2 1. Executive Summary Brazil has long been a self-contained market. With local repertoire accounting for 70% of music sales and with touring by international acts being an expensive undertaking, the country has long been under the radar as far as the international music industry is concerned. Music from local artists accounts for 59% of the industry s physical format. In of the top 25 best selling albums were by local artists (many of them priests). The principal local genres are sertaneja, samba and forró. Every CD manufactured in Brazil carries a lot number. For example, AA is an initial quantity of 1,000 CDs; AB would be the second lot of 2,000 units. The manufacturers supply this information to the music publishers every month. The musical landscape is hugely diverse and extremely varied with hundreds of different styles. Access to YouTube, blogs, illegal downloading, etc. has created a new generation of music listeners who are increasingly open to a broad cross-section of music. The media is controlled by a small number of powerful companies, catering to the needs of their advertisers and the tastes of the general population. Access to radio is dictated by pay for play (with receipts and invoices) which means the majors continue ruling the roost. Music coverage and criticism have traditionally been the role of the cultural sections of the daily newspapers. There have been very few music publications; the printed media has improved greatly with the arrival of local editions of Rolling Stone and Billboard. The music scene in major cities like São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro is blooming. There is an extensive network of clubs and festivals, and a growing number of professionals bringing bands to tour these networks. The public is focused on local acts but there is room for non-established international artists who are willing to invest the time. Local promoters are increasingly in contact with their Latin American counterparts and this will be the key importance of Brazil in the future. For touring bands, Brazil is the gateway to the rest of the continent. The opportunities with the digital market are negligible with regard to revenue for sales online. The marketing opportunities however, although still embryonic, are enormous and significant.
3 There are two distinct worlds: that of the traditional music industry (the major label, music publishers, payola, etc) and the independent sector (young managers, DIY artists, indie labels, indie music festivals, etc). Although the independents are still only finding their feet, they are creating the new Brazilian music industry. Brazil has become the world s sixth largest economy in the last couple of months. With a rapidly expanding middle class of about 90 million consumers, it is a market that no brand can afford to ignore. Brazil s economy grew by 7.5% in 2010 and although that slowed to 3.5% last year, it is in sharp contrast to predictions that the Eurozone economy will shrink by up to 2% in The country is the fifth largest globally in terms of digital users, with around 91 million people online, according to Forrester research. This gives marketers the opportunity to reach consumers through cost-effective digital marketing, products and services. One of the special things about Brazil is that it is leapfrogging trends. For example, people are jumping straight from not having used technology at all to having smartphones. A concerted push by the government to offer free Wi-Fi means that Brazilians are now the third highest users of the internet out of all nations, according to research by Ebiquity. The typical Brazilian also has 231 social network friends (whether on Facebook or the Google-owned Orkut) Brazil has also fallen in love with YouTube and is sixth in the world based on video views, according to a study by EMarketer.
4 2. An Introduction to the Market The Federative Republic of Brazil has a population of million (UN, 2010) with almost 70% of the population in urban areas. It is the fifth largest country in the world, with a landmass of 8.5 million square kilometers (3.3 million sq miles), sharing borders with every South American country except Chile and Equador. It is divided into several geographic regions: the North (main cities: Manaus and Belém), the Northeast (main cities: Salvador, Recife and Fortaleza), the South (main cities: Curitiba and Porto Alegre), the Southeast (main cities: Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo and Belo Horizonte) and the Midwest (main cities: Brasilia, Cuiabá and Goiânia). Most of the population is concentrated in the cities along the coastline, especially the industrialized areas of the Southeast. Twelve cities have more than a million inhabitants, of which Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador and Belo Horizonte are the largest. The capital city is Brasilia, built in the centre of the country in the early 1960s. The official language is Portuguese, the only country in the continent to speak the language. Portuguese spoken in Brazil contains a multitude of words derived from both Latin and Arabic; it has also borrowed freely from other European languages, such as Italian, Spanish, and English, as well as words from Asia that reflect Portugal s maritime history. There are two other major sources of words for Brazilian Portuguese: the Tupi and African languages. Within the music industry most people will also speak English and some Spanish.
