# BEE2017 Intermediate Microeconomics 2

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 BEE2017 Intermediate Microeconomics 2 Dieter Balkenborg Sotiris Karkalakos Yiannis Vailakis

2 Organisation Lectures Mon 14:00-15:00, STC/C Wed 12:00-13:00, STC/D Tutorials Mon 15:00-16:00, STC/106 (will run a week late) Wed 14:00-15:00, AMO/219 Thu 10:00-11:00, STC/106 Thu 13:00-14:00, STC/106 Teaching Experiments 2

3 Organisation Homework Wiley Plus Assessment Chapter summary Review Question Self-test Exelets Assignment (weekly) Exam in June (90%) Variants of homework assignments and self test used Questions relating to experiments and tutorial exercises Weekly homework assignment (10%) do 8 out of 10 satisfactorily satisfactorily: 30 % of marks 3

4 Textbook: Microeconomics: 2 nd Edition David Besanko and Ronald Braeutigam 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

5 Microeconomics: 2 nd Edition David Besanko and Ronald Braeutigam Chapter 11: Monopoly and Monopsony Prepared by Katharine Rockett + DGB

6 1. Motivation: Brush Wellman 2. The Monopolist's Profit Maximization Problem The Profit Maximization Condition Equilibrium The Inverse Elasticity Pricing Rule 3. Multi-plant Monopoly and Cartel Production 4. The Welfare Economics of Monopoly 6

7 MONOPOLY Examples Do they exist? Do perfectly competitve markets exist? Protected by state. Airline industry, local monopoly. Natural monopoly. temporal monopoly. This chapter: price only instrument. Inefficiency: strawberries. 7

8 Monopolist producing a single output Revenue: TR=P*Q=P*D(P)=D -1 (Q)*Q Q=D(P) demand function: what quantity will be sold at price P? (P independent variable) P=D -1 (Q) inverse demand function: What price will the monopolist achieve if he brings Q units of output to the market? (Q independent variable) D(D -1 (Q))=Q; D -1 (D(P))=P 8

9 Downward sloping demand curve 9

10 Monopoly Costs: TC(Q) Profits: Π(Q)=TR(Q)-TC(Q) Profits: Π(P)=TR(P)-TC(D(P)) First-order condition (FOC) for an interior profit optimum: Π (Q)=MR(Q)-MC(Q)=0 10

11 Profit maximizing condition for a monopolist: In other words, Recall: TR(Q)/ Q = TC(Q)/ Q MR(Q) = MC(Q) The monopolist sets output so that marginal profit of additional production is just zero. A perfect competitor sets P = MC in other words, marginal revenue equals price. 11

12 Why is this not so for the monopolist? TR = P1 Q + Q0 P => TR = P1 Q + Q0 P => and, as we let the change in output get very small, this approaches: MR(Q0) = P0 + Q0 P/ Q MR(Q 0 ) < P 0 for any Q 0 > 0 MR may be negative or positive for a perfect competitor, demand was "flat" so MR = P 12

13 Example: Marginal Revenue Competitive firm Monopolist Price Price Demand facing firm Demand facing firm P 0 P 0 P 1 C A B A B q q+1 Firm output Q 0 Q 0 +1 Firm output 13

14 Monopoly 14

15 Price Example: Marginal Revenue Curve and Demand The MR curve lies below the demand curve. P(Q 0 ) MR(Q 0 ) P(Q)= D - 1 (Q), the (inverse) demand curve MR(Q), the marginal revenue curve Q 0 Quantity 15

16 Definition: An agent has Market Power if s/he can affect, through his/her own actions, the price that prevails in the market. Sometimes this is thought of as the degree to which a firm can raise price above marginal cost. 16

17 Example P(Q) = a - bq linear demand A) What is the equation of the marginal revenue curve? P/ Q = -b MR(Q) = P + Q P/ Q = a - bq + Q(-b) = a - 2bQ **twice the slope of demand for linear demand** 17

18 Example B) What is the equation of the average revenue curve? AR(Q) = TR(Q)/Q = P = a - bq (you earn more on the average unit than on an additional unit ) 18

19 Example C) What is the profit-maximizing output if: TC(Q) = Q + Q 2 MC(Q) = Q AVC(Q) = 20 + Q P(Q) = 100 Q MR = MC => 100-2Q = Q 4Q=80 Q* = 20 P* = 80 19

20 In the short run, the monopolist shuts down if the most profitable price does not cover AVC (or average non-sunk costs). In the long run, the monopolist shuts down if the most profitable price does not cover AC. Here, P* exceeds both AVC and AC. π* =700 (= Q*P* (Q*) - Q* 2 ) 20

21 This profit is positive. Why? Because the monopolist takes into account the price-reducing effect of increased output so that the monopolist has less incentive to increase output than the perfect competitor. Profit can remain positive in the long run. Why? Because we are assuming that there is no possible entry in this industry, so profits are not competed away. 21

