# Application. Outline. 3-1 Polynomial Functions 3-2 Finding Rational Zeros of. Polynomial. 3-3 Approximating Real Zeros of.

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1 Polynomial and Rational Functions Outline 3-1 Polynomial Functions 3-2 Finding Rational Zeros of Polynomials 3-3 Approximating Real Zeros of Polynomials 3-4 Rational Functions Chapter 3 Group Activity: Interpolating Polynomials Chapter 3 Review Application A manufacturer of camping supplies wants to produce an aluminum drinking cup in the shape of a right circular cylinder with an open top and a closed bottom. The cup will have a volume of 65 cubic inches. Find the dimensions of the cup that will use the minimum amount of aluminum and find the amount of aluminum used.

2 Recall that the zeros of a function f are the solutions or roots of the equation f(x) 0, if any exist. There are formulas that give the exact values of the zeros, real or imaginary, of any linear or quadratic function (see Table 1). TABLE 1 Zeros of Linear and Quadratic Functions Function Form Equation Zeros/Roots Linear f(x) ax b, a 0 ax b 0 Quadratic f(x) ax 2 bx c, a 0 ax 2 bx c 0 x b a x b b2 4ac 2a Linear and quadratic functions are also called first- and second-degree polynomial functions, respectively. Thus, Table 1 contains formulas for the zeros of any first- or second-degree polynomial function. What about higher degree polynomial functions such as p(x) 4x 3 2x 2 3x 5 q(x) 2x 4 5x 2 6 r(x) x 5 x 4 x 3 10 Third degree (cubic) Fourth degree (quartic) Fifth degree (quintic) It turns out that there are direct, though complicated, methods for finding formulas for the zeros of any third- or fourth-degree polynomial function. However, the Frenchman Evariste Galois ( ) proved at the age of 20 that for polynomial functions of degree greater than 4 there is no formula or finite step-by-step process that will always yield exact values for all zeros.* This does not mean that we give up looking for zeros of higher-degree polynomial functions. It just means that we will have to use a variety of specialized methods and sometimes we will have to approximate the zeros. The development of these methods is one of the primary objectives of this chapter. Throughout this chapter, we will always use the term zero to refer to an exact value and will indicate clearly when approximate values of the zero will suffice. We begin in Section 3-1 by discussing the graphical properties of polynomial functions. In Section 3-2, we develop tools for finding all the rational zeros of a polynomial equation with rational coefficients. 178 *Galois s contribution, using the new concept of group, was of the highest mathematical significance and originality. However, his contemporaries hardly read his papers, dismissing them as almost unintelligible. At the age of 21, involved in political agitation, Galois met an untimely death in a duel. A short but fascinating account of Galois s tragic life can be found in E. T. Bell s Men of Mathematics (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1937), pp

3 3-1 Polynomial Functions 179 In Section 3-3 we discuss methods for locating the real zeros of a polynomial with real coefficients. Once located, the real zeros are easily approximated with a graphing utility. Section 3-4 deals with rational functions and their graphs. Preparing for This Chapter Before getting started on this chapter, review the following concepts: Polynomials (Appendix A, Sections 2 and 3) Rational Expressions (Appendix A, Section 5) Graphs of Functions (Chapter 1, Section 4) Linear Regression (Chapter 1, Group Activity) Linear Functions (Chapter 2, Section 1) Quadratic Functions (Chapter 2, Section 3) Complex Numbers (Chapter 2, Section 4) Quadratic Formula (Chapter 2, Section 5) Section 3-1 Polynomial Functions Polynomial Functions Polynomial Division Division Algorithm Remainder Theorem Graphing Polynomial Functions Polynomial Regression Polynomial Functions In Chapters 1 and 2 you were introduced to the basic functions f(x) b Constant function f(x) ax b a 0 Linear function f(x) ax 2 bx c a 0 Quadratic function as well as some special cases of more complicated functions such as f(x) ax 3 bx 2 cx d a 0 Cubic function Notice the evolving pattern going from the constant function to the cubic function the terms in each equation are of the form ax n, where n is a nonnegative integer and a is a real number. All these functions are special cases of the general class of functions called polynomial functions. The function P(x) a n x n a n 1 x n 1 a 1 x a 0 a n 0