5 More than half of Brazilians claim to be descendants of European immigrants from Portugal, Germany, Italy, Spain and various East-European countries, while over 40% are descendants of the slaves brought by Portugal from Africa until abolition in There is also a large population from the Middle East and Asia, including the largest settlement of Japanese outside Japan. The original inhabitants of the country account for less than 1% of the population. After decades of political and economic chaos and debilitating corruption, Brazil seems to be finally moving from being a developing country to the status of a world player.
6 3. The Media and Entertainment Environment South America's biggest media market is home to thousands of radio stations and hundreds of TV channels. TV has long been the most influential medium. Media ownership is highly concentrated. Domestic conglomerates such as Globo, Brazil's most-successful broadcaster, dominate the market and run TV and radio networks, newspapers and pay-tv operations. Brazilian-made dramas and soaps - known as telenovelas - are aired around the world. Game shows and reality TV attract huge audiences. The constitution guarantees a free press; vigorous media debate about controversial political and social matters is commonplace. Around 17% of homes subscribe to pay TV. Brazil is rolling out digital TV and aims to switch off analogue signals from (i) Press & Print Media O Dia - Rio de Janeiro daily O Correio Brazilense - influential daily O Globo - Globo-owned Rio de Janeiro daily Jornal do Brasil - Rio de Janeiro daily Folha de Sao Paulo - daily O Estado de Sao Paulo daily Music Press Rolling Stone - Billboard Brasil Veja - veja.abril.com.br Rock Brigade - (metal) Roadie Crew - (metal) Guitar Player - Modern Drummer - Sucesso principal music industry publication News agencies/internet Agencia Brasil - state-owned Agencia Estado - private, Sao Paulo-based Agencia Globo - private UOL - popular portal G1 - news website, operated by Globo Market pressures and successive economic crises led many Brazilian newspapers to fold in the 1980s and 1990s. Some markets have consolidated into one major daily newspaper, but in the beginning of the twenty-first century, most Brazilian cities still have two or three competing dailies. A city such as São Paulo, for example, has three major dailies, Folha de São Paulo (circ. 560,000), O Estado de São Paulo (circ. 242,000), and Gazeta Mercantil, and still has enough space for popular newspapers, tabloids, and niche-filling publications. The same is true for Rio de Janeiro, with O Globo (circ. 350,000), O Dia (circ.
7 250,000), and Jornal do Brasil being the most important and influential regional newspapers, and still having smaller tabloids and specialized dailies. Besides full-color printing and digital and satellite production, most Brazilian newspapers have simultaneous Internet versions. In many cases, those electronic versions are updated throughout the day, and have as many or more readers than the traditional paper versions. Folha de Sao Paulo is the biggest newspaper in Brazil. Though it is a liberal newspaper and without doubt the most influential of public opinion, its music coverage is sporadic but influential. Veja is the biggest magazine in Latin America and is read by more than a million Brazilians each week. It publishes one or two pieces about music each week, usually a mix of reviews and reports. O Globo and O Estado de São Paulo are next in importance. O Globo, the newspaper second in circulation in the country prints a little less than Folha. Some of its strength rests on the fact that it is part of Organizações Globo, the biggest communication group in Brazil, owners of TV Globo, the most-watched TV channel in the country. It is more relevant to Rio de Janeiro, where Globo is based. O Estado de São Paulo rivals Folha in São Paulo. Its cultural section devotes ample space to criticism and reports. Texts are written by experienced critics and journalists. In big cities, an important fact concerning reading habits is the distribution of free newspaper copies by transportation companies, private institutions and also, just like it is observed in many cities of the world, by Metro International There are few specialized music publications in Brazil. Both Rolling Stone Brazil and Billboard have been present for just over 2 years in the country. The main industry publication is Revista Sucesso. Mainly focused on the popular Brazilian genres such as sertaneja and pagode, its online version is an important source of information: Digital sales: Radioplay: Through the sister company ShowBusiness, the company also offers contact information on industry services:
8 Brazil has several national news agencies, maintained by the major newspapers in the country, and operating under subscription agreements with affiliated news organizations throughout the country. The most important of those are Agéncia Folha, Agéncia Globo, Panorama Brasil, and Agéncia Estado. There is also a governmentowned news agency, called Agéncia Brasil, and other regional news services. Agéncia Estado, sponsored by the newspaper O Estado de São Paulo, bills itself as the largest news agency in Brazil. It has hundreds of subscribers throughout the country, and sends out an average of 230 news items per day, plus photos. Besides using traditional wire technology, Agéncia Estado delivers news to clients through satellite links and the Internet. Agéncia O Globo is sponsored by the newspaper O Globo, from Rio de Janeiro, and is associated with the TV Globo corporation. It was created in 1974, and distributes approximately 120 news items per day. Agéncia Folha was created and is maintained by Folha de São Paulo, the largest daily newspaper in Brazil. It employs approximately 500 journalists, and has offices and correspondents spread throughout the country. All major international news agencies, such as Reuters, Associated Press, and Agence France-Press, have offices in Brazil. The Associated Press, for example, has offices in Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Brasilia. Other news agencies that have offices in Brazil include EFE (Spain), ANSA (Italy), Deutsche Presse-Agentur (Germany), Kyodo Tsushin (Japan), and Xinhua (China). (ii) TV Brazil is a TV-viewing nation. Broadcast TV has an immense influence on virtually all aspects of Brazilian culture and society. Television programming is often a topic of conversation at school and in the workplace, in the house and among friends. Television is an extremely important source of information for Brazilians of every socioeconomic stratum. Brazilians across the board refer to reports they have seen on Jornal Nacional-TV Globo's most watched evening newscast, or to the latest plot twist in one of the soap operas. Rede Globo (redeglobo.globo.com) TV Globo is Brazil s most important media monopoly, with 32 affiliates. The network garners an estimated 70% of advertising and about 35% of the audience in its prime-time slots. Every night it broadcasts three novellas (soap-operas) to an estimated 50 million viewers, out of a possible audience of 85 million viewers. Each character within the novella usually has a song linked to them.
9 The Globo group also controls 33 newspapers, 52 AM radios AM, 76 FMs, 27 magazines, 17 channels and 9 pay-tv operators, as well as the Som Livre record company and music publisher. Sistema Brasileiro de Televisao (SBT) (www.sbt.com.br) SBT s founder Silvio Santos is a rags-to-riches media mogul who started out selling on the streets of Rio de Janeiro. From street hawking to a network of retails stores that sold lottery prizes on an installment plan, Santos has captured second place in the market by importing games shows from the US and telenovelas from Mexico. TV Record (rederecord.r7.com) - commercial network TV Band (www.band.com.br) - commercial network TV Cultura (tvcultura.cmais.com.br) - public, educational and cultural programmes NBR (www.radiobras.gov.br) - operated by state-run Radiobras Rede TV (www.redetv.com) - commercial network (iii) Radio Radio continues to be the principal means of promoting music to the public, especially outside the large urban areas where internet penetration is still in its infancy. Radio Nacional (www.ebc.com.br) - FM and mediumwave (AM) network operated by state-run Radiobras Globo Radio (globoradio.globo.com) - commercial networks operated by Globo Radio Bandeirantes (www.band.com.br)- network operated by Grupo Bandeirantes Radio Cultura (www.radiocultura.com.br) - public, cultural programmes (iv) Online 30 Most Popular Sites in Brazil Jan google.com.br 2. facebook.com 3. google.com 4. youtube.com 5. uol.com.br 6. globo.com 7. live.com 8. blogspot.com 9. orkut.com.br 10. yahoo.com 11. terra.com.br 12. twitter.com 13. orkut.com 14. wikipedia.org 15. mercadolivre.com.br 16. msn.com 17. tim.com.br 18. itau.com.br 19. babylon.com 20. abril.com.br 21. wordpress.com 22. 4shared.com 23. tco.com 24. linkedin.com
