1 674 Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 21 (No 3) 2015, Agricultural Academy Variability of hygienic behavior in bee Apis mellifera macedonica C. XONIS 1, A. THRASYVOULOU 1 and H. F. El TAJ 2 1 Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Apiculture-Sericulture Laboratory, Thessaloniki 54124, Greece 2 Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Department of Entomology, Dinajpur, Bangladesh Abstract XONIS, C., A. THRASYVOULOU and H. F. El TAJ, Variability of hygienic behavior in bee Apis mellifera macedonica. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 21: The hygienic behavior is an essential factor for the selective improvement of resistant bees against the mite Varroa destructor. Bees with hygienic behavior remove the diseased or dead brood of closed cells. However, the expression of hygienic behavior varies greatly from month to month. In our work we examined the first year, for a period of four months, seven colonies of the Macedonian race (Apis mellifera macedonica) and the second year for a period of three months, 16 colonies of the same race. We found large variation in hygienic behavior each month in 17 of the 23 colonies (74%). Unlike in six of the 23 colonies (26%), in which was found a little variation of hygienic behavior (CV 15%), there was a positive correlation between the hygienic behavior and mite infestation on bee population. The hygienic behavior explains 32% of the variance of the mite infestation on bee population. Also, it was found that the hygienic behavior in the six colonies not affected by the strength of the colonies. Key words: hygienic behavior, Apis mellifera macedonica, Varroa destructor, strength, variation Introduction The hygienic behavior is described as the uncapping and removal of dead, diseased or parasitized brood. Rothenbuhler (1964a) assumed a two-locus model for uncapping and removal of brood diseases and proposed that one locus controls the uncapping of brood cells containing dead pupae, while the second controls the removal of the cell contents. This model was re-evaluated by Moritz (1988) who suggested a more complex three- or more loci model for the removal behavior. Varroa-specific hygienic reactions seem to be even more complex and included repeated uncapping and resealing of infested brood cells (Rosenkranz et al., 1993b; Boot et al., 1999; Aumeier et al., 2000). This may be due to the participation of several genetically distinct worker bees which are specialized in different hygienic tasks. The removal of mite infested brood does not necessarily include the death of the mites, as it was observed that most mites seem to escape from the opened brood cells during the removal process (Boecking and Spivak, 1999). However, the removal of mites from the brood leads to an interruption of the reproductive cycle of the parasite, a prolonged phoretic phase or even the death of the mites (Rosenkranz et al., 2010). The removal of mite-infested brood represents the main factor for the selective breeding of mite tolerant European honey bees (Spivak and Reuter, 1998a; Ibrahim and Spivak, 2006; Harris, 2007). Several methods have been described to quantify the hygienic behavior of a honey bee colony, of which the frozen brood test and the pin test are now widely used (Spivak, 1996a; Spivak, 1996b; Boecking and Spivak, 1999 and Gramacho et al., 1999). In both tests, a certain number of brood cells are killed either by freezing or by piercing; after a defined period the percentage of removed dead brood cells is recorded and used as a measure for hygienic behavior. However, several restrictions exist for successful selection of a Varroa-specific hygienic behavior (Rosernkranz et al., 2010). It is not clear whether the mechanisms for the detection of dead brood are the same as for the detection of mite-infested cells and whether there is sufficient correlation
2 Variability of Hygienic Behavior in Bee (Apis Mellifera Macedonica) 675 between killed brood and removal of mite infested brood cells (Boecking et al., 2000). The expression of hygienic behavior is known to be strongly influenced by environmental factors. For example, weak colonies, or a lack of incoming nectar have been shown to reduce the removal response to mite-infested and dead brood cells, respectively (Momot and Rothenbühler, 1971; Boecking and Drescher, 1993; Spivak and Gilliam, 1993; Spivak, 1996b). Moreover, the results of Boecking and Drescher (1998) demonstrate that the rate of removal of mite infested or dead brood within a particular colony even under the same environmental conditions is not always consistent between assays (Hoffmann, 1996; Rodrigues et al., 1996; Spivak and Downey, 1998). The aim of this study is to investigate the variations in the expression of hygienic behavior of Apis mellifera macedonica. Moreover, the hygienic behavior and the mite infestation were studied in two periods. We studied the colonies which showed a stable hygienic behavior and we compared this behavior in relation to infestation by the mite on bee population. Finally we compared the hygienic behavior in relation to the strength of the beehive. Materials and Methods The study was conducted in two periods. The first measurement period (May August 2011) we used seven colonies out of twelve that survived the winter, without treatment against the mite. All colonies had sister queens and similar brood and bee population. The hygienic behavior and the percentage of mite infestation in brood and