Advances in Digital Television. & Broadcast Technology

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1 Advances in Digital Television & Broadcast Technology Prof. Dr. Avni Morgül Boğazi aziçi University Electrical-Electronic Electronic Engineering Department

2 Contents Brief History of Television Television Fundamentals Colour Television Digital TV Fundamentals Video Compression Techniques Audio Compression Techniques Digital Modulation Digital Video Broadcasting, DVB Digital TV Receiving Systems Recent advances Conclusion APCC'23 Avni Morgul 2

3 Why Digital? More reliable Less susceptible to noise and interference Not distorted during transmission and copying (First copy is identical to the 1 th copy) Digital systems can be duplicated exactly Signal quality is controllable Quality may be increased by increasing bits/symbol & bitrate TV systems are merging to computer systems (MULTIMEDIA) Everything is going to be digital Digital Circuits are becoming cheaper Easy to interface with other systems Digital signal processing techniques are advancing rapidly Suitable for VLSI APCC'23 Avni Morgul 3

4 What is already digital? CD (Compact Disc) DVD (Digital Versatile [Video] VCD (Video CD) DAT (Digital Audio Tape) Measuring instruments Disc) [Video] Disc) What is going to be digital soon? TV Broadcast (DVB) TV Camera Audio/Video Recorders TV Receivers Radio Broadcast Radio / TV Receivers APCC'23 Avni Morgul 4

5 Broadcasting TV & Radio Broadcast Terrestrial Cable Mostly Analog U.S.A.,, China and most of the countries has started terrestrial digital TV broadcast U.S.A. Going to convert all digital before the year 21 Most cable operators started digital in parallel with analog Satellite Has started in 1994, there are still analog TV but digital is dominating now APCC'23 Avni Morgul 5

6 Generation of Digital TV signals Step 1: Analog-to to-digital Conversion A/D SAMPLING QUANTIZATION CODING amplitude 1.V.5V V time (ms) 1.V.5V V (ms) steps (ms) analog signal sampled signal quantized signal Voltage (V),143,286,429,571,714,857 1, step code digital signal 1 encoded signal APCC'23 Avni Morgul 6

7 Digitizing Video Signal Sampling rate f s > 2f max f s 3f max Bits/Sample (Nyquist limit) (Preferred) 3x8=24 b/sample (colour video) Data Rate PIXEL Standard TV (PAL,SECAM): r n 3Mb/s f max = 5MHz, f s = 13.5 Ms/s, r n = 13.5x24=324Mb/s MACROBLOK FRAME HDTV: r n > 1Gb/s f max = 3MHz, f = 3MHz, f s > 6 Ms/s, r n > 1.4Gb/s Such huge bandwidth widths s are not available! Transmission of such data is only possible after at least 5 times of Compression! MPEG-2 2 compresses STV data to 4..8Mb/s APCC'23 Avni Morgul 7

8 Video Compression Standards JPEG For still pictures CCITT-H261 Very low resolution MPEG-1 Low resolution moving pictures MPEG-2 High resolution moving pictures MPEG-4 Interactive Video, Multimedia MPEG-7 3-D D Picture & Sound, Parametric search, Multimedia Error Correction is necessary! APCC'23 Avni Morgul 8

9 Present Digital TV Provides; 4 to 1 digital (SDTV) channels in 1-analog 1 channel space Easier and more reliable scrambling Easier video-on on-demand and Pay TV services To the Service Provider Same picture quality with analog (sometimes worst) CD quality sound 2 2 to 1 times more money to pay for the equipment! To the Customer Not a fair deal! APCC'23 Avni Morgul 9

10 Video Data Compression Based on; Removing spatial redundancies (intra frame) By using the transformations Removing temporal redundancies (inter frame) By not sending the unchanged parts of frames Human vision system s s response More resolution for Luminance; Less resolution for Chrominance; APCC'23 Avni Morgul 1