10 25. xvideos.com 26. ask.com 27.megaupload.com 28. blogger.com 29. caixa.gov.br 30. r7.com There were 75,982,000 internet users in Brazil (representing 37.4% of the population) in June 2011, according to Internet World Stats. The majority of Facebook users are below 17 years of age (45%) as opposed to most other parts of the world where the majority of users are between 18 and 24. Facebook users in Brazil are reported by Google to be in excess of 37 million which is a 49% Facebook penetration. YouTube is the third most popular website after Google and Facebook. Most teenagers access their music throught YouTube. This suggests a huge potential in video internet marketing in Brazil especially since the most time spent on Facebook is viewing YouTube videos. (YouTube s Brazilian domain has sold sponsorships for livestreaming events such as Carnival in Salvador and Rock In Rio for the first time in 2011, allowing global brands such as Volkswagen, Garnier and Santander to access the marketing power of local events. With the FIFA World Cup coming to Brazil in 2014 and Rio de Janeiro hosting the 2016 Olympics this is an area that looks set to grow.) Instant messaging in Brazil is a big deal and MSN Live Messenger is the most popular instant messenger service occupying nearly 80% of the market share in Brazil. In fact, Brazil is amongst the top 3 MSN messenger user bases. Brazil is the fifth-largest nation of Twitter users and the highest percentage of users of all of the non-english speaking countries. The top Twitter-using countries are all English speaking: the US leads with 62.1% of Twitter users, followed by the UK, Canada, and Australia. Social media accounts for nearly 20% of Brazilians' time spent online, making it one of the top online activities in the country. As the ninth largest internet market in the world and one of the fastest growing, Brazil offers global marketers large and growing opportunities to reach consumers, with the social networking market representing one of the most efficient ways of doing that. Additional social media insights in Brazil include: - Traffic to social networking sites grew 51% in the past year. - Facebook experienced triple-digital growth, increasing its audience 479% in the past year. - Twitter.com reached 23% of the entire Brazilian online population, the highest penetration in the world.
11 - Visits to the Blogs category grew 48% to 29 million visitors. Blogger ranked as the top blog destination with more than 21 million visitors. Speaking to Google executives in 2008 Gilberto Gil (Minister of Culture and leading member of the Tropicalia movement) argued for fresh thinking regarding digital distribution: The 21st century technologies represent a huge challenge to regulations. The revolution generated by the convergence of digital technologies obliges us to reinvent the way we do almost everything. I believe that anybody with public responsibility should look into the digital distribution of Intellectual Property as the most direct and powerful way of democratizing knowledge in the history of mankind. But instead we see almost every formal institution insisting on bluntly calling the digital distribution Piracy. Cultura Digital was a transversal action developed in the Ministry of Culture. Originally developed as a strategy to be implemented in 50 big cultural centres throughout the country, it evolved into a methodology to bring free technologies to the Pontos de Cultura (cultural hotspots) programme: 600+ grassroots cultural projects spread across many different regions as far north as the Amazon. That digital culture strategy was developed by dozens of activists, gathered in what came do be the Articuladores network, and was compiled in a collective statement called Tecnologia Apropriada (appropriated technology). Some of its principles were a commitment to free and open-source software, copyleft (creative commons and other open licenses), online decentralisation via collaborative tools such as wikis and mailings lists, autonomy and cultural diversity. Technology was not seen as a magic healing formula, but tools to promote articulation between people themselves. Many artists within the independent music sector have embraced the commitment to free. It s common to see new releases sent to influential blogs for free download. The longterms results of free remain to be seen. (v) Mobile At present there are almost 174 million mobile phone users in Brazil and this figure is predicted to rise to 200 million by On average only around 25% of Brazilian homes are connected to the internet and Google has reported that mobile internet usage has increased by 500% over the last five years in terms of search traffic. This suggests that many people access their social networking profiles from their internet capable phones which tend to be of the wap variety although Smart Phones are increasing in popularity. Any internet marketing campaign should target Twitter, Orkut and Facebook to gain maximum exposure in Brazil, although Orkut is rapidly diminishing in popularity. Mobile phones have become an indispensable accessory for young Brazilians. Brazil ranks second behind Italy among the markets where multiple SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) cards are used among those aged 15-24, according to a Nielsen study conducted in nine countries (US, Germany, Spain, Italy, U.K., Brazil, Russia, China, India).