4 180 3 POLYNOMIAL AND RATIONAL FUNCTIONS is called an nth-degree polynomial function. We will also refer to P(x) as a polynomial of degree n or, more simply, as a polynomial. The numbers a n, a n 1,..., a 1, a 0 are called the coefficients of the function. A nonzero constant function is a zero-degree polynomial, a linear function is a first-degree polynomial, and a quadratic function is a second-degree polynomial. The zero function Q(x) 0 is also considered to be a polynomial but is not assigned a degree. The coefficients of a polynomial function may be complex numbers, or may be restricted to real numbers, rational numbers, or integers, depending on our interests. The domain of a polynomial function can be the set of complex numbers, the set of real numbers, or appropriate subsets of either, depending on our interests. In general, the context will dictate the choice of coefficients and domain. The number r is said to be a zero of the function P, or a zero of the polynomial P(x), or a solution or root of the equation P(x) 0, if P(r) 0 A zero of a polynomial may or may not be the number 0. A zero of a polynomial is any number that makes the value of the polynomial 0. If the coefficients of a polynomial P(x) are real numbers, then a real zero is simply an x intercept for the graph of y P(x). Consider the polynomial P(x) x 2 4x 3 The graph of P is shown in Figure 1. FIGURE 1 Zeros, roots, and x intercepts. The x intercepts 1 and 3 are zeros of P(x) x 2 4x 3, since P(1) 0 and P(3) 0. The x intercepts 1 and 3 are also solutions or roots for the equation x 2 4x 3 0. In general: ZEROS AND ROOTS If the coefficients of a polynomial P(x) are real, then the x intercepts of the graph of y P(x) are real zeros of P and P(x) and real solutions, or roots, for the equation P(x) 0. Polynomial Division We can find quotients of polynomials by a long-division process similar to that used in arithmetic. An example will illustrate the process.

5 3-1 Polynomial Functions 181 EXAMPLE 1 Solution Thus, Algebraic Long Division Divide 5 4x 3 3x by 2x 3. 2x 2 3x 3 2x 3 4x 3 0x 2 3x 5 4x 3 6x 2 6x 2 3x 6x 2 9x 6x 5 6x 9 14 R Remainder Arrange the dividend and the divisor in descending powers of the variable. Insert, with 0 coefficients, any missing terms of degree less than 3. Divide the first term of the divisor into the first term of the dividend. Multiply the divisor by 2x 2, line up like terms, subtract (change the sign and add) as in arithmetic, and bring down 3x. Repeat the process until the degree of the remainder is less than that of the divisor. 4x 3 3x 5 2x 3 2x 2 3x x 3 Check (2x 3) (2x 2 3x 3) 14 2x 3 (2x 3)(2x2 3x 3) 14 4x 3 3x 5 MATCHED PROBLEM 1 Divide 6x x 3 by 3x 4. Being able to divide a polynomial P(x) by a linear polynomial of the form x r quickly and accurately will be of great help in the search for zeros of higherdegree polynomial functions. This kind of division can be carried out more efficiently by a method called synthetic division. The method is most easily understood through an example. Let s start by dividing P(x) 2x 4 3x 3 x 5 by x 2, using ordinary long division. The critical parts of the process are indicated in color. Divisor 2x 3 1x 2 2x 5 x 2 2x 4 3x 3 0x 2 1x 5 2x 4 4x 3 1x 3 0x 2 1x 3 2x 2 Quotient Dividend 2x 2 1x 2x 2 4x 5x 5 5x 10 5 Remainder

