscsi can be used to transmit data over local area networks (LANs), wide area networks (WANs), or the Internet and can enable location-independent data storage and retrieval. The protocol allows clients (called initiators) to send SCSI commands (CDBs) to SCSI storage devices (targets) on remote servers. It is a Storage Area Network (SAN) protocol, allowing organizations to consolidate storage into data center storage arrays while providing hosts (such as database and web servers) with the illusion of locallyattached disks. Unlike traditional Fibre Channel, which requires specialpurpose cabling, iscsi can be run over long distances using existing network infrastructure.
34 iscsi Network Packet IP TCP Data iscsi SCSI Data! Uses the IP network to carry iscsi storage traffic.! TCP: Provides reliable transport over Ethernet.! Applicable to LAN or WAN.
35 Software Initiator vs. Hardware Initiator Applications Initiator Pros Cons Software Initiator 1. Cheap solution. 2. Many OSs support. The iscsi offload costs the CPU resources. iscsi Driver 3. NIC is std. device on hosts. TCP/IP Stack NIC Driver iscsi Driver TOE Driver TCP/IP Stack HBA Driver iscsi TCP/IP Stack Software /OS layer Hardware layer Hardware Initiator 1. Provides TCP and iscsi Offload, reducing the CPU Overhead. 2. Includes extra ROM to allow booting from iscsi storage. The iscsi HBA is more expensive than NIC. Generic NIC NIC with TCP Offload iscsi and TCP Offload
36 MPIO Multipath I/O Multipath I/O fault-tolerance and performance enhancement. It is a drive in the OS. Many OSs support it natively, such as MPIO on WS2008, dm-multipath on Linux, MPxIO on Solaris. The MPIO policy can be modified per LUN setting.
37 MC/S Multiple Connections per Session Multiple Connections per Session a feature of iscsi protocol. Also has advantages of faulttolerance and performance enhancement. Part of the iscsi protocol. The MC/S policy applies to all LUN on the same target. Good solution for client OS, such as Win7.
38 Typical Applications! Primary storage for small businesses! Departmental applications! Project applications Further education! Local Back-up! Archive! Storage consolidation! Disaster recovery! Remote mirroring! Server-less & LAN free backup! Midrange / Departmental Applications CRM High performance workstation storage! Branch or Small Office / Work Group Storage! Shared Storage For SME s or for departments in large organizations! Primary storage for SME s! File/Print server! Video Imaging! Graphical Image store! Replacing traditional back-up methods! Onsite repository for back-up data
39 DAS, NAS and SAN Applications Corporate LAN NAS DAS Storage Area Network (SAN) Clients Servers
40 Typical Storage Applications Remote Mirror Head Office Router Internet Switch Router Load Balanced Web Servers IP Surveillance Storage Switch Database server App. server Storage Small/ Medium Business or Remote Office Server Server Server Switch Tape Secondary Storage Image Archive or Back-up for to Disk CCTV
41 Hosted Cloud Service D-Link s iscsi SAN arrays provide managed service providers with a cost-effective, high performance, scalable storage platform for cloud storage and backup services. Benefits: Web-based management from anywhere Data accessibility from anywhere Quicker data restore Desktop Online Backup (Disk- to- Cloud) Appliance Online Backup (Disk- to- Disk- to- Cloud) WAN Speed User Experience Requires PC to be online LAN Speed User Experience Con0nues backup at off- hours High- Maintenance OS compa0bility and applica0on conflict issues Backup Only Low- Maintenance No desktop so?ware Backup & File Sharing
42 Disaster Recovery Storage virtualization can simplify disaster recovery strategies. Instead of paying for a remote, one-to-one data center, for example, application environments can be recreated on fewer offsite servers.
43 IP Surveillance D-Link IP video surveillance solutions allow clients to monitor, store and archive video, audio, and associated application data over the Internet or private intranets. Benefits of IP Surveillance High scalability Use of existing IP infrastructure High security encryption & high image quality Remote accessibility Advanced features digital zoom, etc. D-Link offers an end-to-end surveillance solution, including IP cameras Network switches iscsi SAN arrays Professional services
44 Audio & Video Post Production D-Link iscsi SAN arrays offer customers centralized, high-speed, redundant storage platforms that these applications require Multiple workstations can collaborate with no frame drops and minimal latency Optimized to work with Pro Tools software
45 Disk to Disk (D2D) Backup Benefits: Higher speeds faster backups and recovery Better reliability better content integrity Random access ability faster data recovery shorter downtimes Better scalability less IT administration time and cost Easier management less IT administration time
46 CCTV Application: D-Link NAS ISP Internet Remote Viewing Station Router Image Capture Switch Image Archive D-Link NAS: DNS-1200 Viewing Station
47 CCTV Application: IP-SAN ISP Internet Remote Viewing Station Router Image Capture Switch Image Archive DSN rd Party Management System Viewing Station
48 Typical Storage Environment LAN
49 Storage Consolidation Benefits: Simplified storage architecture Easier to manage Storage investment spread across multiple servers High capacity Utilisation LAN Reduced administration costs Simplified back-up
50 IT Managers ideal Environment Virtual Servers Virtual Storage LAN LAN
51 What is Virtualization? Virtualization In computing, is the creation of a virtual (rather than actual) version of something, such as a hardware platform, operating system, a storage device or network resources.