adult bees were calculated. In the second period (May July 2012) 16 new colonies were used with queen sisters, which survived the winter after chemical control of mite, of the 19 original colonies, were created in October of The new colonies were produced by rearing from the hive of the first period which had the highest percentage of hygienic behavior. The 16 colonies were treated with coumaphos to control the mite. After treatment, the infection rate of the mite was zero. In each hive there was calculated hygienic behavior, the brood, the population and the degree of mite infestation. Also only the hygienic behavior, in October and November of 2012, in 10 additional colonies of the apiary was measured. These colonies were headed by naturally mated queens. To estimate the mite infestation of the bee population 3 samples of 100 adult bees, collected from three frames of brood (a total of 300 bees) were placed into a vial containing 25% alcohol solution. After 24 hours the dead bees and mites were counted. To estimate the infestation level of brood, three samples of 200 sealed cells from three frames of brood were opened diagonally and the infestation level was found according to Pappas and Thrasyvoulou (1988). The degree of hygienic behavior was performed by freezing (- 20 C) for 24 hours a section of 100 sealed brood cells and repositioned in the original hive (Taber, 1982; Taber and Gilliam, 1987; Spivak and Downey, 1998). In the frame of the sealed brood there was a cut with a utility knife 120 cells (6 cells x 20 cells) in the shape parallelogram. Among the 120 cells were from 5 to 15 cells which had not been closed combs or were empty. Of the 120, 100 closed cells were selected for measurement of hygienic behavior. On transparent film marked with dots 100 sealed cells. After 48 hours from the repositioning of the freeze-killed brood section, clean cells were counted. The colonies were hygienic if they completely removed an average of 95% of the frozen brood from both comb sections within 48 h. The assay, according to Spivak and Downey (1998), should be repeated at least twice. Comparisons of hygienic behavior with the mite infestation rates (brood and population) of bees, and τhe strength of the colonies which were performed by using the statistical analysis software program SPSS 11.5 for Windows. Results and Discussion Variations in the expression of hygienic behavior The hygienic behavior was studied in 23 colonies during 2011 and The results of this work show the large variation of hygienic behavior from month to month with a range of 10-70% in the first period and 1-73% in the second period (Tables 1 and 2). It was found that in five of the seven colonies in 2011 and in 12 of the 16 colonies in 2012 the coefficient of variation was high (CV > 15%). Also in 10 additional colonies, which were not part of the experiment, there were calculated in variation of hygienic behavior in October and November of 2012 (Table 3) after 7, 10 and 19 days between measurements. It showed a wide variation in the hygienic behavior, with a range of % and only one in ten colonies had little coefficient of variation (CV = 16%). It has been reported in previous studies that the hygienic behavior is influenced by external environmental factors, as the abundance of nectar (Trump et al., 1967; Momot and Rothenbühler, 1971) and seasonal factors remain unclear (Mondragón et al., 2005) and it is not constant each year in each hive. Pernal et al. (2012) suggested this problem with the year-to-year comparisons of colonies chosen for breeding. While the analysis by comparing has been previously used to test the hypothesis that the selection increases hygienic behavior, it is limited in that comparisons among successively selected generations are made across different years (Palacio
3 676 C. Xonis, A. Thrasyvoulou and H. F. El Taj Table 1 Percentage (%) of hygienic behavior within 48h in the period from May to August 2011 Year 2011 Percentage (%) of hygienic behavior within 48h Colonies May June July August Mean in 48h CV % 48h a* c a a a b bc 10 Mean 45 * The comparison was made between the months for each hive separately. Based on the criterion of Duncan, means with different alphabet letter are statistically significant different in 0.05 level Table 2 Percentage (%) of hygienic behavior in the period from May to July 2012 Year 2012 Percentage (%) of hygienic behavior within 48h Colonies May June July Mean in 48h CV % 48h d* cd bcd bcd bcd abcd abc ab abcd ab ab ab ab ab ab a 59 Mean 53 * Same as Table 1. Table 3 Repetition of hygienic behavior in 10 colonies Year 2012 Percentage (%) of hygienic behavior within 48h Colonies 17 Okt. 24 Okt 12 Nov 22 Nov. ΜΟ 48h CV % 48h