12 According to research conducted by Brazilian publisher Editora Abril, 25% of C class consumers plan to purchase a smartphone in the next 12 months, and 27% plan to buy tablets. The C class consumes the largest amount of mobile content, games and videos. With the ease of access and the low prices, many are making mobile devices their first screen. They don t have computers at home or laptops, but connect with brands online and engage with social media through their handsets. Very few Brazilian companies are investing in creating apps or software focused on the music industry. 01 Digital has recently created You App for the local music industry. The hope is that as the public become accoustumed to paying for digital content, there will be more reason for investments. (vi) Festivals and shows According to PricewaterhouseCoopers, China and Brasil will be where the live market experiences most growth over the next five years. The market for international shows in Brazil has gone through three distinct phases. In the first decades of the 20 th century Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Buenos Aires were visited by European opera companies. Later saw the arrival of such acts as Nat King Cole and Marlene Dietrich, performing at the Copacabana Palace in Rio, and Fasano in São Paulo. By the end of the century, the country was hosting megashows. In 1980 Roberto Medina brought Frank Sinatra to perform at the Maracanã stadium to a public of 170,000 people. He followed this in 1985 with the first edition of Rock in Rio 14 international acts and 1.3 million audience. The two following editions in 1991 and 2001 became some of the largest events in the world. The price of a ticket in 2001 was R$30, says Medina. In 2011, it was R$200. There s been a massive increase of purchasing power in Brazil. The 2011 edition saw an investment of R$95 million with tickets sold out in 72 hours. Sponsorship, broadcasting rights and internet rights generated R$55 million. 15,000 tickets have already been sold for the next edition even without the artistic lineup confirmed. Research shows that 45% of the public go because of the event and not the artist. Brazil is awash with big festivals. Recent events are SWU and Planeta Terra which featured Peter Gabriel, Duran Duran and Faith no More. Other visitors have been Britney Spears, Pearl Jam and Ringo Starr. It s not just the stable economy, the favourable exchange rate and the paying public that attract international acts. Tickets prices increased by 45% between 2010 and Time For Fun, the biggest live entertainment company in Latin America, generated R$94 million in the second quarter of 2011, a jump of 125% against the previous year. The company s owner of Credicard Hall, Citibank Hall and Teatro Abril in São Paulo. It also owns Citibank Hall in Rio and Citi Ópera in Buenos Aires. And controls Ticketmaster (in Brazil) and Tickets For Fun.
13 Another major player is Geo Eventos (www.geoeventos.com). A joint venture between Globo Organizations and RBS Group, Geo aims to promote and produce events in the sports, entertainment and business. Among the events promoted by Geo are F1Rocks, Tênis Espetacular, ASP Surf Word Tour Rio, HSM, Expo Money and FIFA s World Cup Preliminary Draw. Geo has been working on tours with such acts as Miley Cyrus, Rihanna, Jack Johnson, Sade and Julio Iglesias. The company is also bringing the Lollapalooza festival to Brazil. The Brazilian Association of Independent Festivals (ABRAFIN: was founded in Around 20 festivals take part. Its management is made up of the principal Brazilian independent festivals. The entity was created for the purpose of establishing, organizing and strengthening the Brazilian independent music festivals circuit. The idea is to cover the entire country, presenting new music, aesthetically experimental as well as in its traditional manifestations. Some of the festivals are financed by their box-office receipts, other by fiscal incentive laws and sponsorship. To bring international performers to Brazil, some of these festivals make deals with producers from São Paulo, sharing the attractions with presentations thus dividing the travel expenses to Brazil. Many independent artists and festivals use the TNB site to plan their live activities: The site owners plan to open this service to international acts intent on touring Brazil (and also Latin America). ABRAFIN associates quite often also host many of the local industry music fairs, two of the most significant being Feira da Musica in Ceara and Porto Musical in Recife. International tours always go through Sao Paulo or Rio de Janeiro, or both. Larger tours opt for key cities such as Porto