22 100 Price Example: Positive Profits for Monopolist MC AVC MR Demand curve Quantity 22

23 100 Price Example: Positive Profits for Monopolist MC AVC 80 e 20 MR Demand curve Quantity 23

24 100 Price Example: Positive Profits for Monopolist MC AVC 80 e AC 20 MR Demand curve Quantity 24

25 A monopolist does not have a supply curve (i.e., an optimal output for any exogenously-given price) because price is endogenously-determined by demand: the monopolist picks a preferred point on the demand curve. One could also think of the monopolist choosing output to maximize profits subject to the constrain that price be determined by the demand curve. 25

26 26

27 Marginal Revenue 27

28 28

29 We can rewrite the MR curve as follows: MR = P + Q P/ Q = P(1 + (Q/P)( P/ Q)) = P(1 + 1/ε) where: ε is the price elasticity of demand, (P/Q)( Q/ P) 29

30 Elasticity When demand is elastic (ε < -1), MR > 0 When demand is inelastic (ε > -1), MR < 0 When demand is unit elastic (ε = -1), MR= 0 30

31 Using this formula: When demand is elastic (ε < -1), MR > 0 When demand is inelastic (ε > -1), MR < 0 When demand is unit elastic (ε = -1), MR= 0 31

32 Price Example: Elastic Region of the Demand Curve a Elastic region (ε < -1), MR > 0 Unit elastic (ε=-1), MR=0 Inelastic region (0>ε>-1), MR<0 a/2b a/b Quantity 32

33 Therefore, The monopolist will always operate on the elastic region of the market demand curve As demand becomes more elastic at each point, marginal revenue approaches price Example: Q D = 100P -2 MC = \$50 a. What is the monopolist's optimal price? MR = MC P(1+1/ε) = MC P(1+1/(-2)) = 50 P* =

34 More generally: P(1+1/ε) =MC P-MC=-P/ ε The FOC takes the form (P-MC)/P=-1/ ε The markup equals the (negative of the) inverse elasticity 34

35 b. Now, suppose that Q D = 100P -b and MC = c (constant). What is the monopolist's optimal price now? P(1+1/-b) = c P* = cb/(b-1) We need the assumption that b > 1 ("demand is everywhere elastic") to get an interior solution. As b -> 1 (demand becomes everywhere less elastic), P* -> infinity and P - MC, the "price-cost margin" also increases to infinity. As b ->, the monopoly price approaches marginal cost. 35

36 Restating the monopolist's profit maximization condition, we have: P*(1 + 1/ε) = MC(Q*) or [P* - MC(Q*)]/P* = -1/ε In words, the monopolist's ability to price above marginal cost depends on the elasticity of demand. 36

37 Definition: The Lerner Index of market power price-cost margin, (P*-MC)/P*. This index ranges between 0 (for the competitive firm) and 1, for a monopolist facing a unit elastic demand. is the 37

38 Recall: In the perfectly competitive model, we could derive firm outputs that varied depending on the cost characteristics of the firms. The analogous problem here is to derive how a monopolist would allocate production across the plants under its management. Assume: The monopolist has two plants: one plant has marginal cost MC 1 (Q) and the other has marginal cost MC 2 (Q). 38

39 Question: How should the monopolist allocate production across the two plants? Whenever the marginal costs of the two plants are not equal, the firm can increase profits by reallocating production towards the lower marginal cost plant and away from the higher marginal cost plant. Example: Suppose the monopolist wishes to produce 6 units 3 units per plant => MC 1 = \$6 MC 2 = \$3 Reducing plant 1's units and increasing plant 2's units raises profits 39

40 Price MC 1 MC T 6 3 Example: Multi-Plant Monopolist This is analogous to exit by higher cost firms and an increase in entry by low-cost firms in the perfectly competitive model Quantity 40

41 Price MC 1 MC 2 MC T 6 3 Example: Multi-Plant Monopolist This is analogous to exit by higher cost firms and an increase in entry by low-cost firms in the perfectly competitive model Quantity 41

42 Question: How much should the monopolist produce in total? Definition: The Multi-Plant Marginal Cost Curve traces out the set of points generated when the marginal cost curves of the individual plants are horizontally summed (i.e. this curve shows the total output that can be produced at every level of marginal cost.) Example: For MC 1 = \$6, Q 1 = 3 MC 2 = \$6, Q 2 = 6 Therefore, for MC T = \$6, Q T = Q 1 + Q 2 = 9 42

43 The profit maximization condition that determines optimal total output is now: MR = MC T The marginal cost of a change in output for the monopolist is the change after all optimal adjustment has occurred in the distribution of production across plants. 43