11 Removing spatial redundancies (Intraframe) APCC'23 Avni Morgul 11

12 Removing temporal redundancies (Interframe) Difference APCC'23 Avni Morgul 12

13 Human vision system s s response + = More resolution for Luminance; more pixels and more bits/pixel Less resolution for Chrominance; less pixels and less bits/pixel are required. APCC'23 Avni Morgul 13

14 Human vision system s s response High resolution is not required for moving sections of the picture APCC'23 Avni Morgul 14

15 Intraframe Compression Source Coding by using DCT (Discrete( Discrete Cosine Transform) Based on Converting the image to Spatial Frequency components Assigning more bits to low-frequency components (large smooth areas) and less bits to high-frequency components (since human eye do not resolve the luminance levels on the fine details of the t picture) The picture is divided into 8x8 pixel Macroblocks The DCT is applied to each block F ( u,v ) c( u )c( v ) 4 = 7 7 m= n= 2m + 1 2n + 1 f ( m,n )cos( uπ )cos( vπ ) f(m,n): luminance of of the pixel at at coordinates m,n=,1,...7 F(u,v): DCT coefficient of of 2-D frequency u,v=,1,...7 c()=.77; c(k)= 1 k=1,2,...7 APCC'23 Avni Morgul 15

16 Intraframe Compression (cont.) In the DCT matrix the first component, F(,), corresponds to the DC component or, the average gray level of the complete macroblock The last component, F(7,7), corresponds to the highest spatial frequency or finest details of the picture. APCC'23 Avni Morgul 16

17 Intraframe Compression (cont.) The DCT matrix components are weighted by dividing each component with a different number (weighting matrix) The most important component, F(1,1) JPEG weighting matrix Corresponds to the DC or average grey level Divided by the smallest number,8, generating the highest number of significant digits Transmitted with max. number of bits quantization (or encoded by max levels) APCC'23 Avni Morgul 17

18 APCC'23 APCC'23 Avni Morgul Avni Morgul Minimizing the Data Minimizing the Data bit input matrix 8x8 pixel input image Constructed image Constructed image (tranc.) DCT matrix Weighted matrix Inverse DCT Inverse DCT Trancated matrix

19 interframe compr.) Motion Estimation (interframe F 1 F 2 The consecutive frames of a moving picture are almost the same since any object can not change considerably, in 4ms (frame duration) It is not necessary to send any information for stationary regions. F 3 F 4 Only the difference between the consecutive frames should be transmitted F 2 -F 3 F 5 APCC'23 Avni Morgul 19

20 Motion Estimation studied block The new place of the block 1 st frame motion vector The old place of the block 1 st & 2 nd frames Difference between the 1 st and 2 nd frames Small fit Max. fit Predicted frame No fit 2 nd frame Difference between the 2 nd and predicted frames It is enough to transmit the motion vectors and the difference between the predicted (motion compensated) frame and next frame. APCC'23 Avni Morgul 2

21 Motion Compensation Picture Frame Motion Vectors Difference Difference after Motion Compensation APCC'23 Avni Morgul 21

22 Channel coding Further bitrate reduction is possible by using the VLC (Variable length coding) before transmission. Most commonly used coding is Huffmann coding. Input code Probability [%] Output code Input bit rate = 3 bit/symbol Output bit rate = 1x.4+3x( )+4x.6+5x.5+6x(.3+.2) Output bit rate = 2.43 bit/symbol APCC'23 Avni Morgul 22

23 APCC'23 APCC'23 Avni Morgul Avni Morgul Video Compression standards Video Compression standards JPEG Compression for Still pictures JPEG Compression for Still pictures analog VIDEO Input DCT Q VLC output A/D PCM VIDEO offset Q-table Diff. Encoder AC DC input matrix input image DCT matrix Zig-zag scanning Zig-zag Encoder

24 MPEG Encoders PCM VIDEO Input - selector Quantization factor DCT Q VLC Q -1 Buffer memory estimated picture selector Filter mod selector Motion compans. DCT -1 + frame frame memory Side Info Encoder motion vector F. Error Correction MPEG output Motion estimation APCC'23 Avni Morgul 24

