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1 Table of Contents Page Introduction - Define and Measure Phases Course Overview Introduction to Process Management Introduction to Six Sigma.. 12 Basic Statistics for Process Management Descriptive Statistics Variation, Probability, Specifications Statistical Analysis: Sigma Score, Z Table Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ). 59 Define Phase Selecting a Key Process Key Process Prioritization Matrix Defining a Project Problem Statement Objective Statement Measure Phase: Part One Process Mapping Introduction to Process Mapping SIPOC Diagrams Controllable Inputs and Noise Process Inputs and Outputs Measure Phase: Part Two Finding Potential X s Brainstorming Techniques Cause and Effect Diagram Affinity Diagram X-Y Matrix Analysis Process Capability Measurement System Analysis Process Improvement Project Analyze, Improve & Control Phases Learning Roadmap Workplace Assignment Review..156 Defects, Defectives and Opportunities Defects Per Unit Defects Per Million Opportunities Graphical Analysis..162 Histogram Capability Analysis Run Charts Individuals Control Chart Box Plot Main Effects Plot Multi-vari Chart Scatter Plot Failure Modes and Effects Analysis Lean Principles Lean Value Stream Analysis Applying the 5S Principles Introduction to Improvement Experiments Poka-Yoke Methods..227 Statistical Process Control Control Charts Tracking and Managing a Process Finalizing Your Workplace Assignment Glossary Copyright 2006 Robert E, Shank

2 1 Process Management Training Measure Phase Part One Now you enter the world of measurement, where you can discover the ultimate source of problemsolving power: data. Process improvement is all about narrowing down to the vital few factors that influence the behavior of a system or a. The only way to do this is to measure and observe your characteristics and your critical-to-quality characteristics. Measurement is generally the most difficult and time-consuming phase in the DMAIC methodology. But if you do it well, and right the first time, you will save your self a lot of trouble later and maximize your chance of improvement.

3 2 Roadmap for Process Management 1. What es do I work in or own? Processes Processes Which should I focus on first? Which Which of of these these are are the the most most important important to to our our customers customers (internal (internal and and external) external) that that are are in in most most need need of of improvement improvement based based on on the the VOC, VOC, VOB VOB and and VOP? VOP? Selection Criteria Process Rank Build the Process Management System. Using Using the the selected selected characterize characterize and and structure structure the the to to improve improve its its efficiency, efficiency, effectiveness effectiveness and and adaptability. adaptability. Process A Process Flow Step Indicator P1 P2 P3 P4 Q 1 P1 P2 P5 P3 Q1 P4 4. Track and manage the. Using Using a a Process Process Management Management Summary Summary periodically periodically review review the the performance performance of of the the and and take take necessary necessary actions. actions. Process Owner Step Performa Target Trend Links To: Improvemen Comments nce t Activities Sorting Jones P1 4.2% 1.3% Merge I4 Smith None 5. Pick the next to improve. Pick Pick the the next next identified identified from from the the selection selection tool tool and and perform perform steps steps 1 1 through through Continue Continue until until all all selected selected are are included included in in the the Process Process Management Management System. System. You are now ready for the third step in the roadmap for Process Management: This will be a lengthy step as it requires a full characterization of your selected. There are four key deliverables from the Measure Phase: 1. A robust description of the and its workflow. 2. A quantitative assessment of how well the is actually working. 3. An assessment of any measurement systems used to gather data for making decisions or to describe the performance of the. 4. A short list of the potential causes of our problem, these are the X s that are most likely related to the problem. On the next lesson page we will help you develop a visual and mental model that will give you leverage in finding the causes to any problem. 1. What is the actual being performed compared to what I think it is (Process Map)? 2. How are the es associated with this problem really working (Capability)? 3. Is my ability to measure/detect accurate enough to make good decisions (Measurement System Analysis)? 4. Which inputs (Critical X s) seem to have the greatest effect on the outputs (Y s)? Identify the true and determine the most likely contributors including the statistical determination of the accuracy and repeatability of the data that characterize the.