44 Price Example: Multi-Plant Monopolist Maximization MC 1 MC 2 MC T P* MR Quantity 44

45 Price Example: Multi-Plant Monopolist Maximization MC 1 MC 2 MC T P* Demand Q* 1 Q* 2 Q* T MR Quantity 45

46 Example P = 120-3Q demand MC 1 = Q 1 plant 1 MC 2 = Q 2 plant 2 a. What are the monopolist's optimal total quantity and price? Step 1: Derive MC T as the horizontal sum of MC 1 and MC 2 Inverting marginal cost (to get Q as a function of MC), we have: Q 1 = -1/2 + (1/20)MC T Q 2 = (1/5)MC T 46

47 Let MC T equal the common marginal cost level in the two plants. Then: Q T = Q 1 + Q 2 = MC T And, writing this as MC T as a function of Q T : MC T = Q T Using the monopolist's profit maximization condition: MR = MC T => 120-6Q T = Q T Q T * = 7 P* = 120-3(7) = 99 47

48 b. What is the optimal division of output across the monopolist's plants? MC T* = (7) = 78 Therefore, Q 1* = -1/2 + (1/20)(78) = 3.4 Q 2* = (1/5)(78) = 3.6 Definition: A cartel is a group of firms that collusively determine the price and output in a market. In other words, a cartel acts as a single monopoly firm that maximizes total industry profit. 48

49 The problem of optimally allocating output across cartel members is identical to the monopolist's problem of allocating output across individual plants. Therefore, a cartel does not necessarily divide up market shares equally among members: higher marginal cost firms produce less. This gives us a benchmark against which we can compare actual industry and firm output to see how far the industry is from the collusive equilibrium. 49

50 Since the monopoly equilibrium output does not, in general, correspond to the perfectly competitive equilibrium it entails a dead-weight loss. 1. Suppose that we compare a monopolist to a competitive market, where the supply curve of the competitors is equal to the marginal cost curve of the monopolist 50

51 CS with competition: A+B+C CS with monopoly: A PS with competition: D+E PS with monopoly:b+d DWL = C+E MC P M P C A D B C E Example: The Welfare Effect of Monopoly Demand Q M Q C MR 51

52 2.Dead-weight loss in a Natural Monopoly Market Definition: A market is a natural monopoly if the total cost incurred by a single firm producing output is less than the combined total cost of two or more firms producing this same level of output among them. Benchmark: What would be the market outcome if the monopolist produced according to the same rule as a perfect competitor (i.e., P = MC)? 52

53 Price Example: Natural Monopoly Demand Quantity 53

54 Price Example: Natural Monopoly Natural Monopoly with everywhere falling average cost AC Demand Quantity 54

55 P = MC cannot be the appropriate benchmark here to calculate deadweight loss due to monopoly P = AC may be a better benchmark for small outputs, this is a natural monopoly for large outputs, it is not P = MC is the appropriate benchmark for these types of natural monopolies. 55

56 Example: Natural Monopoly with Rising Average Cost Price Natural Monopoly with rising average cost 1.2 AC Demand Quantity 56

57 Example: Natural Monopoly with Rising Average Cost Price Natural Monopoly with rising average cost Demand Quantity 57

58 Example: Natural Monopoly with Rising Average Cost Price Natural Monopoly with rising average cost AC Demand Quantity 58

59 1. A monopoly market consists of a single seller facing many buyers (utilities, postal services). 2. A monopolist's profit maximization condition is to set the marginal revenue of additional output (or a change in price) equal to the marginal cost of additional output (or a change in price). 3. Marginal revenue generally is less than price. How much less depends on the elasticity of demand. 4. A monopolist generally never produces on the inelastic portion of demand since, in the inelastic region, raising price and reducing quantity make total revenues rise and total costs fall! 5. The Lerner Index is a measure of market power, often used in antitrust analysis. 59

60 Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein. 60

### CHAPTER 10 MARKET POWER: MONOPOLY AND MONOPSONY

CHAPTER 10 MARKET POWER: MONOPOLY AND MONOPSONY EXERCISES 3. A monopolist firm faces a demand with constant elasticity of -.0. It has a constant marginal cost of \$0 per unit and sets a price to maximize

### Managerial Economics & Business Strategy Chapter 8. Managing in Competitive, Monopolistic, and Monopolistically Competitive Markets

Managerial Economics & Business Strategy Chapter 8 Managing in Competitive, Monopolistic, and Monopolistically Competitive Markets I. Perfect Competition Overview Characteristics and profit outlook. Effect

### Market Structure: Perfect Competition and Monopoly

WSG8 7/7/03 4:34 PM Page 113 8 Market Structure: Perfect Competition and Monopoly OVERVIEW One of the most important decisions made by a manager is how to price the firm s product. If the firm is a profit

### Practice Questions Week 8 Day 1

Practice Questions Week 8 Day 1 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The characteristics of a market that influence the behavior of market participants