Alegre, Curitiba and Belo Horizonte. International shows are less frequent in the Northeast, and even less in the Amazonian region. Often events are not viable due to the high cost of airline tickets (not only international tickets, but also domestic ones). Rio de Janeiro has recently seen the development of a crowd-funding project entitled Queremos (We Want). Based on the production costs, the organizers sell ticket-units for an average of R$200. The buyers/investors promote the event on Facebook, Twitter, through s to friends, etc. If the final revenue through additional ticket sales is greater than the prodution costs, the initial buyers/investors can have all or part of their investment returned. Recent bands participating are Miike Snow, Belle & Sebatian, Mayer Hawthorne, Two Door Cinema Club, Vampire Weekend and LCD Soundsystem. Principal venues: Sao Paulo Anhembi Sambodromo
14 Anhembi Stadium Beco 203 Carioca Clube Citibank Hall Espaco Lux Inferno Club Jockey Club Morumbi Stadium Teatro Bradesco Tribe Via Funchal Museu De Arte De Sao Paulo Sala Sao Paulo Anhembi Park Caricoa Club Credicard Hall HSBC Brasil Instituto da Musica Judaica Brasil Playcenter Direct TV Music Hall The DirecTV Music Hall, has an area of 3,900 m2, with a capacity for up to 3,000 standing persons, and 1,600 seated persons, with comfort and safety. BB King, Jean Luc Ponty and Rita Pavone have already performed on its stage. Av. Jamaris, Moema Sao Paulo - SP Capacity: 3200 persons Phone Fax Website: Credicard Hall The Credicard Hall, as well as the DirectTV Music Hall, are part of CIE (Comunidade Interamericana de Entretenimento). Rua Bento de Andrade Filho, Sao Paulo SP Phone Fax Via Funchal The Via Funchal show house was designed to be one of the best in Brazil. With a capacity of up to 6 thousand standing persons, it has already hosted shows by Norah Jones, Diana Krall, Jamiroquai, Nina Simone, B.B.King, Buddy Guy, Kitaro, Buena Vista Social Club, Dionne Warwick, Afro Cuban All Star, Laurent Garnier, The Chemical Brothers, Bruce Dickinson, Deep Purple, Rick Wakeman, Steve Hackett, Jethro Tull, Helloween, Stratovarius, Rhapsody, Green Day and The Mission, among others. Rua Funchal, 65, Vila Olimpia Sao Paulo, SP Capacity: 6 thousand persons Phone Website: Bourbon Street Bourbon Street is responsible for the major Jazz and Blues attractions in Sao Paulo. Many American musicians have already performed there. Rua dos Chanés, 127 Moema, Sao Paulo SP Phone Fax E- Website: Tom Brasil Tom Brasil has already hosted the major exponents of Brazilian popular music, as well as foreign artists such as Buena Vista Social Club. Tom Brasil has a capacity of 1,000 seats or 2,300 standing persons. Rua Olimpíadas, 66 Vila Olímpia, Sao Paulo SP Capacity: 1200 seats Phone
15 Website: Tom Brasil Nações Unidas The new Tom Brasil venue has a capacity of 2,400 seats or 5,400 standing persons. It is one of the major venues in the country. Tom Brazil Nações Unidas Rua Bragança Paulista, 1281 Santo Amaro, Sao Paulo - SP Phone Website: Teatro Municipal de São Paulo (Sao Paulo Municipal Theater) The Municipal Theater, with its impeccable acoustics, is the crown jewel of the classical music in Sao Paulo. An intense program and the quality in the selection of the artists and repertoire are its differentiating factor. Pça Ramos de Azevedo s/n Capacity: 1,580 seats Phone Fax E- Website: Rio de Janeiro Circo Voador Citibank Hall Rio Estádio Olímpico João Havelange Fundicao Progresso HSBC Arena Planet Music Praia da Barra Stadium Rio Teatro Odisséia Cine Joia Praca da Apoteose Vivo Rio Claro Hall Venue with a capacity for 8,432 persons, standing up, or 3,368 seats around tables. One of the main venues for shows in Rio de Janeiro, it has hosted all types of musicals and shows. Coldplay, Deep Purple, Echo & the Bunnymen, Oasis, Men at Work are some of the names included in the list of performers hosted by the Claro Hall. Av. Ayrton Senna, Barra da Tijuca Rio de Janeiro - RJ Phone Website: Mistura Fina Venue with 174 seats, for jazz, blues and other musicians. In operation for 25 years. It has hosted artists such as Andy Summers, the John Pizzarelli Trio, Ron Carter, Jane Monheit, and Laura Fygi among others Av Borges de Medeiros, Lagoa Phone Fax E- Website: Canecão One of the most traditional clubs in Rio de Janeiro, well situated, and with a capacity for 3,000 seats around tables, it has hosted several rock, jazz and blues artists, such as Take Six, Bob McFerry, Emerson Lake and Palmer, Ramones, Night Wish, and Echo & The Bunnymen among others. Av. Venceslau Bras 215, Botafogo Rio de Janeiro RJ Phone Fax Website: Estádio Mario Filho (Maracanã) & Ginásio Gilberto Cardoso (Maracanãzinho)