25 MPEG Decoders MPEG Input Error Correction Buffer memory VLD Q -1 Side Info Decoder DCT -1 + Filter Motion compans. memory frame frame memory VIDEO output APCC'23 Avni Morgul 25

26 MPEG1 Pixel-per per-line: 72 Lines-per per-frame: 576 Frames-per per-second: 3 Macroblock-per per-frame: 396 Macroblock-per per-second: 99 Max. bitrate: Buffer memory size: 1.86Mb/s bit APCC'23 Avni Morgul 26

27 MPEG1 Forward estimation Forward estimation I B B B P B B B P B At least one I-Frame must be used for every 132 frames interpolation interpolation Group of Pictures, GOP Slice Block MacroBlock Slice 8 8 Y 8 8 Y 4 4 Cb 4 4 Cr 4 4 Cr 4 4 Cb 8 8 Y 8 8 Y 8 8 Y 8 8 Y 4 4 Cb 4 4 Cr 4 4 Cr 4 4 Cb 8 8 Y 8 8 Y 8 8 Y 8 8 Y 4 4 Cb 4 4 Cr 4 4 Cr 4 4 Cb 8 8 Y 8 8 Y APCC'23 Avni Morgul 27

28 MPEG-2 Basic properties Max. bitrate=2mb/s (HDTV) Interlaced and progressive scanning Different sampling choices Scalable variable bitrate Advanced quantization and coding algorithms Profiles Simple Profile Main Profile (Standard TV) SNR scalable Profile Spatially Scalable Profile High Profile (HDTV) Levels High Level Main Level Low level Sampling 4;2; - 4;2;2-4;4;4 (HDTV) 4;2; 4;2;2 4;4;4 4Y, 1Cr, 1Cb 4Y, 2Cr, 2Cb 4Y, 4Cr, 4Cb luminance chrominance APCC'23 Avni Morgul 28

29 Levels & Profiles Level Sample/line line/frame Frame/sec. Max. bitrate Low Mb/s Main Mb/s High Mb/s High Mb/s Profile High Profile Spatially Scaled SNR Scaled Main Profile Simple Profile algorithms SNR and Spatially Scaled 3 layers SNR and Spatially Scaled 2 layers SNR Scaled 2 layers No scaling, interlaced scan, B-type frame prediction mode Same as the Main profile except B-type frame prediction mode sampling 4:2:2 4:: 4:2: 4:2: 4:2: APCC'23 Avni Morgul 29

30 Digital Video Picture Standards Low Resolution Standards SIF (Source( Independent Format) Luminance pixel (625-line system) or (525-line system) Frame rate 25 Hz (625( 625-line system) or Hz (525( 525-line system) CIF(Common Common Intermediate Format) pixel and 29.97Hz (common for 625 and 525 QCIF (Quarter CIF) pixel and 15 or 7.5 Hz ) Computer Monitor Standards VGA (Video Graphic Adapter) VGA 64x48, 31kHz/6...7Hz) SVGA (Super VGA) SVGA 8X6 or higher, khz/ Hz) 525-line systems) APCC'23 Avni Morgul 3

31 MPEG4 MPEG4 is accepted in It is an easy access, adaptive, interactive, audio and video compression standard with high compression. Suitable for multimedia. Basic advances: Content based access Tools for multimedia Suitable coding for simultaneous data transmission Content based scaling Suitable coding for natural, artificial and mixed data More efficient coding and compression Very low bit rate coding for motion pictures Robustness against noise and bit errors Data rate: 5kb/s to 1Mb/s APCC'23 Avni Morgul 31

