The growth of so called "LCC" and their impact on airports

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1 Recent developments in the European airline business: The growth of so called "LCC" and their impact on airports German Aviation Research Seminar, Berlin, Mai 17th, 2003 Fraport AG, Market Research, Andreas Deistler

2 Page 13 The growth of so called Low-Cost Carrier

3 Page 14 Low-Cost growth in figures Airports 19 Airport-Pairs 804 Frequencies/week 2 Mio. Pax 35 Aircraft 83 Airports 135 Airport-Pairs Frequencies/week 26 Mio. Pax 106 Aircraft Source: Flash

4 Page 15 Booming market: Low-Cost airlines in and around Germany. Spring 2002 Ryanair Buzz Go Germania

5 Page 17 Booming market: Low-Cost airlines in and around Germany. From May 2003* Ryanair Air Berlin German Low-Cost Network: 11 Airlines 83 Airports 152 Routes DBA, Volare.web (HHN-VCE) BMI Baby HL-Express Sky Europe Germanwings Germania Intersky, Welcome air *as published by airlines

6 Page 18 European Low-Cost Routes Ryanair Buzz easyjet go Virgin Winter service only

7 Page 21 European Low-Cost Routes. From Mai 2003 Ryanair Air Berlin, Now easyjet DBA, Volare.web Virgin, snowflake BMI Baby Germania, Globespan Basiq Air Sky Europe, Jet2 Germanw., MyTravelL. HLX Air Sottland Sterling, Monarch Intersky, Snalskjutsen, Iceland Express, Norwegian.no, Aeris Express, evolavia, FlyFinn Gotlandsflyg, Kullaflyg, Scandjet

8 Page 22 Countries with Low-Cost Carrier supply. Countries with homebased Low-Cost carrier Countries with Low-Cost routes but no homebased LCC

9 Page 23 Growth potential in the Low-Cost segment. Market share Low-Cost Carrier 2002: Ireland: 30% United Kingdom: 26% France: 7% Germany: 6% Market potential for Germany: 2002 already app. 8 Million Low-Cost passenger (of together app. 140 Mio. passenger) 2005 app Mio. passenger of together app. 160 Mio. (~10% Market share) Source: Schroder Salomon Smith Barney 2002, ADV, Fraport AG

10 Page 27 Low-Cost in Europe: Far from Saturation. Growing numbers of Low-Cost passengers: 2000: ~10 Mio. passengers 2002: 35 Mio. passengers 2005: Mio. passengers 2010: Mio. passengers Growth of Market share : 50% from traditional carriers 25% from other traffic carriers 20% market stimulation ("would not have traveled") 5% from charter carriers ACGR 2,5% ACGR 25,0% ø ACGR 4,5% 3% ca. 20% Low Cost Traditional Carriers Source: Schroder Salomon Smith Barney 2002, Fraport AG

11 Page 28 Passenger development at Frankfurt-Hahn airport Pax Development P Ryanair Volareweb FlyEco P Pax Development 01/ / Jan 01 Apr 01 Jul 01 Okt 01 Jan 02 Apr 02 Jul 02 Okt 02 Jan 03 Apr 03 Jul 03 Okt 03

12 Page 32 Ranking of international airports in Germany: Passengers Frankfurt-Hahn now in Top Ten! Commercial Traffic, I/O+Transit Q1 Rank Airport Abs. % Rank Airport Abs. % Rank Airport Abs. % Rank Airport Abs. % 1 FRA ,6 1 FRA ,6 1 FRA ,2 1 FRA ,5 2 MUC ,7 2 MUC ,3 2 MUC ,0 2 MUC ,0 3 DUS ,6 3 DUS ,0 3 DUS ,2 3 DUS ,5 4 TXL ,7 4 TXF ,2 4 TXL ,3 4 TXL ,4 5 HAM ,2 5 HAM ,6 5 HAM ,7 5 HAM ,4 6 STR ,8 6 STR ,2 6 STR ,7 6 CGN ,2 7 CGN ,0 7 CGN ,3 7 CGN ,8 7 STR ,4 8 HEJ ,5 8 HEJ ,7 8 HAJ ,9 8 HAJ ,8 9 NUE ,3 9 NUE ,5 9 NUE ,4 9 NUE ,2 10 LEJ ,6 10 LEJ ,5 10 LEJ ,5 10 HHN ,6 11 SXF ,4 11 SXF ,3 11 BRE ,0 11 BRE ,5 12 BRE ,7 12 BRE ,1 12 SFX ,9 12 LEJ ,2 13 FMO ,8 13 DRS ,6 13 DRS ,5 13 DRS ,7 14 DRS ,7 14 FMO ,9 14 FMO ,1 14 SFX ,1 15 THF ,2 15 DTM ,0 15 HHN ,7 15 FMO ,1 16 SCN ,0 16 THF ,2 16 DTM ,5 16 DTM ,8 17 HHN ,4 17 SCN ,5 17 THF ,9 17 THF ,7 18 ERF ,1 18 SCN ,9 18 ERF ,5 19 HHN ,0 19 ERF ,5 19 SCN ,0 Source: ADV, HHN

