Título do trabalho. Diálogo Latinoamericano sobre as Melhores Práticas no Desenvolvimento de Grandes Centrais Hidroelétricas

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1 Diálogo Latinoamericano sobre as Melhores Práticas no Desenvolvimento de Grandes Centrais Hidroelétricas Título do trabalho Perspectivas sobre las principales preocupaciones y los riesgos asociados com el desarrollo de grandes centrales hidroelétricas Rio de Janeiro, Nov 2011 Autor/apresentador Área Maria Elvira P. Maceira Energy Optimization and Environment Department

2 Hydropower - Overview Hydropower is the least costly way of storing large amounts of electricity growing recognition that may be a major instrument in the fight against climate change accounts for the large majority of existing renewable power generation has been a vector of humanitarian (HDI) and economic development in regions, especially for local people Huge undeveloped potential (S/C Americas, Africa & Asia) Brazil: 70% of 260 GW; South America: 82.5% of 726 GW Hydropower currently supplies 16% of global electricity and about 86% of global renewable energy and has the potential to continue as both a low cost and climate change friendly contributor to renewable energy growth over the coming decades Hydropower will play an important role in the transition towards a low-carbon economy while also offering important opportunities for poverty alleviation, access to electricity and sustainable development

3 Hydropower Status Today Hydropower s storage capacity and fast response characteristics are especially valuable to meet sudden fluctuations in electricity demand and to match supply from less flexible electricity sources and variable renewable sources One important future driver for the development of hydropower will be its role in providing integration services for wind, solar and other intermittent generation sources The environmental and social effects of hydropower projects need to be carefully considered. Hydropower will be important to achieve the target reduction in energy-related CO2 emissions

4 Sustainability "Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED). Our common future. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987 p. 43. Corporate Governance Social Sustainability Environmental Sustainability Economic Sustainability Sustainable Development - Triple-botton-line 1 1 John Elkington, Cannibals with forks: The triple bottom line of 21st century business

5 Sustainability "Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED). Our common future. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987 p. 43. Corporate Governance Social Sustainability Environmental Sustainability Sustainable Development - Triple-botton-line 1 Economic Sustainability 1 John Elkington, Cannibals with forks: The triple bottom line of 21st century business Quadruple-Bottom-Line? (Policy Framework)

6 Sustainability Hydropower and River Basin Water Management Providing access to energy and water for this and future generations are key factors in sustainability analysis Integration of Hydropower Development and River Basin Water Resources Management is in the intersection of these factors Lack of access to water, sanitation, electricity, and food in developing countries, are interconnected issues contributing to ongoing poverty. Integrated water resources policies, energy efficiency activities, and increased water infrastructure and storage capacity should be adopted to develop a holistic strategy for addressing water and development (Luiz Berga, Former President of ICOLD)

7 Sustainable Development of Hydropower Social impacts Costeffective Energy Production Multiple uses of Water Environmental impacts Find a balance Besides addressing technical/economical issues, the use of sustainability criteria in decision-making process implies formulations that provides clear direction on how to: minimize negative social and environmental impacts maximize positive social and environmental impacts

8 International Sustainability Criteria for Hydropower 1-Hydropower And The Environment: Present Context And Guidelines For Future Action, IEA Hydro, October, Hydropower Inventory Manual - 2 nd Release, Eletrobras, 1997 (in Portuguese) 3-Dams and Development: a new decision-making framework, World Commission on Dams, November, Good Dams and Bad Dams: Environmental Criteria for Site Selection of Hydroelectric Projects, The World Bank, Latin America and the Caribbean Region,, November, IHA Sustainability Guidelines, IHA, February, Dams and Development. A source of information, guidance, and weblinks related to planning and implementation of dam projects, Asian Development Bank, October, 2005

9 International Sustainability Criteria for Hydropower 7-Hydropower Good Practices: Environmental Mitigation Measures and Benefits, IEA Hydro, May, Sustainability Assessment Protocol, IHA, Manual for Hydropower Inventory Studies of River Basins, Cepel, Eletrobras et allii (funded by Ministry of Mines and Energy of Brazil and the World Bank), Update of the Recommendations for Hydropower and the Environment, IEA Hydro, October, Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Protocol, IHA, November, 2010

10 Sustainable Development of Hydropower Decision-Making Process Stages Energy Resources Assessment Head Division Project Design & Implementation Operation

11 Sustainable Development of Hydropower Decision-Making Process Stages Needs Energy Resources Assessment Head Division Project Design & Implementation Operation Do Planning Social & Environmental considerations Synergies between hydropower and river basin water resources Hydrological diversity among regions

12 Sustainable Development of Hydropower Brazilian Hydropower Practices for Achieving Sustainability Policy framework: sustainability and use of water

13 Policy Framework: sustainability and use of water (planning activities adapted to each country circumstances) 1- Energy resources assessment: requires planning activities ranging from long-term expansion planning to short-term operational planning. The study horizons vary from years ahead (longterm), 5-10 years ahead (midterm) up to day ahead operational programming, involving different degrees of detail in system representation.