6 182 3 POLYNOMIAL AND RATIONAL FUNCTIONS The numerals printed in color, which represent the essential part of the division process, are arranged more conveniently as follows: Mechanically, we see that the second and third rows of numerals are generated as follows. The first coefficient, 2, of the dividend is brought down and multiplied by 2 from the divisor; and the product, 4, is placed under the second dividend coefficient, 3, and subtracted. The difference, 1, is again multiplied by the 2 from the divisor; and the product is placed under the third coefficient from the dividend and subtracted. This process is repeated until the remainder is reached. The process can be made a little faster, and less prone to sign errors, by changing 2 from the divisor to 2 and adding instead of subtracting. Thus KEY STEPS IN THE SYNTHETIC DIVISION PROCESS To divide the polynomial P(x) by x r: Step 1. Arrange the coefficients of P(x) in order of descending powers of x. Write 0 as the coefficient for each missing power. Step 2. After writing the divisor in the form x r, use r to generate the second and third rows of numbers as follows. Bring down the first coefficient of the dividend and multiply it by r; then add the product to the second coefficient of the dividend. Multiply this sum by r, and add the product to the third coefficient of the dividend. Repeat the process until a product is added to the constant term of P(x). Step 3. The last number to the right in the third row of numbers is the remainder. The other numbers in the third row are the coefficients of the quotient, which is of degree 1 less than P(x). EXAMPLE 2 Synthetic Division Use synthetic division to find the quotient and remainder resulting from dividing P(x) 4x 5 30x 3 50x 2 by x 3. Write the answer in the form Q(x) R/(x r), where R is a constant.

7 3-1 Polynomial Functions 183 Solution Since x 3 x ( 3), we have r 3, and The quotient is 4x 4 12x 3 6x 2 18x 4 with a remainder of 14. Thus, P(x) x 3 4x4 12x 3 6x 2 18x 4 14 x 3 MATCHED PROBLEM 2 Repeat Example 2 with P(x) 3x 4 11x 3 18x 8 and divisor x 4. A calculator is a convenient tool for performing synthetic division. Any type of calculator can be used, although one with a memory will save some keystrokes. The flowchart in Figure 2 shows the repetitive steps in the synthetic division process, and Figure 3 illustrates the results of applying this process to Example 2 on a graphing calculator. FIGURE 2 Synthetic division. FIGURE 3 Division Algorithm If we divide P(x) 2x 4 5x 3 4x 2 13 by x 3, we obtain 2x 4 5x 3 4x 2 13 x 3 2x 3 x 2 x 3 4 x 3 x 3

8 184 3 POLYNOMIAL AND RATIONAL FUNCTIONS If we multiply both sides of this equation by x 3, then we get 2x 4 5x 3 4x 2 13 (x 3)(2x 3 x 2 x 3) 4 This last equation is an identity in that the left side is equal to the right side for all replacements of x by real or imaginary numbers, including x 3. This example suggests the important division algorithm, which we state as Theorem 1 without proof. 1 DIVISION ALGORITHM For each polynomial P(x) of degree greater than 0 and each number r, there exists a unique polynomial Q(x) of degree 1 less than P(x) and a unique number R such that P(x) (x r)q(x) R The polynomial Q(x) is called the quotient, x r is the divisor, and R is the remainder. Note that R may be 0. 1 Let P(x) x 3 3x 2 2x 8. (A) Evaluate P(x) for (i) x 2 (ii) x 1 (iii) x 3 (B) Use synthetic division to find the remainder when P(x) is divided by (i) x 2 (ii) x 1 (iii) x 3 What conclusion does a comparison of the results in parts A and B suggest? Remainder Theorem We now use the division algorithm in Theorem 1 to prove the remainder theorem. The equation in Theorem 1, P(x) (x r)q(x) R is an identity; that is, it is true for all real or imaginary replacements for x. In particular, if we let x r, then we observe a very interesting and useful relationship: P(r) (r r)q(r) R 0 Q(r) R 0 R R

9 3-1 Polynomial Functions 185 In words, the value of a polynomial P(x) at x r is the same as the remainder R obtained when we divide P(x) by x r. We have proved the well-known remainder theorem: 2 REMAINDER THEOREM If R is the remainder after dividing the polynomial P(x) by x r, then P(r) R EXAMPLE 3 Solutions Two Methods for Evaluating Polynomials If P(x) 4x 4 10x 3 19x 5, find P( 3) by (A) Using the remainder theorem and synthetic division (B) Evaluating P( 3) directly (A) Use synthetic division to divide P(x) by x ( 3). (B) P( 3) 4( 3) 4 10( 3) 3 19( 3) 5 2 MATCHED PROBLEM 3 Repeat Example 3 for P(x) 3x 4 16x 2 3x 7 and x 2. You might think the remainder theorem is not a very effective tool for evaluating polynomials. But let s consider the number of operations performed in parts A and B of Example 3. Synthetic division requires only 4 multiplications and 4 additions to find P( 3), while the direct evaluation requires 10 multiplications and 4 additions. [Note that evaluating 4( 3) 4 actually requires 5 multiplications.] The difference becomes even larger as the degree of the polynomial increases. Computer programs that involve numerous polynomial evaluations often use synthetic division because of its efficiency. We will find synthetic division and the remainder theorem to be useful tools later in this chapter. Graphing Polynomial Functions The shape of the graph of a polynomial function is connected to the degree of the polynomial. The shapes of odd-degree polynomial functions have something in common, and the shapes of even-degree polynomial functions have something