4 Variability of Hygienic Behavior in Bee (Apis Mellifera Macedonica) 677 et al., 2000). In doing this, the year was confounded with generation, making it impossible to separate the variation from year to year due to additive genetic effects from the year-toyear environmental variation. Unlike recent study by Bigio et al. (2013) showed that the availability of nectar (by feeding or not feeding sucrose syrup) not affects the expression of hygienic behavior and that hygienic behavior is not greatly affected by environmental conditions. In our work it was found that environmental conditions did not greatly affect the hygienic behavior at two colonies in the first period and at four colonies in the second period which had not large variations, as well it was found that there had not large variations in measurements per month (CV 15%). According to previous studies (Arathi and Spivak, 2001) the bees with hygienic behavior can modulate the extent of performance of the behavior depending on the genetic composition of the colony. In colonies that were composed of 25% bees with hygienic behavior and 75% without hygienic behavior, hygienic bees responded to the stimulus of dead brood by increasing the rate of performance of hygienic tasks, by becoming more persistent and by extending the period of task performance inside the beehive, of middle-aged nurse bees, between 15 and 20 days old (Arathi et al., 2000). Genetically mixed colonies did not reach efficiency levels of a colony with 100% hygienic bees, suggesting that the proportion of bees in the colony that are able to perform the task at any time and must be large for successful colony-level expression of the trait. Increased activity of individual hygienic bees in mixed colonies is not sufficient to meet the increased demand for task performance (Arathi et al., 2006). Therefore, it is likely that the low variation in hygienic behavior of the six colonies in our experiment is due to the higher proportion of worker bees with the characteristic of hygienic behavior, which engaged with the cleaning of cells. Correlation between hygienic behavior and infestation by the mite The first period in seven colonies the degree of mite infestation in brood ranged from 0-24% (average 5%) and on the population of bees from 0-14% (average 3%). In the second period in 16 colonies the degree of mite infestation on the population of bees ranged from 0-17% (average 5%), (Table 4). Among the seven colonies there was no statistically significant difference in the degree of mite infestation in the population of bees (F = 1.389, df = 6, p > 0.05). Similarly, no statistically significant difference between the 16 colonies in degree of mite infestation in the population of bees (F = 1.426, df = 15, p > 0.05). Between the hygienic behavior and the infection rate of mite on bee population it was found that there was no correlation between the two factors in 7 (r = 0.07, p > 0.05, N = 28), at 16 (r = 0.018, p > 0.05, N = 48) and a total of 23 colonies of two periods (r = 0.051, p > 0.05, Ν = 76) for a significance level of In contrast to, the six colonies it was found that there was a positive correlation between the hygienic behavior and mite infestation on bee population (r = 0.568, p = 0.004, N = 20) for a significance level of It has been observed by Boecking and Spivak (1999) that most mites escape from the brood cells during the process of cleaning and are adherent on the nurse bees. According to the study of Arechavaleta-Velascoa and Guzmán-Novoa (2001) colonies with the highest mite population growth had more mites on adult bees, fewer mites falling to hive floors, and a lower proportion of injured mites. They concluded that a combined effect of grooming and hygienic behavior was responsible for the differences between colonies and found that grooming behavior explains 38% of the variation in the degree of mite infestation in colonies (Arechavaleta-Velascoa and Guzmán- Novoa, 2001). In our work we found that the hygienic behavior explains 32% of variation of infection rate of mite on bee population (R 2 = 0.323, p = 0.004, N = 20) for a significance level of In the first period, in the two colonies, the degree of mite infestation was on average 4.0% in the population of bees, while the second period, in the four colonies, the degree of infestation was lower at 3.3% on average. Noteworthy also is the fact that in the four colonies of the second period, the beehive with the less variation (CV = 1%) had a greater infestation on bee population (5.7% on average) compared to the hive with the largest variation (CV = 15%, 0.7% on the Table 4 Average percentage (%) of mites infestation in bee-brood and on bee population Number of Mite infestation, % Year colonies May June July August Br* Pop** Br Pop Br Pop Br Pop ±1 2±2 3±3 1±1 4±4 2±2 11±9 7± ±2 4±4 9±8 *Br=brood, Pop**=Population of bees
5 678 average). It is therefore possible that differences in the degree of infestation of apiaries was due to different proportions of worker bees with the characteristic of hygienic behavior and grooming behavior, as well between different resistance mechanisms, these two behaviors are the most important. Colonies reared for hygienic behavior are not possible to survive indefinitely without some sort of periodic treatment. However, it is encouraging that lines bred for hygienic behavior which may require less frequent treatments than unselected lines (Spivak and Reuter, 2001b). In our study we found that non-selected colonies for hygienic behavior to which no treatment was applied against the mite, during wintering, had more losses (collapsed five of the 12 original colonies, 42%), in contrast to colonies, selected for hygienic behavior, in which only one treatment was applied during the wintering (3 of the 19 colonies, 16%). Correlation of hygienic behavior and the strength of the colony The strength of the colonies was calculated from the number of frames of brood and bee population. In the first period, the 7 colonies had an average of 7 ± 2 frames of brood and 13 ± 7 frames of population, while the second period, the 16 colonies had an average of 7 ± 2 frames of brood and 10 ± 5 frames of population (Table 5). At 7 colonies in 2011 it was found that between hygienic behavior and the number of