32 APCC'23 APCC'23 Avni Morgul Avni Morgul MPEG4 Structure MPEG4 Structure Syntax Algoritma4 Algorithm-9 Tool4 Tool2 Tool1 Profile-4 Algorithm-5 Tool5 Tool2 Tool1 Algorithm-2 Tool5 Tool2 Tool1 Algorithm-1 Tool5 Tool2 Tool1 Algoritma4 Algorithm-7 Tool5 Tool2 Tool1 Profile-2 Algorithm-5 Tool5 Tool2 Tool1 Algorithm-2 Tool5 Tool2 Tool1 Algorithm-1 Tool5 Tool2 Tool1 Algoritma4 Algorithm-8 Tool7 Tool2 Tool1 Profile-1 Algorithm-5 Tool3 Tool2 Tool1 Algorithm-2 Tool5 Tool2 Tool1 Algorithm-1 Tool5 Tool2 Tool1

33 MPEG4 Structure Sprite (a) (b) Background Video Object Plane Combined Picture (c) APCC'23 Avni Morgul 33

34 MPEG4 Hierarchy Very Low Bitrate Video, VLBV Layer 5-64 kbit/s Starting from a few pixels to 352x288 pixels (CIF) Frame rate: (still picture) to 15 Hz Very high protection High Bitrate Video, HBV Layer Added to VLBV layer to increase the resolution 4Mb/s APCC'23 Avni Morgul 34

35 MPEG7 MPEG7 is not a compression standard, it is a Multimedia Content Description Interface,, consisting Descriptors Description Schemes Description Definition Language, DDL Description Schemes Descriptor Analysis (Description Definitions) MPEG-7 Rules Application (Search Engine) APCC'23 Avni Morgul 35

36 AUDIO COMPRESSION

37 Digital Sound Compression Old Techniques : Instantaneous Companding 14bit linear PCM > 11 bit compressed PCM NICAM (Near Instantaneous Companded Multiplex, ITU-R R rec.66) 32kHz,14bit linear PCM > 1 bit compressed PCM, 728kb/s Used in analog terrestrial TV broadcast New Techniques are based on : Perception Coding Frequency Domain Coding Window Switching Dynamic Bit Allocation APCC'23 Avni Morgul 37

38 Digital Sound Compression Masking Effect & Perceptual Coding Qualitative distortion is not important, if the difference between the original and reproduction is not perceptible by human hearing system! High level sound masks the neighbouring week signals. If a signal is below the masking threshold it is not encoded! db SOUND LEVEL Hearing Threshold Quantization Noise Masking Threshold Masking Sound Masked Sounds Frequency Frequency Domain Coding Different sampling rate (decimation) for different frequency regions 1. Sub-band Coding, SBC 2. Transform Coding, TC 3. Hybrid Coding APCC'23 Avni Morgul 38

39 Digital Sound Compression Window Switching Long blocks generate long preecho at the silent regions Shorter blocks require higher bit rate due to the overhead bits A compromise and efficient coding is possible by using adaptively changing the block size Pre-echo Original signal 124 sample block No pre-echo 256 sample block APCC'23 Avni Morgul 39

40 Digital Sound Compression Dynamic Bit Allocation Less bits allocated in higher bands No bits assigned for masked signals if the signal to threshold ratio is smaller than zero 2 bits/sample are reduced to average 2 bits/sample (1- times compression) Sound pressure [db] Masking threshold [db] Signal-to-threshold ratio [db] Compressed signal [bits/sample] Sub-band Number APCC'23 Avni Morgul 4

41 ISO-MPEG1 Audio Coding CD Quality sound Output data rate: 32, 44.1 and 48 khz sampling rates 32kb/s for mono 448, 384 & 32 kb/s for levels I, II & III Dynamic range = 12dB! Level-III Switchable hybrid filter bank, Advanced pre-echo echo cancellation, Non-uniform quantization, Entropy coding, Elastic buffer Variable bitrate etc.. is added APCC'23 Avni Morgul 41

42 MPEG-2 2 and Dolby-AC3, 5.1 Surround Sound SW L C R Left Center Right LS Subwoofer RS Surround (Left) Surround (Right) APCC'23 Avni Morgul 42

43 5.1 Surround Encoder For Level-I, Level-II and 5.1 Compatibility 1 L = ( L+ 2C + 2LS ) R = ( R+ 2 C + 2 RS ) 1+ 2 L C R LS RS Matrix T 1 =L T 2 =R T 3 T 4 T 5 MPEG-1 encoder MPEG-2 Extension Encoder Multiplexer (MUX) APCC'23 Avni Morgul 43