10 186 3 POLYNOMIAL AND RATIONAL FUNCTIONS FIGURE 4 Graphs of polynomial functions. in common. Figure 4 shows graphs of representative polynomial functions from degrees 1 to 6 and suggests some general properties of graphs of polynomial functions. (a) f(x) x 2 (b) g(x) x 3 5x (c) h(x) x 5 6x 3 8x 1 (d) F(x) x 2 x 1 (e) G(x) 2x 4 7x 2 x 3 (f) H(x) x 6 7x 4 12x 2 x 2 Notice that the odd-degree polynomial graphs start negative, end positive, and cross the x axis at least once. The even-degree polynomial graphs start positive, end positive, and may not cross the x axis at all. In all cases in Figure 4, the coefficient of the highest-degree term was chosen positive. If any leading coefficient had been chosen negative, then we would have a similar graph but reflected in the x axis. 2 Using a graphing utility, discuss the shape of the graph of each of the following functions. (A) y 1 x 2 x (B) y 2 x 3 x 2 (C) y 3 x 4 x 3 (D) y 4 x 5 x 4 In each case, which term seems to most influence the shape of the graph? The shape of the graph of a polynomial is also related to the shape of the graph of the term with highest degree or leading term of the polynomial. Figure 5 compares the graph of one of the polynomials from Figure 4 with the graph of

11 3-1 Polynomial Functions 187 its leading term. Although quite dissimilar for points close to the origin, as we zoom out to points distant from the origin, the graphs become quite similar. The leading term in the polynomial dominates all other terms combined. FIGURE 5 p(x) x 5, h(x) x 5 6x 3 8x 1. In general, the behavior of the graph of a polynomial function as x decreases without bound to the left or as x increases without bound to the right is determined by its leading term. We often use the symbols and to help describe this left and right behavior.* The various possibilities are summarized in Theorem 3. 3 LEFT AND RIGHT BEHAVIOR OF A POLYNOMIAL P(x) a n x n a n 1 x n 1 a 1 x a 0 a n 0 1. a n 0 and n even 2. a n 0 and n odd Graph of P(x) increases without Graph of P(x) decreases without bound as x decreases to the left and as x increases to the right. bound as x decreases to the left and increases without bound as x increases to the right. P(x) as x as x P(x) as x as x *Remember, the symbol does not represent a real number. Earlier, we used to denote unbounded intervals, such as [0, ). Now we are using it to describe quantities that are growing with no upper limit on their size.

12 188 3 POLYNOMIAL AND RATIONAL FUNCTIONS 3 continued 3. a n 0 and n even 4. a n 0 and n odd Graph of P(x) decreases without Graph of P(x) increases without bound as x decreases to the left bound as x decreases to the left and as x increases to the right. and decreases without bound as x increases to the right. P(x) as x as x P(x) as x as x Figure 4 shows examples of polynomial functions with graphs containing the maximum number of local extrema. The points on a continuous graph where the local extrema occur are sometimes referred to as turning points. Listed in Theorem 4 are useful properties of polynomial functions we accept without proof. Property 3 is discussed in detail later in this chapter. The other properties are established in calculus. 4 GRAPH PROPERTIES OF POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS Let P be an nth-degree polynomial function with real coefficients. 1. P is continuous for all real numbers. 2. The graph of P is a smooth curve. 3. The graph of P has at most n xintercepts. 4. P has at most n 1 local extrema or turning points. 3 (A) What is the least number of local extrema an odd-degree polynomial function can have? An even-degree polynomial function? (B) What is the maximum number of x intercepts the graph of a polynomial function of degree n can have? (C) What is the maximum number of real solutions an nth-degree polynomial equation can have? (D) What is the least number of x intercepts the graph of a polynomial function of odd degree can have? Of even degree? (E) What is the least number of real zeros a polynomial function of odd degree can have? Of even degree?