4 3 The Leverage Funnel The many Xs when we first start (The trivial many) XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXX The quantity of Xs after keep we reducing think as you about work Y=f(X) the project + e The quantity of Xs when remaining we apply after leverage DMAIC (The vital few) XXX As you go through the application of DMAIC you will have a goal to find the root causes to the problem you are solving. Remember that a vital component of problem solving is cause and effect thinking or Y=f(X). To aid you in doing so, you should create a visual model of this goal as a funnel - a funnel that takes in a large number of the trivial many contributors and narrows them to the vital few contributors by the time they leave the bottom of the funnel. At the top of the funnel you are faced with all possible causes - the vital few mixed in with the trivial many. When you work an improvement effort or project, you must start with this type of thinking. You will use various tools and techniques to brainstorm possible causes of performance problems and operational issues based on data from the. In summary, you will be applying an appropriate set of analytical methods and the Y is a function of X thinking, to transform data into the useful knowledge needed to find the solution to the problem. It is a mathematical fact that 80 percent of a problem is related to six or less causes, the critical X s. In most cases it is between one and three. The goal is to find the one to three Critical X s from the many potential causes when we start an improvement project. In a nutshell, this is how the Six Sigma methodology works.

6 5 Information from Process Mapping These are more reasons why Process Mapping is the most important and powerful tool you will need to solve a problem. It has been said that Six Sigma is the most efficient problem solving methodology available. This is because work done with one tool sets up another tool, very little information and work is wasted. Later you will learn to how to further use the information and knowledge you gather from Process Mapping. By mapping es we can identify many important characteristics and develop information for other analytical tools: 1. Process inputs (X s) 2. Supplier requirements 3. Process outputs (Y s) 4. Actual customer needs 5. All value-added and non-value added tasks and steps 6. Data collection points Cycle times Defects Inventory levels Cost of Poor Quality, etc. 7. Decision points 8. Problems that have immediate fixes 9. Process control needs There are usually three views of a : What you THINK it is.. What it ACTUALLY is.. What it SHOULD be.. There are usually three views of a : The first view is what you think the is in terms of its size, how work flows and how well the works. In virtually all cases the extent and difficulty of performing the is understated. It is not until someone Process Maps the that the full extent and difficulty is known and it virtually is always larger than what we thought, is more difficult and it costs more to operate than we realize. It is here that we discover the Hidden Operations also. This is the second view: what the actually is. Then there is the third view: What it should be. This is the result of improvement activities. It is precisely what you will be doing to the key you have selected during the weeks between classes. As a result of your project you will either have created the what it should be or will be well on your way to getting there. In order to find the what it should be, you have to learn Process Mapping and literally walk the via a team method to document how it works. This is a much easier task then you might suspect, as you will learn over the next several lessons. There may be A RECTANGLE indicates an A PARALLELAGRAM shows several activity. Statements within that there are data interpretations of the rectangle should begin some of the Process with a verb Mapping symbols; A DIAMOND signifies a decision An ELLIPSE shows the start however, just about point. Only two paths emerge from and end of the everyone uses these a decision point: No and Yes primary symbols to document An ARROW shows the A CIRCLE WITH A LETTER OR 1 connection and direction NUMBER INSIDE symbolizes es. As you the continuation of a of flow become more flowchart to another page practiced you will find additional symbols useful, i.e. reports, data storage etc. For now we will start with just these symbols.