frames of brood there was no correlation (r = 0.186, p = 0.172, N = 28). Similarly there was no correlation between the hygienic behavior and the number of frames of bees (r = , p = 0.325, N = 28) for a significance level of Also, from the statistical analysis of the 16 colonies in 2012 it was found that there was no correlation between the hygienic behavior and the number of frames of brood (r = , p = 0.116, N = 48) and the number of frames of bees (r = , p = 0.169, N = 48) for a significance level of The correlation between the hygienic behavior of six of the 23 colonies, which have a low coefficient of variability (CV 15%) and the number of frames of brood and population, also showed that there was no correlation between them C. Xonis, A. Thrasyvoulou and H. F. El Taj (r = 0.003, p = 0.495, N = 20 and r = , p = 0.346, N = 20, respectively). It has been shown by previous studies that weakened colonies with small bee populations have diminished response to hygienic behavior (Boecking and Drescher, 1993; Spivak and Gilliam, 1993). In a recent study (Bigio et al., 2013) it was observed that the manipulation of brood (by adding or removing brood) had no effect on levels of hygienic behavior. Conclusion In our study we found that the hygienic behavior is not linked to the strength of the beehive. Even in colonies with low variation in hygienic behavior, which had an average of 6 (± 2) frames of brood and 10 (± 4) frames of population, the change in strength of the colony did not affect the expression of the trait. In conclusion it can be said that the selection of colonies with the trait of hygienic behavior should be based on the stability of repetitions of the measurements. At least three repetitions, either every month or the same month, will be taken in each hive for the final selection of colony with smaller variance (CV 15%). The hygienic behavior explains 32% of the variance of the mite infestation on bee population and with the grooming behavior may be sufficient as a mechanism of resistance to V. destructor. References Arathi, H. S. and M. Spivak, Influence of colony genotypic composition on the performance of hygienic behaviour in the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.). Animal Behaviour, 62: Arathi, H. S., I. Burns and M. Spivak, Ethology of hygienic behaviour in the honey bee, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae): behavioural repertoire of hygienic bees. Ethology, 106: Arathi, H. S., G. Ho and M. Spivak, Inefficient task partitioning among non-hygienic honeybees, Apis mellifera L., and implications for disease transmission. Anim. Behav., 72: Arechavaleta-Velasco, Μ. Ε. and E. Guzmán-Novoa, Relative effect of four characteristics that restrain the population Table 5 Average number of frames of brood and bees Number of Number of frames Year colonies May June July August Br* Pop** Br Pop Br Pop Br Pop ±1 7±2 7±2 15±2 8±2 17±3 6±2 14± ±3 11±5 6±3 12±5 5±2 10±5 *Br=brood, Pop**=Population of bees
6 Variability of Hygienic Behavior in Bee (Apis Mellifera Macedonica) 679 growth of the mite Varroa destructor in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies. Apidologie, 32: Aumeier, P., P. Rosenkranz and L. S. Goncalves, A comparison of the hygienic response of Africanized and European (Apis mellifera carnica) honey bees to Varroa-infested brood in tropical Brazil. Genet. Mol. Biol., 23 (4): Bigio, G., R. Schürch and F. L. Ratnieks, Hygienic behavior in honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae): effects of brood, food, and time of the year. Journal of Economic Entomology, 106 (6): Boecking, O. and M. Spivak, Behavioral defenses of honey bees against Varroa jacobsoni Oud. Apidologie, 30: Boecking, O. and W. Drescher, Preliminary data on the response of Apis mellifera to brood infested with Varroa jacobsoni and the effect of this resistance mechanism. In: L. J. Connor et al. (Eds.), Asian Apiculture, Wicwas Press, Cheshire, USA, pp Boecking, O. and W. Drescher, Research on Varroa resistant traits in European honey bee races. EUROBEE AIR3- CT , EU, Brussels, final report, 22 pp. Boecking, O., K. Bienefeld and W. Drescher, Heritability of the Varroa-specific hygienic behavior in honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae). J. Anim. Breedg. Genet., 117 (6): Boot, W. J., J. N. M. Calis, J. Beetsma, D. M. Hai, N. K. Lan, T. Van Tran, L. Q. Trung and N. H. Minh, Natural selection of Varroa jacobsoni explains the different reproductive strategies in colonies of Apis cerana and Apis mellifera. Exp. Appl. Acarol., 23 (2): Gramacho, K., L. S. Goncalves, P. Rosenkranz and D. De Jong, Influence of body fluid from pin-killed honey bee pupae on hygienic behaviour. Apidologie, 30: Harris, J. W., Bees with Varroa-sensitive hygiene preferentially remove mite infested pupae aged 5 days post capping. J. Apicult. Res., 46: Hoffmann, S., Untersuchungsmethoden und Analyse der quantitativ genetischen Basis unterschiedlicher Varroatose- Anfälligkeit von Bienenvölkern der Carnica-Rasse (Apis mellifera carnica Pollmann), Inaugural-Dissertation, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität, Bonn, 171 pp. Ibrahim, A. and M. Spivak, The relationship between hygienic behavior and suppression of mite reproduction as honey bee (Apis mellifera) mechanisms of resistance to Varroa destructor. Apidologie, 37: Momot, J. P. and W. C. Rothenbuhler, Behaviour genetics of nest cleaning in honey bees. VI. Interactions of age and genotype of bees, and nectar flow. J. Apic. Res., 