13 3-1 Polynomial Functions 189 EXAMPLE 4 Analyzing the Graph of a Polynomial Approximate to two decimal places the zeros and local extrema for P(x) x 3 14x 2 27x 12 Solution FIGURE 6 P(x) x 3 14x 2 27x 12. Examining the graph of P in a standard viewing window [Fig. 6(a)], we see two zeros and a local maximum near x 1. Zooming in shows these points more clearly [Fig. 6(b)]. Using built-in routines (details omitted), we find that P(x) 0 for x 0.66 and x 1.54, and that P(1.09) 2.09 is a local maximum value. (a) (b) Have we found all the zeros and local extrema? The graph in Figure 6(a) seems to indicate that P(x) is decreasing as x decreases to the left and as x increases to the right. However, the leading term for P(x) is x 3. Since x 3 increases without bound as x increases to the right without bound, P(x) must change direction at some point and become increasing. Thus, there must exist a local minimum and another zero that are not visible in this viewing window. Tracing along the graph in Figure 6(a) to the right and observing the coordinates on the screen we discover a local minimum near x 8 and a zero near x 12. Adjusting the window variables produces the graph in Figure 7. Using built-in routines (details omitted) we find that P(x) 0 for x and that P(8.24) is a local minimum. Since a third-degree polynomial can have at most three zeros and two local extrema, we have found all the zeros and local extrema for this polynomial. FIGURE 7 P(x) x 3 14x 2 27x 12. MATCHED PROBLEM 4 Approximate to two decimal places the zeros and the coordinates of the local extrema for P(x) x 3 14x 2 15x 5

14 190 3 POLYNOMIAL AND RATIONAL FUNCTIONS Polynomial Regression In the first two chapters, we saw that regression techniques can be used to construct a linear or quadratic model for a set of data. Most graphing utilities have the ability to use a variety of functions for modeling data. We discuss polynomial regression models in this section and other types of regression models in later sections. EXAMPLE 5 Estimating the Weight of Fish Using the length of a fish to estimate its weight is of interest to both scientists and sport anglers. The data in Table 1 give the average weight of North American sturgeon for certain lengths. Use these data and regression techniques to find a cubic polynomial model that can be used to estimate the weight of a sturgeon for any length. Estimate (to the nearest ounce) the weights of sturgeon of lengths 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, and 50 inches, respectively. Solution The graph of the data in Table 1 [Fig. 8(a)] indicates that a linear regression model would not be appropriate for this data. And, in fact, we would not expect a linear relationship between length and weight. Instead, since weight is associated with volume, which involves three dimensions, it is more likely that the weight would be related to the cube of the length. We use a cubic regression polynomial to model this data [Fig. 8(b)]. (Consult your manual for the details of calculating regression polynomials on your graphing utility.) Figure 8(c) adds the graph of the polynomial model to the graph of the data. The graph in Figure 8(c) shows that this cubic polynomial does provide a good fit for the data. (We will have more to say about the choice of functions and the accuracy of the fit provided by regression analysis later in the text.) Figure 8(d) shows the estimated weights for the requested lengths.

15 3-1 Polynomial Functions 191 FIGURE 8 (a) (b) (c) (d) MATCHED PROBLEM 5 Find a quadratic regression model for the data in Table 1 and compare it with the cubic regression model found in Example 5. Which model appears to provide a better fit for this data? Use numerical and/or graphical comparisons to support your choice. Answers to Matched Problems P(x) 1. 3x 2. x 4 3x3 x 2 4x x 8 2 x 4 3x3 x 2 4x 2 3x 4 3. P( 2) 3 for both parts, as it should 4. Zeros: 12.80, 1.47, 0.27; local maximum: P( 0.57) 9.19; local minimum: P( 8.76) The cubic regression model provides a better model for this data, especially for 18 x 26. EXERCISE 3-1 A In Problems 1 4, a is a positive real number. Match each function with one of graphs (a) (d). 1. f(x) ax 3 2. g(x) ax 4 3. h(x) ax 6 4. k(x) ax 5