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MBA 640 Survey of Microeconomics Fall 2006, Quiz 6 Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A monopoly is best defined as a firm that

### Examples on Monopoly and Third Degree Price Discrimination

1 Examples on Monopoly and Third Degree Price Discrimination This hand out contains two different parts. In the first, there are examples concerning the profit maximizing strategy for a firm with market

### Final Exam 15 December 2006

Eco 301 Name Final Exam 15 December 2006 120 points. Please write all answers in ink. You may use pencil and a straight edge to draw graphs. Allocate your time efficiently. Part 1 (10 points each) 1. As

### A Detailed Price Discrimination Example

A Detailed Price Discrimination Example Suppose that there are two different types of customers for a monopolist s product. Customers of type 1 have demand curves as follows. These demand curves include

### D) Marginal revenue is the rate at which total revenue changes with respect to changes in output.

Ch. 9 1. Which of the following is not an assumption of a perfectly competitive market? A) Fragmented industry B) Differentiated product C) Perfect information D) Equal access to resources 2. Which of

### or, put slightly differently, the profit maximizing condition is for marginal revenue to equal marginal cost:

Chapter 9 Lecture Notes 1 Economics 35: Intermediate Microeconomics Notes and Sample Questions Chapter 9: Profit Maximization Profit Maximization The basic assumption here is that firms are profit maximizing.

### Pricing and Output Decisions: i Perfect. Managerial Economics: Economic Tools for Today s Decision Makers, 4/e By Paul Keat and Philip Young

Chapter 9 Pricing and Output Decisions: i Perfect Competition and Monopoly M i l E i E i Managerial Economics: Economic Tools for Today s Decision Makers, 4/e By Paul Keat and Philip Young Pricing and

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Chapter 11 Monopoly practice Davidson spring2007 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A monopoly industry is characterized by 1) A)

### Midterm Exam #1 - Answers

Page 1 of 9 Midterm Exam #1 Answers Instructions: Answer all questions directly on these sheets. Points for each part of each question are indicated, and there are 1 points total. Budget your time. 1.

### Marginal cost. Average cost. Marginal revenue 10 20 40

Economics 101 Fall 2011 Homework #6 Due: 12/13/2010 in lecture Directions: The homework will be collected in a box before the lecture. Please place your name, TA name and section number on top of the homework

### Monopoly WHY MONOPOLIES ARISE

In this chapter, look for the answers to these questions: Why do monopolies arise? Why is MR < P for a monopolist? How do monopolies choose their P and Q? How do monopolies affect society s well-being?

### Monopoly: static and dynamic efficiency M.Motta, Competition Policy: Theory and Practice, Cambridge University Press, 2004; ch. 2

Monopoly: static and dynamic efficiency M.Motta, Competition Policy: Theory and Practice, Cambridge University Press, 2004; ch. 2 Economics of Competition and Regulation 2015 Maria Rosa Battaggion Perfect

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question on the accompanying scantron.

Principles of Microeconomics, Quiz #5 Fall 2007 Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question on the accompanying scantron. 1) Perfect competition

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Chapter 11 Perfect Competition - Sample Questions MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Perfect competition is an industry with A) a

### Profit Maximization. 2. product homogeneity

Perfectly Competitive Markets It is essentially a market in which there is enough competition that it doesn t make sense to identify your rivals. There are so many competitors that you cannot single out

### MPP 801 Monopoly Kevin Wainwright Study Questions

MPP 801 Monopoly Kevin Wainwright Study Questions MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The marginal revenue facing a monopolist A) is

### Chapter 15: Monopoly WHY MONOPOLIES ARISE HOW MONOPOLIES MAKE PRODUCTION AND PRICING DECISIONS

Chapter 15: While a competitive firm is a taker, a monopoly firm is a maker. A firm is considered a monopoly if... it is the sole seller of its product. its product does not have close substitutes. The

### N. Gregory Mankiw Principles of Economics. Chapter 15. MONOPOLY

N. Gregory Mankiw Principles of Economics Chapter 15. MONOPOLY Solutions to Problems and Applications 1. The following table shows revenue, costs, and profits, where quantities are in thousands, and total

### Monopoly Quantity & Price Elasticity Welfare. Monopoly Chapter 24

Monopol monopl.gif (GIF Image, 289x289 pixels) Chapter 24 http://i4.photobu Motivating Questions What price and quantit does a monopol choose? What are the welfare effects of monopol? What are the effects

### ECON 103, 2008-2 ANSWERS TO HOME WORK ASSIGNMENTS

ECON 103, 2008-2 ANSWERS TO HOME WORK ASSIGNMENTS Due the Week of June 23 Chapter 8 WRITE [4] Use the demand schedule that follows to calculate total revenue and marginal revenue at each quantity. Plot

### Chapter 6 Competitive Markets

Chapter 6 Competitive Markets After reading Chapter 6, COMPETITIVE MARKETS, you should be able to: List and explain the characteristics of Perfect Competition and Monopolistic Competition Explain why a

### Long Run Supply and the Analysis of Competitive Markets. 1 Long Run Competitive Equilibrium

Long Run Competitive Equilibrium. rinciples of Microeconomics, Fall 7 Chia-Hui Chen October 9, 7 Lecture 6 Long Run Supply and the Analysis of Competitive Markets Outline. Chap 8: Long Run Equilibrium.