10: Mondragón, L., M. Spivak and R. Vandame, A multifactorial study of the resistance of honeybees Apis mellifera to the mite Varroa destructor over one year in Mexico. Apidologie, 36 (3): Moritz, R. F. A., A reevaluation of the 2-locus model for hygienic behavior in honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). J. Hered., 79 (4): Palacio, M. A., E. E Figini, S. R. Ruffinengo, E. M. Rodriguez, M. L. Hoyo and E. L. Bedascarrasburne, Changes in a population of Apis mellifera L. selected for hygienic behavior and its relation to brood disease tolerance. Apidologie, 31: Pappas, N. and A. Thrasyvoulou, Searching for an accurate method to evaluate the degree of Varroa infestation in honey bee colonies. In R. Cavalloro (Ed), European Research on Varroatosis Control, Commission of the European Communities (Proceedings of a meeting of the EC Experts Group, Bad Homburg, October 1986). AA Balkema Publishers, Rotterdam, pp Pernal, F. S., A. Sewalem and P. A. Melathopoulos, Breeding for hygienic behaviour in honeybees (Apis mellifera) using free-mated nucleus colonies. Apidologie, 43: Rodrigues, I., J. Beetsma, W. J. Boot and J. Calis, Testing hygienic behavior in four different honeybee strains. In: M. J. Sommeijer and P. J. Franke (Eds), Proc. Sec. Exp. Appl. Entomol. Netherlands Entomol. Soc. 7, Netherlands Entomological Society, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, pp Rosenkranz, P., N. C. Tewarson, A. Singh and W. Engels, 1993b. Differential hygienic behaviour towards Varroa jacobsoni in capped worker brood of Apis cerana depends on alien scent adhering to the mites. J. Apicult. Res., 32: Rosenkranz, P., P. Aumeier and B. Ziegelmann, Biology and control of Varroa destructor. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 103: Rothenbühler, W., 1964a. Behavior genetics of nest cleaning behavior in honeybees I. Response of four inbred lines to disease killed brood. Anim. Behav., 12: Spivak, M. and D. Downey, Field assays for hygienic behavior in honey bees (Apidae: Hymenoptera). Journal of Economic Entomology, 91: Spivak, M. and G. S. Reuter, 1998a. Performance of hygienic honey bee colonies in a commercial apiary. Apidologie, 29: Spivak, M. and G. S. Reuter, 2001b. Varroa destructor infestation in untreated honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies selected for hygienic behaviour. J. Econ. Entomol., 94 (2): Spivak, M. and M. Gilliam, Facultative expression of hygienic behaviour of honey bees in relation to disease resistance. J. Apic. Res., 32: Spivak, M., 1996a. Response of hygienic honey bees to Varroa mites. Resist. Pest Manag., pp Spivak, M., 1996b. Honey bee hygienic behavior and defense against Varroa jacobsoni. Apidologie, 27: Taber, S. and M. Gilliam, Breeding honey bees for resistance to diseases. Korean J. Apic., pp Taber, S., Determining resistance to brood diseases. Am. Bee J., 122: Trump, R. F., V. C. Thompson and W. C. Rothenbühler, Behaviour genetics of nest cleaning in honeybees V. Effect of previous experience and composition of mixed colonies on response to disease-killed brood. J. Apic. Res., 6: Received October, 5, 2014; accepted for printing January, 20, 2015.
APICULTURE AND SOCIAL INSECTS Varroa destructor Infestation in Untreated Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies Selected for Hygienic Behavior MARLA SPIVAK AND GARY S. REUTER Department of Entomology,
Sequential hygienic behavior in Carniolan honey bees (Apis mellifera carnica) K.P. Gramacho 1 and L.S. Gonçalves 2 1 Curso de Ciências Biológicas, Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciências, Salvador, BA, Brasil
The mite Varroa destructor (formerly Varroa jacobsoni) is a parasite of adult bees and their brood. It penetrates the intersegmental skin between the abdominal sclera of adult bees to ingest haemolymph.
Potential Solutions to Honey Bee Decline: Hygienic i Behavior Alicia Moulton USU Extension Ag/4-H Agent Wasatch County Background Honeybees are declining throughout the world Colony Collapse Disorder Complex
Stimulating natural supersedure of honeybee queens, Apis mellifera Harmen P. Hendriksma, Johan N.M. Calis & Willem J. Boot Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 8031, 6700 EH Wageningen,
Parasite host interactions between Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman and Apis mellifera L.: Influence of parasitism on flight behaviour and on the loss of infested foragers Dissertation zur Erlangung
Utah State University DigitalCommons@USU All PIRU Publications Pollinating Insects Research Unit 1968 Selective Breeding of Honeybees for Alfalfa Pollen: Fifth Generation and Backcrosses William P. Nye
SMARTBEES / FP7 KBBE.2013.1.3 02 / WP6 Sustainable Management of Resilient Bee Populations Performance testing protocol A guide for European honey bee breeders Released: April, 2015. Version 1.0 Dr. Aleksandar
Typical honey production situation Poor pest and disease management Proximity to settlements and farm animals Poor apiary husbandry Poor harvesting and processing methods Low returns M10 Animals: U1 Bees
MODULE 1: BEE BIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOUR Introduction There are various types of bees which include the stingless bees, solitary bees, honey bees. But we are focusing on honey bees. Honey Bees belong to the
1 Preparing Honeybee Colonies for Winter The importance of preparing colonies to enter the winter in a healthy state, with an adequate supply of young healthy bees and stores, cannot be overemphasised.