16 192 3 POLYNOMIAL AND RATIONAL FUNCTIONS Problems 5 8 refer to the graphs of functions f, g, h, and k shown below. 21. (2x 3 3x 1) (x 2) 22. (x 3 2x 2 3x 4) (x 2) B Use synthetic division and the remainder theorem in Problems Find P( 2), given P(x) 3x 2 x Find P( 3), given P(x) 4x 2 10x Find P(2), given P(x) 2x 3 5x 2 7x Find P(5), given P(x) 2x 3 12x 2 x Find P( 4), given P(x) x 4 10x 2 25x Find P( 7), given P(x) x 4 5x 3 13x In Problems 29 44, divide, using synthetic division. Write the quotient, and indicate the remainder. As coefficients get more involved, a calculator should prove helpful. Do not round off all quantities are exact. 29. (3x 4 x 4) (x 1) 5. Which of these functions could be a second-degree polynomial? 6. Which of these functions could be a third-degree polynomial? 7. Which of these functions could be a fourth-degree polynomial? 8. Which of these functions is not a polynomial? In Problems 9 16, divide, using algebraic long division. Write the quotient, and indicate the remainder. 9. (4m 2 1) (2m 1) 10. (y 2 9) (y 3) 11. (6 6x 8x 2 ) (2x 1) 12. (11x 2 12x 2 ) (3x 2) 13. (x 3 1) (x 1) 14. (a 3 27) (a 3) 15. (3y y 2 2y 3 1) (y 2) 16. (3 x 3 x) (x 3) In Problems 17 22, use synthetic division to write the quotient P(x) (x r) in the form P(x)/(x r) Q(x) R/(x r), where R is a constant. 17. (x 2 3x 7) (x 2) 18. (x 2 3x 3) (x 3) 19. (4x 2 10x 9) (x 3) 20. (2x 2 7x 5) (x 4) 30. (5x 4 2x 2 3) (x 1) 31. (x 5 1) (x 1) 32. (x 4 16) (x 2) 33. (3x 4 2x 3 4x 1) (x 3) 34. (x 4 3x 3 5x 2 6x 3) (x 4) 35. (2x 6 13x 5 75x 3 2x 2 50) (x 5) 36. (4x 6 20x 5 24x 4 3x 2 13x 30) (x 6) 37. (4x 4 2x 3 6x 2 5x 1) (x ) 38. (2x 3 5x 2 6x 3) (x ) 39. (4x 3 4x 2 7x 6) (x ) 40. (3x 3 x 2 x 2) (x ) 41. (3x 4 2x 3 2x 2 3x 1) (x 0.4) 42. (4x 4 3x 3 5x 2 7x 6) (x 0.7) 43. (3x 5 2x 4 5x 3 7x 3) (x 0.8) 44. (7x 5 x 4 3x 3 2x 2 5) (x 0.9) For each polynomial function in Problems 45 50: (A) State the left and right behavior, the maximum number of x intercepts, and the maximum number of local extrema. (B) Approximate (to two decimal places) the x intercepts and the local extrema. 45. P(x) x 3 5x 2 2x P(x) x 3 2x 2 5x