### CHAPTER 6 MARKET STRUCTURE

CHAPTER 6 MARKET STRUCTURE CHAPTER SUMMARY This chapter presents an economic analysis of market structure. It starts with perfect competition as a benchmark. Potential barriers to entry, that might limit

### Learning Objectives. Chapter 6. Market Structures. Market Structures (cont.) The Two Extremes: Perfect Competition and Pure Monopoly

Chapter 6 The Two Extremes: Perfect Competition and Pure Monopoly Learning Objectives List the four characteristics of a perfectly competitive market. Describe how a perfect competitor makes the decision

### Understanding Economics 2nd edition by Mark Lovewell and Khoa Nguyen

Understanding Economics 2nd edition by Mark Lovewell and Khoa Nguyen Chapter 5 Perfect Competition Chapter Objectives! In this chapter you will: " Consider the four market structures, and the main differences

### Chapter. Perfect Competition CHAPTER IN PERSPECTIVE

Perfect Competition Chapter 10 CHAPTER IN PERSPECTIVE In Chapter 10 we study perfect competition, the market that arises when the demand for a product is large relative to the output of a single producer.

### Learning Objectives. After reading Chapter 11 and working the problems for Chapter 11 in the textbook and in this Workbook, you should be able to:

Learning Objectives After reading Chapter 11 and working the problems for Chapter 11 in the textbook and in this Workbook, you should be able to: Discuss three characteristics of perfectly competitive

economicsentrance.weebly.com Basic Exercises Micro Economics AKG 09 Table of Contents MICRO ECONOMICS Budget Constraint... 4 Practice problems... 4 Answers... 4 Supply and Demand... 7 Practice Problems...

### c. Given your answer in part (b), what do you anticipate will happen in this market in the long-run?

Perfect Competition Questions Question 1 Suppose there is a perfectly competitive industry where all the firms are identical with identical cost curves. Furthermore, suppose that a representative firm

### Chapter 14 Monopoly. 14.1 Monopoly and How It Arises

Chapter 14 Monopoly 14.1 Monopoly and How It Arises 1) One of the requirements for a monopoly is that A) products are high priced. B) there are several close substitutes for the product. C) there is a

### CEVAPLAR. Solution: a. Given the competitive nature of the industry, Conigan should equate P to MC.

1 I S L 8 0 5 U Y G U L A M A L I İ K T İ S A T _ U Y G U L A M A ( 4 ) _ 9 K a s ı m 2 0 1 2 CEVAPLAR 1. Conigan Box Company produces cardboard boxes that are sold in bundles of 1000 boxes. The market

### Monopoly. Chapter. In this chapter, we examine seven main topics. Monopoly: one parrot.

Chapter 11 Monopoly Monopoly: one parrot. A monopoly is the only supplier of a good for which there is no close substitute. Monopolies have been common since ancient times. In the fifth century B.C., the

### SOLUTIONS TO HOMEWORK SET #4

Sloan School of Management 15.010/15.011 Massachusetts Institute of Technology SOLUTIONS TO HOMEWORK SET #4 1. a. If the markets are open to free trade, the monopolist cannot keep the markets separated.

### An increase in the number of students attending college. shifts to the left. An increase in the wage rate of refinery workers.

1. Which of the following would shift the demand curve for new textbooks to the right? a. A fall in the price of paper used in publishing texts. b. A fall in the price of equivalent used text books. c.

### Monopoly and Monopsony

Multi-lant Firm. rinciples of Microeconomics, Fall Chia-Hui Chen November, Lecture Monopoly and Monopsony Outline. Chap : Multi-lant Firm. Chap : Social Cost of Monopoly ower. Chap : rice Regulation. Chap

### Chapter 8. Competitive Firms and Markets

Chapter 8. Competitive Firms and Markets We have learned the production function and cost function, the question now is: how much to produce such that firm can maximize his profit? To solve this question,

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question on the accompanying scantron.