Managing Varroa Mites in Honey Bee Colonies The varroa mite (Varroa destructor) is the most serious pest of honey bee colonies worldwide. This parasite was first detected in North Carolina in 1990, having
Vol. 54 No. 2 2010 Journal of Apicultural Science 17 COMPARISON OF HYGIENIC BEHAVIOUR BETWEEN FIVE HONEY BEE BREEDING LINES B e a t a B ą k, J e r z y W i l d e, M a c i e j S i u d a Apiculture Departament,
International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies ISSN 2028-9324 Vol. 9 No. 4 Dec. 2014, pp. 1987-1993 2014 Innovative Space of Scientific Research Journals http://www.ijias.issr-journals.org/ Performance
PRACTCAL 10 SEASONAL MANAGEMENT OF HONEY BEE COLONIES (SUMMER, MONSOON AND AUTUMN MANAGEMENT) Aim: 1) To understand management of bee colonies for efficiently availing the honey flow. 2) To know method
Weight (kg) Weight (kg) Adult Bees (Thousands) Adult Bees (Thousands) Managing Bees for Honey Production 60 20 COLONY POPULATION ADULT BEE Time POPULATION TARGET PERIOD MAIN NECTAR FLOW 300 250 HONEY PRODUCTION
Three Rivers Beekeepers Making and Overwintering Nucs as part of the Nuc and Queen Initiative Agenda Workshop Purpose Nuc and Queen Initiative Reason for Overwintering Nucs Equipment Needs Making/Creating
Best Management Practices (BMP) for Ontario Beekeepers in Advance of Winter Paul Kozak, Provincial Apiarist Successful over-wintering in modern beekeeping requires thorough management of honey bee colonies.
Plan Bee Ltd Beekeeping Policy Contents 1/ Introduction... 2 2/Beekeeping Method... 3 Type of honey bees and materials... 3 Placing bee hives in a new location... 3 Security around the hive... 3 General
Tackling Europe s bee decline The role veterinarians can play Federation of Veterinarians of Europe Bees : minute animals, massive importance Bees have a lot of responsibility on their tiny striped backs.
MBA Annual Convention Advanced Technology Center Jones County Junior College Ellisville, MS November 6 7, 2015 Go to Exit 85 on Interstate 59 (intersection with Highway 590; approximately 10 miles south
Swarming Time Again By Dana Stahlman 2015 There are some topics that just don t get old! I do not think that anyone regardless how long one has kept bees does not get excited when a swarm leaves a hive.
PLEASE NOTE This document, prepared by the Legislative Counsel Office, is an office consolidation of this regulation, current to April 26, 2014. It is intended for information and reference purposes only.
Nicot Box and Cloake Board Most beekeepers have been, for some time, trying to deal with controlling the Varroa mite, small hive beetle, Nosema, and a host of other issues in the apiary, in addition to
Best Practice Guideline No. 6 Spring checks Managed honey bees, like all livestock, have various needs, so understanding honeybee biology and recognizing these requirements enables beekeepers to know what
Contact us: Beehavin Apiary 225 Douglas Pike Smithfield, RI 02917 (401) 885-5172 firstname.lastname@example.org ! Beekeepers who work towards goal typically have the best success! First Year Beekeeper Goals! Learn
THE PLACE OF HONEY BEES IN THE WORLD CHAPTER 1, FIRST LESSONS IN BEEKEEPING Above photos from bugguide.net OUTLINE FOR CHAPTER 1 1. Classification system for honey bees 2. Where do honey bees come from?
Host-Parasite Adaptations and Interactions Between Honey Bees, Varroa Mites and Viruses Barbara Locke Faculty Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences Department of Ecology Uppsala Doctoral Thesis Swedish
Beekeeping in the Tropics Dr. Peter Rosenkranz University of Hohenheim Apicultural State Institute email@example.com www.uni-hohenheim.de/bienenkunde Content 1. What are Bees? 2. Social
LENING HOW TO KEEP BEES In today s world of Beetles and Mites by Jerry Freeman Hamburg, rkansas firstname.lastname@example.org Compared to today, beekeeping in the 1970 s was easy! Back then I ran 25 to 30 hives
International Journal of Biosciences IJB ISSN: 2220-6655 (Print) 2222-5234 (Online) http://www.innspub.net Vol. 4, No. 6, p. 32-36, 2014 RESEARCH PAPER OPEN ACCESS Influence of vitamin C in sugar syrup
INTERMEDIATE BEEKEEPING WEEK 3 CAROL COTTRILL SUMMER 25,000 older foragers, 25,000 young house bees, 300 1000 drones Watch front of hive 30-90 bees per minute indicates a strong hive Reverse again if needed
SEASONAL APLICATION OF JENTER S METHOD FOR A SUCCESSFUL QUEEN BEES REARING IN ALBANIA L. Sena, S. Sena, F. Gjurgji and M. Nikolla Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment,
Resolution No. 1 Regulation of honey bee supplemental feeds Submitted by Madhat Nasar author, Resolutions Committee Supplemental feeding of honey bee colonies is essential in many commercial beekeeping
Treating Colonies for Varroa Mite Infestations Varroa mites, Varroa destructor, are small (flea sized), crab-shaped parasites that spend their time either under the cappings in the brood nest or on adult
Queen Management Notes New Hampshire Bee Meeting October 28, 2006 By Dan Conlon Warm Colors Apiary South Deerfield, Massachusetts email@example.com 413-665-4513 www.warmcolorsapiary.com Understanding
Experience with Thermosolar Hive We have got 10 years of experience with thermotherapy and working with the Thermosolar Hive. There is also a university research that confirms high efficiency of our hive.