7 6 Process Mapping Levels Before Process Mapping starts, you have to learn about the different level of detail on a Process Map and the different types of Process Maps. Fortunately these have been well categorized and are easy to understand. There are three different levels of Process Maps. You will need to use all three levels and you most likely will use them in order from the macro map to the micro map. The macro map contains the least level of detail, with increasing detail as you get to the micro map. You should think of and use detail as you get to the micro map. You should think of and use the level of Process Maps in a way The Macro Process Map, sometimes called a Management level or viewpoint. Hungry Level 2 The Process Map, sometimes called the Worker level or viewpoint. This example is from the perspective of the pizza chef Take from Cashier Level 3 The Micro Process Map, sometimes called the Improvement level or viewpoint. Similar to a Level 2, it will show more steps and tasks and on it will be various performance data; yields, cycle time, value and non-value added time, defects, etc. similar to the way you would use road maps. For example, if you want to find a country, you look at the world map. If you want to find a city in that country, you look at the country map. If you want to find a street address in the city, you use a city map. This is the general rule or approach for using Process Maps. The Macro Process Map, what is called the Map, shows the big picture, you will use this to orient yourself to the way a product or service is created. It will also help you to better see which major step of the is most likely related to the problem you have and it will put the various es that you are associated with in the context of the larger whole. A, sometimes called the management level, is a high-level Process Map having the following characteristics: Combines related activities into one major ing step Illustrates where/how the fits into the big picture Has minimal detail Illustrates only major steps Can be completed with an understanding of general steps and the purpose/objective of the 1 The next level is generically called the Process Map. You will refer to it as a Level 2 Map and it identifies the major steps from the workers point of view. In the pizza example above, these are the steps the pizza chef takes to make, cook and box the pizza for delivery. It gives you a good idea of what is going on in this, but could can you fully understand why the performs the way it does in terms of efficiency and effectiveness, could you improve the with the level of knowledge from this map? Probably not, you are going to need a Level 3 Map called the Micro Process Map. It is also known as the improvement view of a. There is however a lot of value in the Level 2 Map, because it is helping you to see and understand how work gets done, who does it, etc. It is a necessary stepping stone to arriving at improved performance. Next we will introduce the four different types of Process Maps. You will want to use different types of Process Maps, to better help see, understand and communicate the way es behave. Calls for Dough Add Ingredients No Start New Correct Take Yes Make Place in Oven Scrap Place in Box Cook Observe Frequently Tape on Box Correct No Check if Done Put on Delivery Rack Yes Box Remove from Oven Deliver 1 Eats

8 7 Types of Process Maps There are four types of Process Maps that you will use. They are the Linear Flow Map, the deployment or Swim Lane Map, the S-I-P-0-C map (pronounced sipoc) and the Value Stream map. While they all show how work gets done, they emphasize different aspects of flow and provide you with alternative ways to understand the behavior of the so you can do something about it. The Linear Flow Map is the most traditional and is usually where most start the mapping effort. Hungry Calls for The Linear Flow Process Map Take Make Cook Correct Box Deliver Eats As the name states, this diagram shows the steps in a sequential flow, generally ordered from an upper left corner of the map towards the right side. Deliverer Cook Cashier The Deployment-Flow or Swim Lane Process Map Hungry Calls for Take Make Cook Box Deliver Eats The value of the Swim Lane Map is that is shows you who or which department is responsible for the various steps in a. This can provide powerful insights in the way a performs. A timeline can be added at the bottom to show how long it takes each group to perform their work. Also each time work moves across a Swim Lane, there is a Supplier interaction. This is usually where bottlenecks and queues form. Correct The Swim Lane Map adds another dimension of knowledge to the picture of the : Now you can see which department area or person is responsible. You can use the various types of maps in the form of any of the three levels of a Process Map. L i n e a r P r o c e s s M a p f o r D o o r M a n u f a c t u r i n g B e g i n P r e p d o o r s In s p e c t P r e - c l e a n i n g A R e t u r n fo r re w o rk A In s ta ll in to w o r k j i g L i g h t s a n d i n g I n s p e c t fin is h M a r k f o r d o o r h a n d l e d r illin g B R e w o r k B D r ill h o le s D e - b u r r a n d s m o o t h h o l e A p p l y p a r t n u m b e r M o v e t o fin is h in g C S c r a t c h F i n a l A p p l y s t a i n C In s p e c t I n s p e c t re p a ir c l e a n i n g a n d d r y E n d S c r a p Business Unit D e f i n e N e e d s S w i m L a n e P r o c e s s M a p f o r C a p i t a l E q u i p P r e p a r e p a p e r w o r k R e v i e w & R e c e i v e & ( C A A R & a p p r o v e u s e in s ta lla tio n C A A R re q u e st) I.T. R e v i e w & a p p r o v e s t a n d a r d C o n f i g u r e & i n s t a l l Finance R e v i e w & a p p r o v e C A A R I s s u e p a y m e n t Top Mgt/ Corporate R e v i e w & a p p r o v e C A A R Procurement A c q u i r e e q u i p m e n t Supplier S u p p l i e r S h i p s 1 7 d a y s 2 1 d a y s 1 5 d a y s 6 d a y s 5 d a y s 7 d a y s 7 1 d a y s S u p p l i e r P a i d 5 0 d a y s