44

45 Broadcasting TV & Radio Broadcast Terrestrial U.S.A. and most of the European and Asian countries has started terrestrial digital TV broadcast U.S.A. Going to convert all digital before the year 21 Probably all countries will follow Cable Most cable operators preferred digital Satellite Digital is dominating now Few analog broadcast exist. Being converted to digital. APCC'23 Avni Morgul 45

46 Digital Broadcast Standards Video (ISO/IEC , ITU-R61) All use MPEG-2 Main Profile, Main Level for standard TV High profile, Main level for HDTV Modulations Satellite : QPSK (Quadrature( Phase Shift Keying) (DVB-S) Cable : QAM (Quadrature( Amplitude Modulation) (DVB-C) Terrestrial COFDM (Coded Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex) in most countries (DVB( DVB-T) 8-level VSB (Vestigial Sideband) in U.S.A. & Canada Sound (ISO/IEC ) MPEG-2 2 in Europe Dolby AC-3 3 in U.S.A A golden opportunity to unify the global standards missed again! APCC'23 Avni Morgul 46

47 Modulation Techniques All countries use QPSK for satellite and QAM for cable broadcast DVB-T (COFDM) has been selected for use in China, Europe, India, Latin America and South East Asia. USA and Canada have chosen ATSC (8VSB). South Korean Tests showed that DVB-T COFDM is 1% and 2% superior to the ATSC (8VSB) system at stationary sites and even further ahead in mobile APCC'23 Avni Morgul 47

48 Transmitting Bitstream TV Progr. 1 TV Progr. 2 MPEG-2 Video Enc. MPEG-2 Audio Enc. MPEG-2 Video Enc. MPEG-2 Audio Enc. V1 A1 V2 A2 Multiplexer (Program&Transport) Low Priority Data (Payload) Energy Dispersal Outer Coder Carrier Generation Inner Coder Interleaver Interleaver Digital Modulation Frame Adaptation Mapper Energy Dispersal Outer Coder Interleaver Inner Coder An High Priority Data APCC'23 Avni Morgul 48

49 DVB Hierarchy Baseband layer Different video formats and frame rates PCM Bit stream Compression layer Header Motion vectors Luminance & chrominance DCT coefficients Variable length codes MPEG-2 Bit stream Transport layer Packet header Video packet Packet header Audio packet Auxiliary data MPEG-2 Packets Transmission layer Different modulation and transmission standards Modulated signal APCC'23 Avni Morgul 49

50 PES: Packetized Elementary Stream PES-1 PES byte 184-byte 122-byte 184-byte PES Transport packets Empty Empty Empty TP1 TP2 TP3 TP4 TP5 TP6 TP7 188-byte Transport Packet Header PES Header Payload (video, audio, etc.) Stuffing bits APCC'23 Avni Morgul 5

51 MPEG Transport stream video data audio1 video video audio2 data video video data audio byte Transport Packet alignment bits data bits 184-byte payload 4-byte Transport packet header Variable video alignment header (optional) APCC'23 Avni Morgul 51

52 Multiplexed Program Packet Video-1 Audio-1 Audio-2 Data-k CAT ESM (PMT) PID=2 PID=3 PID=4 PID=n PID=1 PID=n+1 Progr. transport stream 1 Progr. transport stream 2 Progr. transport stream 3 Progr. transport stream 4 PID= PSM(PAT) System level multiplexed data stream (Transport Stream) PID PID PID PID PAT PMT Video1 Video2 audio1 Video2 data1 PID PID PID ESM: Elementary Stream Map, PMT: Program Map Table, PSM: Program Stream Map, PAT: Program Association (Allocation ) Table CAT: Conditional Access Table, APCC'23 Avni Morgul 52