Principles of Microeconomics Fall 2007, Quiz #6 Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question on the accompanying scantron. 1) A monopoly is

### Basic Monopoly Theory

Basic Theory E. Glen Weyl University of Chicago Lecture 9 Regular Section Elements of Economic Analysis II Fall 2011 Introduction Competitive model so far assumes price-taking: 1 If firm charged even little

### 11 PERFECT COMPETITION. Chapter. Competition

Chapter 11 PERFECT COMPETITION Competition Topic: Perfect Competition 1) Perfect competition is an industry with A) a few firms producing identical goods B) a few firms producing goods that differ somewhat

### Thus MR(Q) = P (Q) Q P (Q 1) (Q 1) < P (Q) Q P (Q) (Q 1) = P (Q), since P (Q 1) > P (Q).

A monopolist s marginal revenue is always less than or equal to the price of the good. Marginal revenue is the amount of revenue the firm receives for each additional unit of output. It is the difference

### Monopoly. Monopoly Defined

Monopoly In chapter 9 we described an idealized market system in which all firms are perfectly competitive. In chapter 11 we turn to one of the blemishes of the market system --the possibility that some

ANSWERS TO END-OF-CHAPTER QUESTIONS 23-1 Briefly indicate the basic characteristics of pure competition, pure monopoly, monopolistic competition, and oligopoly. Under which of these market classifications

### Chapter 9: Perfect Competition

Chapter 9: Perfect Competition Perfect Competition Law of One Price Short-Run Equilibrium Long-Run Equilibrium Maximize Profit Market Equilibrium Constant- Cost Industry Increasing- Cost Industry Decreasing-

### Practice Multiple Choice Questions Answers are bolded. Explanations to come soon!!

Practice Multiple Choice Questions Answers are bolded. Explanations to come soon!! For more, please visit: http://courses.missouristate.edu/reedolsen/courses/eco165/qeq.htm Market Equilibrium and Applications

### Monopoly. E. Glen Weyl. Lecture 8 Price Theory and Market Design Fall 2013. University of Chicago

and Pricing Basics E. Glen Weyl University of Chicago Lecture 8 Price Theory and Market Design Fall 2013 Introduction and Pricing Basics Definition and sources of monopoly power Basic monopolistic incentive

### Chapter 7 Monopoly, Oligopoly and Strategy

Chapter 7 Monopoly, Oligopoly and Strategy After reading Chapter 7, MONOPOLY, OLIGOPOLY AND STRATEGY, you should be able to: Define the characteristics of Monopoly and Oligopoly, and explain why the are

### Managerial Economics

Managerial Economics Unit 3: Perfect Competition, Monopoly and Monopolistic Competition Rudolf Winter-Ebmer Johannes Kepler University Linz Winter Term 2012 Winter-Ebmer, Managerial Economics: Unit 3 1

### Principles of Economics: Micro: Exam #2: Chapters 1-10 Page 1 of 9

Principles of Economics: Micro: Exam #2: Chapters 1-10 Page 1 of 9 print name on the line above as your signature INSTRUCTIONS: 1. This Exam #2 must be completed within the allocated time (i.e., between

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Chap 13 Monopolistic Competition and Oligopoly These questions may include topics that were not covered in class and may not be on the exam. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes

### Monopoly and Monopsony Labor Market Behavior

Monopoly and Monopsony abor Market Behavior 1 Introduction For the purposes of this handout, let s assume that firms operate in just two markets: the market for their product where they are a seller) and

### Chapter 14 Monopoly. 14.1 Monopoly and How It Arises

Chapter 14 Monopoly 14.1 Monopoly and How It Arises 1) A major characteristic of monopoly is A) a single seller of a product. B) multiple sellers of a product. C) two sellers of a product. D) a few sellers

### 15.010/15.011: ECONOMIC ANALYSIS FOR BUSINESS DECISIONS MIDTERM EXAM REVIEW SESSION OCTOBER 9, 2004

15.010/15.011: ECONOMIC ANALYSIS FOR BUSINESS DECISIONS MIDTERM EXAM REVIEW SESSION OCTOBER 9, 2004 PAGE MARKET DEFINITION, SUPPLY/DEMAND, ELASTICITIES 2 GOVERNMENT POLICIES 7 PRODUCTION/COST 13 NETWORK

### Oligopoly: How do firms behave when there are only a few competitors? These firms produce all or most of their industry s output.

Topic 8 Chapter 13 Oligopoly and Monopolistic Competition Econ 203 Topic 8 page 1 Oligopoly: How do firms behave when there are only a few competitors? These firms produce all or most of their industry

### Theory of Perfectly Competitive Markets

Economics 147 John F. Stewart Theory of Perfectly Competitive Markets University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Theory: The Structure of an Economic Model Economic theory is based on deductive logic, if

### A. a change in demand. B. a change in quantity demanded. C. a change in quantity supplied. D. unit elasticity. E. a change in average variable cost.

