Food and Nutrition Security

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1 Food and Nutrition Security UNSCN Meeting of the Minds Nutrition impact of food systems March 2013 Presented by: Dr Marzella Wüstefeld

2 Evolution of underlying concepts Food Security Evolved over time from 'freedom from hunger' in the early 1940s into broad concept encompassing the 4 dimensions: Availability of food Access to food Utilization Stability Nutrition Security Evolved over time from 'Multi-sectoral nutrition planning' approach in the 1970s and UNICEF conceptual framework with the 3 determinants: Access to adequate food Care and feeding practices Sanitation and health 5/31/2012 2

3 Current definition Food Security Food security' exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. based on FAO definition (1996, 2009) 5/31/2012 3

4 Stability Food Security dimensions Nutritional Status Utilization Accessibility Availability GTZ 4

5 Food Security Dimensions (WFS, 1996) Four food security dimensions and nutrition linkage availability access stability utilization domestic production import capacity food stocks food aid Poverty/ purchasing power transport and market infrastructure food distribution weather variability price fluctuations political factors economic factors food safety & quality clean water health & sanitation care and feeding Source: FAO

6 Nutrition dimension The term 'food security' does not clearly spelt out the nutrition dimension which is only implied to. Not spelt out is actual food consumption but simply having access to food. The use of different terms to express this dimension Policy makers and practitioners encounter problems due to Lack of consistency in the use of these terms Prevents meaningful discussions on how best to achieve food security and improved nutrition

7 Conceptual Framework of Malnutrition (UNICEF 1991)

8 Determinants of Food security and Nutrition security Determinants of Food security nutritional status Determinants of Nutrition security utilization food & water intake health status food access care & feeding health & sanitation land, water, environment education, sociocultural factors markets & trade food availability food system (processing, distribution) stability/vulnerability factors (climate, economics, political) demographics economic situation purchasing power political situation market infrastructure finance & investment technology & innovation governance, policies and institutions Source: FAO

9 Food and Nutrition Security Has become into increasingly wide-spread use Is integrated way to combine both concepts linguistically and conceptually Expresses a single integrated development goal Emphasizing to achieve both food security and nutrition security Food production Food systems Socio-economic aspects Biological approach Sociological aspects Health and sanitation concerns Encourages better integration of actions Greatly facilitates communications, decisions and actions that support the eradication of hunger and malnutrition. 5/31/2012 9

10 Proposed definition Food and Nutrition Security Food and nutrition security exists when all people at all times have physical, social and economic access to food, which is consumed in sufficient quantity and quality to meet their dietary needs and food preferences, and is supported by an environment of adequate sanitation, health services and care, allowing for a healthy and active life. 5/31/

11 Thank you

12 Conceptual Framework of the Nutritional Status at Household Level Food Security Nutrition Security Nutritional status Food intake Health status Food availability Caring capacity Health services Environmental conditions Production Purchase Donation GTZ 12

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