52 Virtualisation Desktop & Server Virtualisation are the driving forces for storage virtualisation Virtualisation is strategic Implementing Virtualisation Phase 1: Consolidation Phase 2: Business Continuity Disaster Recovery Virtualisation in 2011/2012 Microsoft Hyper-V will open new markets
53 What is Server Virtualisation? Benefits: Reduced Energy costs Simplified Management Reduced Management costs Sharepoint Web SQL Exchange Backup Simplified Management Improved Flexibility Improved responsiveness
54 Virtualisation: Where does D-Link fit? Servers Network Storage
56 What is Unified Storage? Unified Storage: Concurrent iscsi and NAS Characteristics of iscsi Acts as a locally attached hard drive Block-level access ideal for applications such as and databases FTP High Throughput 40MB/a Print Characteristics of NAS Like a traditional file server except it has been optimized for efficient file access and stripped of auxiliary utilities. D-Link incorporates additional services such as FTP Server, Print server, remote backup, etc) File Sharing
57 Microsoft Active Directory Support Active Directory Service (ADS) Microsoft Active Directory is a database service that allows for a single point of administration for all shared resources on a network, including Files Peripheral devices Databases Web sites Users, and services.
58 Snapshot Technology Volume Snapshot is the capability to record multiple points in time for the data, so that should an emergency occur, the data can be rolled back to the earlier state without having to restore from backups.! Benefits: 1. Snapshots shorten the time of data backup 2. Snapshots allow users to instantly restore the data to a designated time 3. Snapshots provide easy backup management
59 Snapshot Technology! COW (Copy-On-Write) Snapshot Technology Block On Disk New New Snapshot Zone 4 Export Blocks with No impact on original data Block 2 & 4 Overwrite :00am 11:30am Test data offline 12:00pm Restore 11.00am data Time
60 Thin Provisioning! Thin Provisioning is a method of optimising the utilisation of available storage! Thin provisioning allows disk capacity to be allocated to servers on a just enough and just in time basis.! Organisations or departments can now be charged for actual capacity usage, reducing operating costs and improving resource management.! Benefits 1. Lower initial purchase cost 2. Upgrade capacity in line with actual business usage 3. Enhanced storage capacity utilization 4. Reduce operation cost
61 Distributed File System Distributed File System (DFS) Distributed File System is a set of client and server services that allow an organization to organize many distributed SMB file shares into a distributed file system. DFS provides location transparency and redundancy to improve data availability in the face of failure or heavy load by allowing shares in multiple different locations to be logically grouped under one folder, or DFS root. Benefits: While many client PCs may have the same file, when using DFS, the files appears grouped under one folder. This is for ease of file discovery and for redundancy. File A LAN or Internet File A File A
62 Green Technologies Green Technologies Hard Drive Hibernation : Hard Drive Hibernation reduces the power consumption and noise, and also extends the life of the hard drives. Low Power Consumption : Storage devices are powered by low power consumption CPUs and therefore consumes low power when operation. Smart Fan Design : Smart fan design will automatically adjust the fan speed based on temperature measured to efficiently dissipate the heat and conserve the power. Green Ethernet : The Green Ethernet feature allows the devices to optimized power usage based on dynamic detection of cable. Schedule Power On/Off : The schedule power on/off feature offers the option to flexible operates the device per users desire.
63 Conclusions! There are many applications that need storage, and new applications are appearing every day. We never delete anything. is a perfect example! NAS is perfect for data sharing if multiple people/sites need to access the same data.! SAN is better for companies that are upgrading from DAS as they access the data in the same way (SAN storage has the same look and feel as DAS).! There is no clear line that defines NAS and IP-SAN applications: SMB s will use NAS for storage consolidation, others will use IP-SAN Some companies will use a NAS device for disaster recovery applications, others will use a SAN device! In case you have doubts just select a system that support both.
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