1. The supply of gasoline changes, causing the price of gasoline to change. The resulting movement from one point to another along the demand curve for gasoline is called A. a change in demand. B. a change

### Economics II: Micro Fall 2009 Exercise session 5. Market with a sole supplier is Monopolistic.

Economics II: Micro Fall 009 Exercise session 5 VŠE 1 Review Optimal production: Independent of the level of market concentration, optimal level of production is where MR = MC. Monopoly: Market with a

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Practice for Perfect Competition Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which of the following is a defining characteristic of a

### CHAPTER 11 PRICE AND OUTPUT IN MONOPOLY, MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION, AND PERFECT COMPETITION

CHAPTER 11 PRICE AND OUTPUT IN MONOPOLY, MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION, AND PERFECT COMPETITION Chapter in a Nutshell Now that we understand the characteristics of different market structures, we ask the question

### Equilibrium of a firm under perfect competition in the short-run. A firm is under equilibrium at that point where it maximizes its profits.

Equilibrium of a firm under perfect competition in the short-run. A firm is under equilibrium at that point where it maximizes its profits. Profit depends upon two factors Revenue Structure Cost Structure

### Pure Competition urely competitive markets are used as the benchmark to evaluate market

R. Larry Reynolds Pure Competition urely competitive markets are used as the benchmark to evaluate market P performance. It is generally believed that market structure influences the behavior and performance

### CHAPTER 12 MARKETS WITH MARKET POWER Microeconomics in Context (Goodwin, et al.), 2 nd Edition

CHAPTER 12 MARKETS WITH MARKET POWER Microeconomics in Context (Goodwin, et al.), 2 nd Edition Chapter Summary Now that you understand the model of a perfectly competitive market, this chapter complicates

### AP Microeconomics Review

AP Microeconomics Review 1. Firm in Perfect Competition (Long-Run Equilibrium) 2. Monopoly Industry with comparison of price & output of a Perfectly Competitive Industry 3. Natural Monopoly with Fair-Return

### 1) If the government sets a price ceiling below the monopoly price, will this reduce deadweight loss in a monopolized market?

Managerial Economics Study Questions With Solutions Monopoly and Price Disrcimination 1) If the government sets a price ceiling below the monopoly price, will this reduce deadweight loss in a monopolized

### Economics 201 Fall 2010 Introduction to Economic Analysis Problem Set #6 Due: Wednesday, November 3

Economics 201 Fall 2010 Introduction to Economic Analysis Jeffrey Parker Problem Set #6 Due: Wednesday, November 3 1. Cournot Duopoly. Bartels and Jaymes are two individuals who one day discover a stream

### Final Exam (Version 1) Answers

Final Exam Economics 101 Fall 2003 Wallace Final Exam (Version 1) Answers 1. The marginal revenue product equals A) total revenue divided by total product (output). B) marginal revenue divided by marginal

### Oligopoly and Strategic Pricing

R.E.Marks 1998 Oligopoly 1 R.E.Marks 1998 Oligopoly Oligopoly and Strategic Pricing In this section we consider how firms compete when there are few sellers an oligopolistic market (from the Greek). Small

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Economics 103 Spring 2012: Multiple choice review questions for final exam. Exam will cover chapters on perfect competition, monopoly, monopolistic competition and oligopoly up to the Nash equilibrium

### Microeconomics Topic 7: Contrast market outcomes under monopoly and competition.

Microeconomics Topic 7: Contrast market outcomes under monopoly and competition. Reference: N. Gregory Mankiw s rinciples of Microeconomics, 2 nd edition, Chapter 14 (p. 291-314) and Chapter 15 (p. 315-347).

### Employment and Pricing of Inputs

Employment and Pricing of Inputs Previously we studied the factors that determine the output and price of goods. In chapters 16 and 17, we will focus on the factors that determine the employment level

### AP Microeconomics Chapter 12 Outline

I. Learning Objectives In this chapter students will learn: A. The significance of resource pricing. B. How the marginal revenue productivity of a resource relates to a firm s demand for that resource.

### Managerial Economics

Managerial Economics Unit 1: Demand Theory Rudolf Winter-Ebmer Johannes Kepler University Linz Winter Term 2012/13 Winter-Ebmer, Managerial Economics: Unit 1 - Demand Theory 1 / 54 OBJECTIVES Explain the

### All these models were characterized by constant returns to scale technologies and perfectly competitive markets.

Economies of scale and international trade In the models discussed so far, differences in prices across countries (the source of gains from trade) were attributed to differences in resources/technology.

### Price competition with homogenous products: The Bertrand duopoly model [Simultaneous move price setting duopoly]

ECON9 (Spring 0) & 350 (Tutorial ) Chapter Monopolistic Competition and Oligopoly (Part ) Price competition with homogenous products: The Bertrand duopoly model [Simultaneous move price setting duopoly]

### Econ 101: Principles of Microeconomics

Econ 101: Principles of Microeconomics Chapter 14 - Monopoly Fall 2010 Herriges (ISU) Ch. 14 Monopoly Fall 2010 1 / 35 Outline 1 Monopolies What Monopolies Do 2 Profit Maximization for the Monopolist 3

### Profit and Revenue Maximization

WSG7 7/7/03 4:36 PM Page 95 7 Profit and Revenue Maximization OVERVIEW The purpose of this chapter is to develop a general framework for finding optimal solutions to managerial decision-making problems.