13 Page 33 LCC passengers in Germany 2002 TXL MUC HHN CGN DUS HAM STR FRA SXF LBC FDH DTM FMO NUE PAD THF MGL DRS LEJ SCN Total

14 Page 40 Growth factors. Speed Cost control and permanent cost pressure Aggressive marketing / high public awareness Reversed demand function price Traditional pricing model price pricing model Low-Cost Carrier time time

15 Page 42 Different cost structures

16 Page 43 How cost advantages are generated cost / ASK ('Available Seat Kilometers') 45% 2% 7% 3% 10% 13% 20% 1,2ct 0,8ct 0,6ct 0,4ct 0,2ct 0,1ct Others 12,0ct 2,7ct Maintenance 6,0ct One comfort class No free catering No inflightentertainment No lounges Easy boarding process Staff Distribution costs Airport charges / handling Avoide congested hubs Low Cost Carrier High density seating Load factor Fast turn-around Maximum of daily utilization and frequencies per aircraft Cost advantages of LCC: lower operating costs reduced services airport charges almost irrelevant! Network Carrier Source: Monitor Group, Fraport AG

17 Page 44 Different cost structures are the key for different business models

18 Page 46 Different approaches for participation from forecasted market growth. product No Frills Carrier cost Low Cost Carrier price Low Fare Carrier

19 Page 47 Excursus: The right combination of cost, product/service and price is essential. etc. cost + + cost + cost + service/ product price + + service/ product price + + service/ product Massive Overheads cause massive problems! price + Illustration only

20 Page 48 A new approach?

21 Page 49 A new approach to airline segmentation: "Ultra simple Travel" "Simple Travel" "Advanced Travel" No service Secondary & tertiary airports ~100 km from city centers E.g. Ryanair in Frankfurt-Hahn Low service and product amenities O&D-traffic Secondary airports and un-congested hubs near urban areas easyjet, HLX, Germanwings, dba Network-carrier Hub&spoke- as well as O&D-traffic High connectivity High service level Alliances & code-share Intra- & Inter-continental traffic Lufthansa/Star Source: Austrian Airlines

22 Page 50 Backup Comparison of Airline Products: Ultra Simple vs. Advanced Travel. Ultra Simple Travel Short haul point to point traffic Single aircraft fleet (B737 or A320) Maximization of daily aircraft flight time Short turn-around times of max. 25 min. No snacks, no service during flight No interlining No transfer tickets No designated seats Secondary and tertiary airports (Almost) no distribution costs (Internet, Call Center) Market-driven yield management: The early bird catches the worm Advanced Travel Hub & spoke with short to long haul Mixed fleet (CRJ100 to B747) Schedule optimized for feeder services Turn-around optimized for hubbing Full service according to booking class Interlining with systems & cost-structure Transfer tickets with systems & cost-structure Seat reservation Hub airports, sometimes congested Distribution via GDS & Travel agencies Rigid yield management system: What to do with unsold capacity? Source: ACI Europe 2002

23 Page 51 but more to come! "Ultra simple Travel" "Simple Travel" "Advanced Travel"? "(Ultra) Simple Travel" Airlines extend their business model: Added value through selective addition of service & amenities ("Added Value") Supply of simple route-connections (just starting - the Southwest pattern) Additional distribution channels (business portals, travel agencies etc.) Network-carrier adopt cost advantages of Simple Travel: Reduced services, pricing system, marketing, distribution channels, etc. De-hubbing (e.g. Chicago) Source: Austrian Airlines, Fraport AG

24 Page 52 Trends

25 Page 53 (R)Evolution of the market. From market segmentation Ongoing diversification of market segments Growing customer expectations "value for money" Growing individualization in customer behavior Incipient saturation effects to customer segmentation Creation of new added values along the complete travel chain Intensifying of Customer Relationship Management Continuous search for ready-to-spend consumers Individualization of target groups ( each client is a market segment") Development of taylor-made products (full scale of chargeable services)

26 Page 54 Consequences for an airport-operator. Massive cost pressure! Continued "Flag Carrier Darwinism: Survival of the fittest!" Change of fare-/supplystructure Change of business model Giving up markets Individualization of customer behavior Diversification Development of niche market Growing demand for tailor-made airport products... paid by the passenger(?)... paid by the airline (?)... paid by the government (???)

27 Page 57 "Brandmanagement" Success depends,... on the ability to understand and react to customer's demands and subsequently generate added value. Participating in market growth requires a complete coverage of market segments with own products, services and brands. flexibility to react to changing markets.

28 Page 58 Example of re-defining the Product Portfolio. (Lufthansa-Group) short-haul long-haul

29 Page 59 Conclusion. Passengers want cost-transparency for airline services. Airlines want cost-transparency for airport services. Airports and airlines have to define individualized products and services along the travel chain that are honored and paid by the customer. If possible, airports have to specialize on one segment to avoid yield erosion and traffic cannibalization. If not specialized, an airport has to straddle the divide with cafeteria systems for both passengers and airlines: customize the product according to wishes and needs.

30 Page 62 Thank You. Tomorrow?

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