17 3-1 Polynomial Functions P(x) x 3 4x 2 x P(x) x 3 3x 2 4x P(x) x 4 x 3 5x 2 3x P(x) x 4 6x 2 3x 16 In Problems 51 54, either give an example of a polynomial with real coefficients that satisfies the given conditions or explain why such a polynomial cannot exist. 51. P(x) is a third-degree polynomial with one x intercept. 52. P(x) is a fourth-degree polynomial with no x intercepts. 53. P(x) is a third-degree polynomial with no x intercepts. 54. P(x) is a fourth-degree polynomial with no turning points. C In Problems 55 and 56, divide, using algebraic long division. Write the quotient, and indicate the remainder. 55. (16x 5x 3 8 6x 4 8x 2 ) (2x 4 3x 2 ) 56. (8x x 24x 4 ) (3x 5 6x 2 ) In Problems 57 and 58, divide, using synthetic division. Do not use a calculator. 57. (x 3 3x 2 x 3) (x i) 58. (x 3 2x 2 x 2) (x i) 59. Let P(x) x 2 2ix 10. Find (A) P(2 i) (B) P(5 5i) (C) P(3 i) (D) P( 3 i) 60. Let P(x) x 2 4ix 13. Find (A) P(5 6i) (B) P(1 2i) (C) P(3 2i) (D) P( 3 2i) In Problems 61 68, approximate (to two decimal places) the x intercepts and the local extrema. 61. P(x) 40 50x 9x 2 x P(x) 40 70x 18x 2 x P(x) 0.04x 3 10x P(x) 0.01x 3 2.8x P(x) 0.1x 4 0.3x 3 23x 2 23x P(x) 0.1x 4 0.2x 3 19x 2 17x P(x) x 4 24x 3 167x 2 275x P(x) x 4 20x 3 118x 2 178x (A) Divide P(x) a 2 x 2 a 1 x a 0 by x r, using both synthetic division and the long-division process, and compare the coefficients of the quotient and the remainder produced by each method. (B) Expand the expression representing the remainder. What do you observe? 70. Repeat Problem 69 for P(x) a 3 x 3 a 2 x 2 a 1 x a Polynomials also can be evaluated conveniently using a nested factoring scheme. For example, the polynomial P(x) 2x 4 3x 3 2x 2 5x 7 can be written in a nested factored form as follows: P(x) 2x 4 3x 3 2x 2 5x 7 (2x 3)x 3 2x 2 5x 7 [(2x 3)x 2]x 2 5x 7 {[(2x 3)x 2]x 5}x 7 Use the nested factored form to find P( 2) and P(1.7). [Hint: To evaluate P( 2), store 2 in your calculator s memory and proceed from left to right recalling 2 as needed.] 72. Find P( 2) and P(1.3) for P(x) 3x 4 x 3 10x 2 5x 2 using the nested factoring scheme presented in Problem 71. APPLICATIONS 73. Revenue. The price-demand equation for 8,000 BTU window air conditioners is given by p x 2 x x 800 where x is the number of air conditioners that can be sold at a price of p dollars each. (A) Find the revenue function. (B) Find the number of air conditioners that must be sold to maximize the revenue, the corresponding price to the nearest dollar, and the maximum revenue to the nearest dollar. 74. Profit. Refer to Problem 73. The cost of manufacturing 8,000 BTU window air conditioners is given by C(x) 10,000 90x where C(x) is the total cost in dollars of producing x air conditioners. (A) Find the profit function. (B) Find the number of air conditioners that must be sold to maximize the profit, the corresponding price to the nearest dollar, and the maximum profit to the nearest dollar.

18 194 3 POLYNOMIAL AND RATIONAL FUNCTIONS 75. Construction. A rectangular container measuring 1 foot by 2 feet by 4 feet is covered with a layer of lead shielding of uniform thickness (see the figure). (A) Let x represent the number of years since 1960 and find a cubic regression polynomial for the total national expenditures. (B) Use the polynomial model from part A to estimate the total national expenditures (to the nearest tenth of a billion) for Health Care. Refer to Table 2. (A) Let x represent the number of years since 1960 and find a cubic regression polynomial for the per capita expenditures. (B) Use the polynomial model from part A to estimate the per capita expenditures (to the nearest dollar) for Marriage. Table 3 shows the marriage and divorce rates per 1,000 population for selected years since (A) Find the volume of lead shielding V as a function of the thickness x (in feet) of the shielding. (B) Find the thickness of the lead shielding to three decimal places if the volume of the shielding is 3 cubic feet. 76. Manufacturing. A rectangular storage container measuring 2 feet by 2 feet by 3 feet is coated with a protective coating of plastic of uniform thickness. (A) Find the volume of plastic V as a function of the thickness x (in feet) of the coating. (B) Find the thickness of the plastic coating to four decimal places if the volume of the shielding is 0.1 cubic feet. 77. Health Care. Table 2 shows the total national expenditures (in billion dollars) and the per capita expenditures (in dollars) for selected years since (A) Let x represent the number of years since 1950 and find a cubic regression polynomial for the marriage rate. (B) Use the polynomial model from part A to estimate the marriage rate (to one decimal place) for Divorce. Refer to Table 3. (A) Let x represent the number of years since 1950 and find a cubic regression polynomial for the divorce rate. (B) Use the polynomial model from part A to estimate the divorce rate (to one decimal place) for 1995.

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