9 8 Types of Process Maps The SIPOC diagram is especially useful after you have been able to construct either a or Level 2 Map because it facilitates your gathering of other pertinent data that is affecting the in a systematic way. It will help you to better see and understand all of the influences affecting the behavior and performance of the. The SIPOC Supplier Input Process Output Process Map Suppliers ATT Phones Office Depot TI Calculators NEC Cash Register Call for an Inputs Answer Phone Write Process type See Below Size Quantity Extra Toppings Special orders Drink types & quantities Other products Phone number Address Name Time, day and date Volume Process Map for Process Confirm Outputs Price confirmation Bake order Data on cycle time rate data transaction Delivery info Sets Price s Cook Accounting Address & Phone Requirements Complete call < 3 min to Cook < 1 minute Complete bake order Correct bake order Correct address Correct Price to Cook You may also add a requirements section to both the supplier side and the customer side to capture the The SIPOC diagram is especially useful after you have been able to construct either a or Level 2 Map because it facilitates your gathering of other pertinent data that is affecting the in a systematic way. expectations for the inputs and the outputs of the. Doing a SIPOC is a great building block to creating the Level 3 Micro Process Map. The two really compliment each other and give you the power to make improvements to the. Process Steps Size of work queue or inventory Process Step Time Parameters Step Processing Time Days of Work in queue 4,300 The Value Stream Map Log Route Disposition -Computer -Department -Guidelines -1 Person Assignments -1 Person I I I -1 Person I C/T = 15 sec Uptime = 0.90 Hours = 8 Breaks = 0.5 Hours Available =6.75 Sec. Avail. = 24,300 7,000 C/T = 75 sec Uptime = 0.95 Hours = 8 Breaks = 0.5 Hours Available =7.13 Sec. Avail. = 25,650 1,700 C/T = 255 sec Uptime = 0.95 Hours = 8 Breaks = 0.5 Hours Available =7.13 Sec. Avail. = 25,650 2,450 Cut Check Mail Delivery -Computer -Envelops -Printer I -Postage -1 Person -1 Person C/T = 15 sec Uptime = 0.85 Hours = 8 Breaks = 0.5 Hours Available =6.38 Sec. Avail. = 22,950 1,840 C/T = 100 sec Uptime = 0.90 Hours = 8 Breaks = 0.5 Hours Available =6.75 Sec. Avail. = 24, sec 75 sec 255 sec 15 sec 100 sec 2.65 days days 16.9 days 1.60 days 7.57 days Process Performance Metrics Aggregate Performance Metrics IPY = 0.92 Defects = 0.08 RTY =.92 Rework = 4.0% Material Yield =.96 Scrap = 0.0% IPY =.94 Defects =.06 RTY =.86 Rework = 0.0 Material Yield =.94 Scrap = 0.0% IPY =.59 Defects =.41 RTY =.51 Rework = 10% Material Yield =.69 Scrap = 0.0% Cum Material Yield =.96 X.94 X.69 X.96 X.96 =.57 IPY =.96 IPY =.96 Defects =.04 Defects =.04 RTY =.49 RTY =.47 Rework = 0.0 Rework = 0.0 Material Yield =.96 Material Yield =.96 Scrap = 0.0% Scrap = 4.0% RTY =.92 X.94 X.59 X.96 X.96 =.47 The Value Stream Map is a very powerful technique to understand the velocity of transactions, queue levels and value added ratios in both manufacturing and non-manufacturing es. The Value Stream Map is a specialized map that helps you to understand numerous performance metrics associated primarily with the speed of the, but has many other important data. While this Process Map level is at the macro level, the Value Stream Map provides you a lot of detailed performance data for the major steps of the. It is great for finding bottlenecks in the. For now we just want to introduce the Value Stream Map, we will study it and use it during Phase B of this training.