14 Brazilian Framework for Planning Sustainable Hydropower Development NATIONAL ENERGY POLICY BRAZILIAN NATIONAL POWER SYSTEM EXPANSION PLANNING AND HYDROPOWER PLANNING CNPE LONG TERM PLANNING Horizon 30 years Updates 4 years TEN-YEAR EXPANSION PLAN Annual Updates EXPANSION MONITORING Horizon 5 Years Monthly Updates Recognition Hydropower Inventory Studies Feasibility Studies AUCTION Basic Project Executive Project Construction Operation Hydropower planning Reserve Declaration of Water Availability Preliminary Env. License Installation Env. License Operating Env. License

15 Platform Hydropower Plants -A New Concept Natural areas with no anthropic interference Balancing power generation and the environment Reduced environmental license requirements Reduced construction sites Human intervention restricted to construction sites Affected area recovered during construction Source: ELETROBRAS Waterfalls in the chosen location Source: Eletrobras Lesser deforestation an works impact Lesser deforestation and works impact Forest is recovered

16 Policy Framework: sustainability and use of water 2- Head division: formulation of alternatives for the partition of the total water head of a river basin, carried out in the inventory studies, considering sustainability criteria. In the hydroelectric inventory, the decision is taken not only for a single project but for the whole set of projects that can be developed in a river basin. Development of methodologies that provide clear direction on how to minimize negative social and environmental impacts while maximizing the positive ones and also capturing synergies between hydropower development and the river basin water resources.

17 Manual for Hydropower Inventory of River Basins, Funded by the Brazilian Government and the World Bank Social and Environmental Aspects considered since the first planning process Integrated Environmental (and Social) Assessment IEA Multi-objective analysis The Manual defines criteria and methodology

18 Sustainability and River Basin Management River Basin Hydropower Inventory in Brazil The objective is to balance energy generation, social and environmental impacts (positive and negative) and multiple uses of water. All river basin cascade options are analyzed and the best one is select according to a basic criterion stated as the maximization of the economic-energy efficiency with the minimization of the negative socioenvironmental impacts, taking into account the positive impacts from the implementation of the hydropower plants in the basin. Social impacts Cost-effective Energy Production Multiple uses of Water Find a balance Environmental impacts The studies can be grouped as: Engineering studies, Energy studies, Socioenvironmental studies and Multiple Use of Water studies

19 Sustainability and River Basin Management In the Energy studies cost/energy-benefit index is calculated for each cascade option

20 Socio-Environment Impacts (Negatives and Positives) The Socioenvironmental studies concern the analysis of the negative and positive socioenvironmental impacts which each cascade option would have on the area under study. They influence project design and cascade options formulations, while also supplying information for construction work cost estimate. Negatives - Impact Index (Ian) Positives - Impact Index (IAp) Aquatic Ecosystem Terrain Organization Economic Base socioenvironmental impact index Indigenous Population Way of Life Terrestrial Ecosystem Local Government Revenue increase Road infrastructure improvements Rational use of the river basin water resources Local Labor Market Dinamization

21 Rational use of the river basin water resources The studies of Multiple Water Uses take into consideration other water uses in the basin, minimizing any conflict and ensuring the efficient use by estimating the amount of head and streamflow available for electricity generation Long term approach compatible with the horizon of the National Water Resources Plan PNRH The opportunities for the rational use of the water resources are highlighted and considered in the decision-making process of choosing the best head division alternative The opportunities for viabilization of the following activities are considered as Positive Impact : Irrigation; Flow augmentation/flood control; Water supply; Fluvial navigation; Aquaculture; Tourism

22 Integrated Environmental Assessment (IEA) ovide a picture of the river basin environmental state with the set of planned hydropower plants in the chosen head division considering: The cumulative and synergetic effects over the natural resources and local inhabitants Actual and potential future water uses, including the biodiversity conservation analysis Social diversity and the socio-economical development trends in the river basin evelop directives for the construction and operation of the planned hydropower plants aiming at the region sustainability in order to: Improve the planning documentation Streamline the permit process

23 Integrated Environmental Assessment (IEA) ovide a picture of the river basin environmental state with the set of planned hydropower plants in the chosen head division considering: The cumulative and synergetic effects over the natural resources and local inhabitants Actual and potential future water uses, including the biodiversity conservation analysis Social diversity and the socio-economical development trends in the river basin evelop directives for the construction and operation of the planned hydropower plants aiming at the region sustainability in order to: Improve the planning documentation Streamline the permit process

24 SINV Decision Support System for Hydropower River Basin Inventory Studies SINV - Screen for Preliminary Multi-objective Analysis Dominant alternatives

25 Policy Framework: sustainability and use of water 3- project design and implementation: (starts when the inventory studies are concluded) i. feasibility studies which should comprise Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) reports which should also address social issues and must include water use rights. ii. basic project, which detailed studies also include the elaboration of the Environmental Basic Project report. iii. executive project phase all necessary measures related to the plant, including the implementation of socio-environmental programs are decided in order to get license for starting the filling of the reservoir for the beginning of the operation.

26 Policy Framework: sustainability and use of water 4 - integrated operation: coordinated operation with upstream and downstream hydropower plants in the same river basin, operation of the other power plants in the interconnected electrical power system and other water uses in the river basin. Provides gains in energy production by taking into account hydrological synergies among river basins

27 Policy Framework: sustainability and use of water 5 - PPAs Schemes as part of an adequate policy framework The Brazilian current power sector model relies on: I. a combination of competition (with both private and government owned companies) and planning to guarantee supply adequacy and to provide a relatively predictable environment for attracting new investors II. the energy distribution companies should ensure the attendance of all their forecasted energy demand acquiring energy through public auctions, thus celebrating long-term power purchase agreements III.Duration of contracts signed with all distribution companies Hydro projects: 30 years Wind projects: 20 years thermal projects: 15 years

28 Obrigada!

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