### 4. Market Structures. Learning Objectives 4-63. Market Structures

1. Supply and Demand: Introduction 3 2. Supply and Demand: Consumer Demand 33 3. Supply and Demand: Company Analysis 43 4. Market Structures 63 5. Key Formulas 81 2014 Allen Resources, Inc. All rights

### Chapter 12 Monopolistic Competition and Oligopoly

Chapter Monopolistic Competition and Oligopoly Review Questions. What are the characteristics of a monopolistically competitive market? What happens to the equilibrium price and quantity in such a market

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The four-firm concentration ratio equals the percentage of the value of accounted for by the four

### Figure: Computing Monopoly Profit

Name: Date: 1. Most electric, gas, and water companies are examples of: A) unregulated monopolies. B) natural monopolies. C) restricted-input monopolies. D) sunk-cost monopolies. Use the following to answer

### Econ 201 Final Exam. Douglas, Fall 2007 Version A Special Codes 00000. PLEDGE: I have neither given nor received unauthorized help on this exam.

, Fall 2007 Version A Special Codes 00000 PLEDGE: I have neither given nor received unauthorized help on this exam. SIGNED: PRINT NAME: Econ 201 Final Exam 1. For a profit-maximizing monopolist, a. MR

### Profit maximization in different market structures

Profit maximization in different market structures In the cappuccino problem as well in your team project, demand is clearly downward sloping if the store wants to sell more drink, it has to lower the

### We will study the extreme case of perfect competition, where firms are price takers.

Perfectly Competitive Markets A firm s decision about how much to produce or what price to charge depends on how competitive the market structure is. If the Cincinnati Bengals raise their ticket prices

### Microeconomics. Lecture Outline. Claudia Vogel. Winter Term 2009/2010. Part III Market Structure and Competitive Strategy

Microeconomics Claudia Vogel EUV Winter Term 2009/2010 Claudia Vogel (EUV) Microeconomics Winter Term 2009/2010 1 / 25 Lecture Outline Part III Market Structure and Competitive Strategy 12 Monopolistic

### 12 Monopolistic Competition and Oligopoly

12 Monopolistic Competition and Oligopoly Read Pindyck and Rubinfeld (2012), Chapter 12 09/04/2015 CHAPTER 12 OUTLINE 12.1 Monopolistic Competition 12.2 Oligopoly 12.3 Price Competition 12.4 Competition

### NAME: INTERMEDIATE MICROECONOMIC THEORY SPRING 2008 ECONOMICS 300/010 & 011 Midterm II April 30, 2008

NAME: INTERMEDIATE MICROECONOMIC THEORY SPRING 2008 ECONOMICS 300/010 & 011 Section I: Multiple Choice (4 points each) Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1.

### Chapter 8 Production Technology and Costs 8.1 Economic Costs and Economic Profit

Chapter 8 Production Technology and Costs 8.1 Economic Costs and Economic Profit 1) Accountants include costs as part of a firm's costs, while economists include costs. A) explicit; no explicit B) implicit;

### A2 Micro Business Economics Diagrams

A2 Micro Business Economics Diagrams Advice on drawing diagrams in the exam The right size for a diagram is ½ of a side of A4 don t make them too small if needed, move onto a new side of paper rather than

### PART A: For each worker, determine that worker's marginal product of labor.

ECON 3310 Homework #4 - Solutions 1: Suppose the following indicates how many units of output y you can produce per hour with different levels of labor input (given your current factory capacity): PART

### Quantity Tax Incidence Subsidy Welfare Effects Case Study. Equilibrium Chapter 16

Equilibrium Chapter 16 Competitive Equilibrium: Motivating Questions Firms are price-takers in competitive markets, but how is the market price (and quantity) determined? competitive equilibrium What happens

### 1 Cournot Oligopoly with n firms

BEE07, Microeconomics, Dieter Balkenborg Cournot Oligopoly with n firms firmi soutput: q i totaloutput: q=q +q + +q n opponent soutput: q i =q q i =Σ j i q i constantmarginalcostsoffirmi: c i inverse demand

### UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT MICRO ECONOMICS - II

UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION BA ECONOMICS III SEMESTER CORE COURSE (2011 Admission onwards) MICRO ECONOMICS - II QUESTION BANK 1. Which of the following industry is most closely approximates

### Solution to Homework Set 7

Solution to Homework Set 7 Managerial Economics Fall 011 1. An industry consists of five firms with sales of \$00 000, \$500 000, \$400 000, \$300 000, and \$100 000. a) points) Calculate the Herfindahl-Hirschman