53 De-multiplexing DVB System level multiplexed data stream (Transport Stream) PID=1 PID=2 PID=n Video-1 Audio-1 PID= PID number of the PMT packet Extract the packet number of the PMT PID numbers Extract the PID number of program components Unused Packets ESM: Elementary Stream Map, PMT: Program Map Table, PSM: Program Stream Map, PAT: Program Association (Allocation ) Table CAT: Conditional Access Table, APCC'23 Avni Morgul 53

54 Scrambling & Conditional Access Scrambling & Conditional Access is used in Pay-TV Video-on-demand Pay-per-view applications The scrambling method and the necessary information must be transmitted in the PMT (Program Map table) and CAT (Conditional( Access Table). Standard also defines a Common Scrambling Algorithm, (CSA). A common interface (CI( CI) ) may be used by all the broadcast companies if CSA is used. APCC'23 Avni Morgul 54

55 Scrambling & Conditional Access DVB standard advices two methodes Simulcrypt system: Common scrambling algorithm different Conditional Access Multicrypt system: All functions are implemented in a Common Interface, (CI), a PCMCA type exchangeable card. Different companies may use same CI and different Smart Cards or it is also possible to use different CI. APCC'23 Avni Morgul 55

56 Common Interface Two type of CI messages are generated and transmitted for de- scrambling ECM: : Entitlement Control Messages. Transmitted every 2-sec. 2 EMM: : Entitlement Management Messages. Transmitted every 1-sec. The broadcast data are scrambled by using a Control Word. Two Entitlement signals are generated by using Service & User Keys and also broadcasted. Service Key: Used for selecting different groups of subscribers User Key: Used for each subscriber to scramble the Service Key User Key Service Key Control Word SCRAMBLING ECM = f (Control Word, Service Key) EMM = f (Service Key, User Key) ECM EMM APCC'23 Avni Morgul 56

57 De-Scrambling The end-user only knows the User Word on his smart card. The Common Interface generates the Control Word by the help of user s s Smart Card ECM Licence Control Information EMM Control Word De-scrambling Service Word De-scrambling Service Word Control Word User Word (Smart Card) APCC'23 Avni Morgul 57

58 De-Scrambling procedure 1 Prog-3 Program Association table PAT Prog Program Map table PMT PID Video3 PID M Audio3 PID 1 Video3 EMM-1 EMM-2 ECM-3 4 Conditional Access table CAT 5 CA-1 st system CA-2 nd system 6 EMM-1 reference EMM-2 reference 7 There are other tricks which are kept secret by the companies but t there is no unbreakable code. Several spectacular pay-tv collapses, due to endemic piracy and comprehensive smartcard swapout programmes in many countries APCC'23 Avni Morgul 58

59 Digital TV Receiving Systems

60 Digital TV Receiving Systems Terrestial Satellite Set -Top - Box Cable Analog TV Receiver SET APCC'23 Avni Morgul 6

61 The Set-Top Top-Box Smart Card (optional) Modulated Digital RF RS232 Data Comm. Smart Card Reader Front End ROM Micro Controller Modem Conditional Access (optional) Transport Demultiplexer MPEG Digital A/V Data Power Supply DRAM MPEG A/V Decoder AC-3 Decoder (optional) Baseband Digital Video OSD Baseband Digital Audio Video Encoder PAL- NTSC Audio DAC Video DACs RF Mod. Baseband Analog Video (Encoded) Baseband Analog Video (component) Baseband Analog Audio Modulated Analog RF APCC'23 Avni Morgul 61

62 The Front End Terrestrial Ant. Terrestrial Tuner A/D COFDM Demod. FEC Satellite Ant. Satellite Tuner 2x A/D QPSK Demod. FEC SELECTOR MPEG BITSTREAM Cable Service Cable Tuner 2x A/D. QAM Demod. FEC APCC'23 Avni Morgul 62

63 Decoder EXT. MPEG BITSTREAM Front End Smart card Comm. Conditional Access Sync. Cache Modem Selector DRAM 4Mbits MPEG Transport Demultiplexer 32-bit System CPU DRAM 16Mbits MPEG-2 Video Decoder MPEG-2 Audio Decoder Dolby AC-3 Audio Decoder 8-bit Control CPU OSD Audio DACs Flash ROM Remote Control PAL/NTSC Encoder Video DACs I 2 C Control Keys APCC'23 Avni Morgul 63