Honey Bee Diseases and Pests 2016 By Dr. Marla Spivak Mr. Gary S. Reuter Department of Entomology and Minnesota Extension Service University of Minnesota St. Paul, Minnesota University of Minnesota Extension
Rusty Burlew July 12, 2009 Essential Oils and Organic Acids for the Control of Varroa destructor in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) It wasn t until 1986 that parasitic Varroa mites were introduced into the
ROGUE VALLEY BEE SEASON Sarah Red-Laird Beekeeping is Local What are Your Beekeeping Goals? There is no Beekeeping Calendar EARLY SPRING MANAGEMENT Time to bring your hives out of winter First inspection:
INTERMEDIATE BEEKEEPING WEEK 1 CAROL COTTRILL BEE BIOLOGY WHY IT MATTERS There is a spectrum there are different ways to try to do things. I once thought you could do it all by a cookbook, and now I think
Shaking is an Effective and Profitable Method for Managing AFB By Adony Melathopoulos, Stephen Pernal and Robert Albright Beaverlodge Research Farm, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Figure 1. Bees shaken
HONEYBEE PESTS AND DISEASES FACTS: Honeybees can no longer fend for themselves. The days of set and forget like when Grandpa kept bees are over. Many pests and diseases plague a colonies of honeybees year
Powdered sugar dusting in bee colonies as varroa control A bee-friendly way to knock down varroa mites Khalil Hamdan, Apeldoorn, The Netherlands Introduction The powdered sugar dusting is a non-chemical
Death of the Bees: a Mathematical Model of Colony Collapse Disorder Lindsey Dornberger Christopher Mitchell Brian Hull, Wilber Ventura, Haley Shopp Christopher Kribs-Zaleta Hristo Kojouharov, James Grover
Index to: The Practical Beekeeper Volumes I, II & III by Michael Bush Index to: The Practical Beekeeper Volume I, II & III This index is valid for all three separate volumes and the complete book. Copyright
Elementary Bee Hive Game Build a Hive Purpose To introduce students to the basics of how honeybees work as a group to grow the population of their colony and consider some of the challenges that a hive
Hiving and Care of Packaged Bees Khalil Hamdan, Apeldoorn, The Netherlands Packages of bees ready for hiving Photo courtesy of Betterbee, Inc. www.betterbee.com all rights reserved Package bees are sold
APIACTA 38 (2003) 34-39 34 HONEY AND WAX ANALYSIS FOR ACRINATHRIN RESIDUES SZERLETICS TÚRI Mária - SZALAI MÁTRAY-Enikő 2 József Fodor National Center of Public Health, National Institute of Food Hygienie
Characteristics of Races of Honeybees There are several popular races of honey bees raised in North American for honey. There are others around the world but this paper only covers the ones that are here.
Beneficial Microflora in Honey Bee Colonies Diana Sammataro, Ph.D. USDA-ARS Carl Hayden Bee Research Center Tucson, AZ Our Website: http://gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov Lactobacillus spp. Bifidobacterium spp.
Arch. Biol. Sci., Belgrade, 65 (4), 1585-1592, 2013 DOI:10.2298/ABS1304585G AN environmentally friendly APPROACH TO THE Control of Varroa destructor mite and Nosema ceranae disease in Carniolan honeybee
Organic Honey Production Debbie Roos North Carolina Cooperative Extension Can We Produce Organic Honey??? National Honey Board lists 33 organic honey suppliers in the US I only found a few that were producing
CALENDAR FOR BEEKEEPING IN CENTRAL NORTH CAROLINA Nancy Ruppert, Apiary Inspector, NCDA & CS copyright 2015 This calendar was designed for general beekeeping use in most of central North Carolina. Recommendations
BIOSECURITY OR DISEASE RISK MITIGATION STRATEGY FOR THE AUSTRALIAN HONEY BEE INDUSTRY Australian Honey Bee Industry Council Postal Address: PO Box R838 ROYAL EXCHANGE NSW 1225 Phone: 61 2 9221 0911\ Fax:
Colorado State Beekeepers Association s Best Management Practices for Urban, Suburban and Small Scale Beekeeping DISCLAIMER This document is, and always will be, a work in progress intended for regular
2016 Bee College Tentative Short Course Descriptions A Beekeeper s Year For starting beekeepers, the first year could be the hardest since you are trying to figure out all the quirks of beekeeping. Come
CONTROL OF THE 'VARROA MITE IN HONEYBEE COLONIES BY INTEGRATING CHEMOTHERAPY WITH CONVENTIONAL REQUEENING PRACTICE D,,'partment of Zoology, The George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel-Aviv Aviv 69978,
There are many reasons why people keep honey bees. When honey production is the goal, there are a number of things a beekeeper can do to increase yield. This article is a summary of different methods that
Gold Star Honeybees 2013 PRODUCT CATALOG Orders can be placed by visiting www.goldstarhoneybees.com or by calling us at 207-449-1121. D ELUXE H IVE K ITS All of our Deluxe Hive kits are made of solid wood,
CONTROL OF VARROA A Guide for New Zealand Beekeepers CONTROL OF VARROA A Guide for New Zealand Beekeepers has been published by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry as part of its on-going assistance
Locked Bag 1797 Penrith South DC NSW 1797 Australia Centre for Plant & Food Science University Western Sydney vof V Bringing knowledge to life The Secretary Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries House of