11 10 A Process Map of Process Mapping Process Mapping follows a general order, but sometimes you may find it necessary, even advisable to deviate somewhat. However, you will find this a good path to follow as it has proven itself to generate significant results. On the lessons ahead we will always show you where you are at in this sequence of tasks for Process Mapping. Before we begin our Process Mapping we will first start you off with how to determine the approach to mapping the. Select the Determine approach to map the Complete worksheet Create Level 1 Create the Level 2 Perform SIPOC Identify all X s and Y s Identify customer requirements Create a Level 3 Add Performance data Identify VA/NVA steps Basically there are two approaches: the individual and the team approach. Define the scope for the Level 2 Identify supplier requirements Process Mapping Approach If you decide to do the individual approach, here are a few key factors: You must pretend that you are the product or service flowing through the and you are trying to experience all of the tasks that happen through the various steps. You must start by talking to the manager of the area and/or the Process Owner. This is where you will This is where you will develop the Macro Process Map. While you are talking to him or her, you will need to receive permission to talk to the various members of the in order to get the detailed information you will need. Select the Determine approach to map the Complete worksheet Create Define the scope for the Level 2 Using the Individual Approach 1. Start with the Macro Process Map. 2. Meet with Process Owner(s) / manager(s). Create a Map and obtain approval to interview Process Members. 3. Starting with the beginning of the, pretend you are the product or service flowing through the, interview to gather information. 4. As the interview progress, assemble the data into a Level Verify the accuracy of the Level 2 with the individuals who provided input. 6. Update the Level 2 as needed. Using the Team Approach 1. Follow the Team Approach to Process Mapping

13 12 Steps in Generating a You may recall that the preferred method for describing a is to identify it with a generic name, describe its purpose with an operational description and show the workflow with a Process Map. When developing a Macro Process Map, always add one step in front of and behind the area you believe contains your problem as a minimum. To aid you in your start, we have provided you with a checklist or worksheet. You may acquire this data from your own knowledge and/or with the interviews you do with the managers / Process Owners. Once you have this data, and you should do this before drawing maps, you will be well positioned to communicate with others and you will much more confident as you proceed. A macro map can be useful when reporting project status to management. A macro map can show the scope of the project, so management can adjust their expectations accordingly. Remember, only major steps are included. For example, a step listed as Plating in a manufacturing Macro Process Map, might actually consists of many steps: pre-clean, anodic cleaning, cathodic activation, pre-plate, electro-deposition, reverse-plate, rinse and spin-dry, etc. The plating step in the macro map will then be detailed in the Level 2 Process Map. Follow the graphic below to learn the steps in creating a. Select the Determine approach to map the Complete worksheet Create Define the scope for the Level 2 Creating a 1. Identify a generic name for the : For instance: order 2. Identify the beginning and ending steps of the : Beginning - customer calls in. Ending baked pizza given to operations 3. Describe the primary purpose and objective of the (operational definition): The purpose of the is to obtain telephone orders for pizzas, sell additional products if possible, let the customer know the price and approximate delivery time, provide an accurate cook order, log the time and immediately give it to the pizza cooker. 4. Mentally walk through the major steps of the and write them down: Receive the order via phone call from the customer, calculate the price, create a build order and provide the order to operations 5. Use standard flowcharting symbols to order and to illustrate the flow of the major steps.

14 13 Exercise Generate a Select the The purpose of this exercise is to develop a Linear Flow Process Map for the key you have selected as your workplace assignment. Read the following background for the exercise: Determine approach to map the Complete worksheet Create Define the scope for the Level 2 You will use your selected key for this exercise (if more than one person in the class is part of the same you may do it as a small group). You may not have all the pertinent detail to correctly put together the Process Map, that is ok, do the best you can. This will give you a starting template when you go back to do your workplace assignment. In this exercise you may use the worksheet on the next page as an example. Task 1 Identify a generic name for the. Task 2 - Identify the beginning and ending steps of the. Task 3 - Describe the primary purpose and objective of the (operational definition). Task 4 - Mentally walk through the major steps of the and write them down. Task 5 - Use standard flowcharting symbols to order and to illustrate the flow of the major steps. 1. Identify a generic name for the : 2. Identify the beginning and ending steps of the : 3. Describe the primary purpose and objective of the (operational definition): 4. Mentally walk through the major steps of the and write them down: 5. Use standard flowcharting symbols to order and to illustrate the flow of the major steps on a separate sheet of paper.

15 14 Example Template for Generating a 1. Identify a generic name for the : Process 2. Identify the beginning and ending steps of the : Beginning - customer calls in Ending pizza order given to chef 3. Describe the primary purpose and objective of the (operational definition): The purpose of the is to obtain telephone orders for s, sell additional products if possible, let the customer know the price and approximate delivery time, provide an accurate cook order, log the time and immediately give it to the pizza cooker. 4. Mentally walk through the major steps of the and write them down: Receive the order via phone call from the customer, calculate the price, create a build order and provide the order to the chef. 5. Use standard flowcharting symbols to order and to illustrate the flow of the major steps on a separate sheet of paper. Create the..

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