64 1 st Generation: 2Chips+CPU+Periferals Chip 1 DRAM 4Mbits SDRAM 16Mbits Chip 2 Conditional Access Modem Cache Sync. Selector MPEG Transport Demultiplexer 32- bit System & Control CPU MPEG-2 Video Decoder MPEG-2 Audio Decoder Dolby AC-3 Audio Decoder Chip 3 OSD Graphics Audio DACs IR Remote Control PAL/NTSC Encoder Video DACs VXO Clock Gen. Flash ROM Control Keys APCC'23 Avni Morgul 64

65 2 nd Generation: 2Chips + Chip 1 DRAM 4Mbits SDRAM 16Mbits Chip 2 Conditional Access Modem Cache Sync. Selector MPEG Transport Demultiplexer 32- bit System & Control CPU MPEG-2 Video Decoder MPEG-2 Audio Decoder Dolby AC-3 Audio Decoder OSD Graphics Audio DACs IR Remote Control PAL/NTSC Encoder Video DACs VXO Clock Gen. Flash ROM Control Keys APCC'23 Avni Morgul 65

66 3 rd Generation: Single Chip + Chip 1 SDRAM 4Mbits SDRAM 16Mbits Conditional Access Modem Cache Sync. Selector MPEG Transport Demultiplexer 32- bit System & Control CPU MPEG-2 Video Decoder MPEG-2 Audio Decoder Dolby AC-3 Audio Decoder OSD Graphics Audio DACs IR Remote Control PAL/NTSC Encoder Video DACs VXO Clock Gen. Flash ROM Control Keys I 2 C APCC'23 Avni Morgul 66

67 4th Generation (State of the Art): Single Chip with advanced features & graphics Chip 1 SDRAM 4Mbits SDRAM 16Mbits Conditional Access Modem Cache Sync. Selector VXO Clock Gen. MPEG Transport Demultiplexer 64- bit System & Control CPU Flash ROM MPEG-2 Video Decoder MPEG-2 Audio Decoder Dolby AC-3 Audio Decoder Advance Graphics Audio DACs IR Remote Control Control Keys PAL/NTSC Encoder Video DACs APCC'23 Avni Morgul 67

68 Advanced Features 24 Bit Colour Graphics Blending Still Picture & Logo Letter Boxing 2-D, 3-D 3 D Animation PIP (With Additional Memory & Hardware) Pan/Zoom Teletext APCC'23 Avni Morgul 68

69 Software The Software in DVB receivers is harder than its hardware! Application Software User Applications: OSD, Control, Graphics, Program Guides, API (Application Program Interface) OS (Real Time Operating System) DRIVER DRIVER DRIVER DRIVER DRIVER Must be written by the Receiver Manufacturer (Software Houses Available) Partially provided by the Chip Manufacturer Provided by the Chip Manufacturer or being sold by a Third Party Provided by the Chip Manufacturer APCC'23 Avni Morgul 69

70

71 Converging TV & Computer By using new multimedia techniques Computers may be used as TV receivers TV receivers may be used as Internet browsers Mobil telephones may be used for Internet and TV reception Therefore the next generation equipment will be multipurpose MULTIMEDIA equipment. The software and hardware tools are available for this purpose APCC'23 Avni Morgul 71

72 NEW MULTIMEDIA HOME Large screen LCD or Plasma display WEB-Cam WB RF distribution Surround Stereo Sound Satellite Dish Simultaneous TV / Internet / Camera RF or IR display wireless connection Laptop Keyboard Tablet Multifunction remote control Small kitchen or badroom TV DVD-VCD VCD Player Satellite receiver Security camera Main Computer APCC'23 Avni Morgul 72