Getting Started in Beekeeping Course Outline Honey Bee basics? State & Local laws about bees Getting Started What Do I need to buy (or build)? How much time / work is involved? What did I NOT cover? Things
honey bee By Henry Touray Introduction For my project I have chosen to research Bees. I chose to find out about the bee because bees have been in the news lately. Lots of hives have died out and scientists
HIVE TEMPERATURES FOR EACH HOUR OF A DAY.* W. E. DUNHAM, Department of Zoology and Entomology, Ohio State University, Columbus. INTRODUCTION. Of the climatic factors in the environment of the honey-bee,
Many beekeepers reach a point in their beekeeping experience where they are comfortable with the basics and are seeking a new challenge. In an environment in which beekeepers have to deal with exotic pests
The mites in the genus Tropilaelaps are parasites of honey bee brood. Feeding on bee larvae and pupae causes brood malformation, death of bees and subsequent colony decline or absconding. Development requires
Best Practice Guideline No. 7 Feeding Bees Feeding is usually carried out when a honey bee colony is short of stores and there is no or little nectar flow. This often coincides with the removal of a honey
Behavior Genetics, Vol. 32, No. 2, March 2002 ( 2002) Confirmation of QTL Effects and Evidence of Genetic Dominance of Honeybee Defensive Behavior: Results of Colony and Individual Behavioral Assays Ernesto
JAR 40-1 inset 16/3/01 2:39 pm Page 3 Journal of Apicultural Research 40(1): 00 00 (2001) Effects of comb age on honey bee colony growth and brood survivorship JENNIFER A BERRY;KEITH S DELAPLANE Department
Cloake Board Method of Queen Rearing and Banking Rearing your own queens is one of the more interesting and rewarding aspects of beekeeping. It provides a means to maintain young, vigorous queens in colonies
Certificate of Competence as a Beekeeper Hive Products This learning guide will help you meet the requirements of the activity: BfDGP1 Remove a honey crop from a hive In this unit, you will learn about:
Certificate of Competence as a Beekeeper Hive Products This learning guide will help you meet the requirements of the activity: BfDGP4 Extract a mixed blossom honeybee crop In this unit, you will learn
Journal of Bangladesh Academy of Sciences, Vol. 38, No. 2, 219-224, 2014 EFFECTS OF QUAIL GENOTYPES ON HATCHABILITY TRAITS, BODY WEIGHT AND EGG PRODUCTION M.S. ISLAM *1, S. FARUQUE 1, H. KHATUN 1 AND M.
CURRICULUM VITAE James P. Strange USDA- ARS- Pollinating Insect Research Unit Utah State University, BNR 255, Logan, UT, 84322-5310 James.Strange@ARS.USDA.GOV 435-797- 7151 Education: PhD Entomology, Washington
Published on TECA (http://teca.fao.org) How to collect the raw wax from the hive SUMMARY: Beeswax is a natural wax produced by honey bees of the genus Apis. The wax is formed into "scales" by eight wax-producing
BY Cameron Crane Within the Harris County Beekeepers Association there was a bit of discussion last year about various Texas laws, regulations, rules and licensing. With a nice break this holiday season,
APICULTURE AND SOCIAL INSECTS Effect of Concentration and Exposure Time on Treatment Efficacy Against Varroa Mites (Acari: Varroidae) During Indoor Winter Fumigation of Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
A Introduction 1. Very species rich 2. Characteristics a. 3 pairs of legs b. 2 pairs of wings (most) except flies (1 pair of wings - Diptera) B. Distribution 1. All habitats except saltwater - replaced
Host a Learning Bee Hive! Frequently Asked Questions Honeybees are incredibly important for two main reasons: pollination and honey creation! Pollination: According to the USDA Agricultural Research Service,
National Bee Unit Protecting the honey bee Protecting the honey bee OUR ROLE We protect the honeybee; an essential pollinator of crops and wild plants, and support the beekeeping industry through: Controlling
Package Bee Installation Retrieve packages from post office as soon as they arrive. The packages are treated like any other live animal shipment. Before shipment, the parent apiary should be given a thorough
CAPITAL AREA BEEKEEPERS MARCH 2010 NEWSLETTER CABA OFFICERS, BOARD OF DIRECTORS, AND NEWSLETTER EDITOR FOR 2010 President: Jack Lithgoe - 225/769-2331 Board Member: Bobby Frierson - 225/241-6132 Vice-President:
TOOLS FOR VARROA MANAGEMENT A GUIDE TO EFFECTIVE VARROA SAMPLING & CONTROL HEALTHY BEES HEALTHY PEOPLE HEALTHY PLANET First Edition 2015 Revised September 17, 2015 Copyright 2015 The Keystone Policy Center
Queen Bee Introduction By Dana Stahlman Queen bee introduction: By Dana Stahlman The queen is the foundation of every colony. Beekeepers have the responsibility to give her all the protection from injury
the new way to enjoy beekeeping - safely! Introduction to New Beekeeping with Dartington hives Robin Dartington Spring 2008 The cover shows the demonstration apiary in Letchworth Herts. Dartington long
BEEKEEPING IN HUNGARY When people who are working in the honey or beekeeping sector hear the name of Hungary, automatically think to acacia honey. The cause of this is the fact that Hungary produces the