73 VGA/PAL (NTSC) Conversion Line Freq. PAL(NTSC) VGA SVGA 15,625kHz (15,75kHz) 31kHz 3 6kHz Field Freq. 5 (6)Hz 6 7Hz 5 12Hz Scanning Interlaced Progressive Progressive ODD FIELD: odd numbered lines EVEN FIELD: Even numbered lines Interlaced Scanning Progressive Scanning APCC'23 Avni Morgul 73

74 VGA-PAL (NTSC) Converter RGB (VGA) A/D Converter sync clock Buffer Memory address Control Circuit clock sync D/A converter PAL (NTSC) encoder RGB (PAL) C-Video S-Video Buffer Memory = 1 line Line converter Buffer Memory = 1 frame Frame converter APCC'23 Avni Morgul 74

75 PAL (NTSC) VGA Converter C-Video (PAL) PAL PAL Decoder RGB A/D A/D Converter Sync. clock Buffer Buffer Memory address clock Control Circuit D/A D/A conver ter ter RGB (VGA) Sync. It is not necessary to use this converters for digital TV receivers (or 1Hz TV) since these TV receivers already have a VGA input. APCC'23 Avni Morgul 75

76 Multimedia Home Platform, MHP MHP uses a delivery technology called DSM-CC Object Carousel (OC) to deliver applications and heterogeneous data from multiple sources This enables the presentation of a complete broadcast file-system Java-based applications, Interactive services. home shopping, home banking, gaming, chatting, voting super teletext, electronic programme guides, information . There is a DVB-MHP standard, ensuring that broadcasters, service providers and network operators can take full advantage of digital TV. APCC'23 Avni Morgul 76

77 Globally Executable MHP (GEM) A single, worldwide itv (interactive TV) standard European Telecom. Standards Institute as ETSI TS V A GEM application will run unaltered on an MHP digital TV in Finland, an OCAP (Open Cable Applications Platform) set-top box in New York, or any other GEMcompliant device. APCC'23 Avni Morgul 77

78 Advanced Digital Broadcast (ADB) Advanced Digital Broadcast (ADB), has developed an optimised open standard solution based on the MHP specification. The platform, compliant with DVB MHP 1..1 ETSI TS Enhanced and Interactive broadcast profiles, MPEG2 processors. ADB has also available a set of tools that allows applications to be designed, developed, and implemented in a simulated end-to-end scenario, resulting in a resident applications compatible with the MHP standard. These include Installation Menu, Zapper, Channel Navigation and Multilanguage Programme Menu. And a set of interactive applications T-Commerce and Information Services. APCC'23 Avni Morgul 78

79 MCP (Multimedia Car Platform) MCP provides a powerful architecture for multimedia services in the car. Positioning and communications services could be combined with data and applications received via digital broadcast. Extended application priority and security handling car security breaks media streaming blocking distraction of the driver while moving APCC'23 Avni Morgul 79

80 MCP (Multimedia Car Platform) Extended application priority and security handling car security breaks media streaming blocking distraction of the driver while moving Integration of APIs for Speech; Phone, Navigation, CarData and a car radio interface Mobile Management Client API; Seamless integration of all types of networks (DVB-T, DAB, GSM, GPRS, Bluetooth, in-car networks with TCP/IP; JINI service interface User interface supporting Internet access, cached web services, location aware services, m-commerce and entertainment. Clever Petrol application, alerted the driver when the fuel gauge ran under a given limit with the driver receiving navigational instructions to the cheapest petrol station in the area. APCC'23 Avni Morgul 8

81 DVB-X The technology was released in January 23. It is based on the current DVB-T standard and for the new service scenarios where small, mobile terminals (handheld devices) receive broadcast services in various places (inside buildings, in cars) on the move. Provide new business for broadcast and cellular operators, chip and equipment manufacturers. Broadcast operators Reach their customers anywhere, while they are on the move, Cellular operators A cost efficient way to implement data broadcast type of services. For the end user A more inexpensive and richer content In addition to voice, messaging, internet browsing, radio, still and video camera, TV would complement the service. APCC'23 Avni Morgul 81

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