JOHN STUART MILL. John Skorupski. m London and New York

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1 JOHN STUART MILL John Skorupski m London and New York

2 Contents Preface Abbreviations xi xv 1 THE MILLIAN PHILOSOPHY 1 1 Philosophy and its past 1 2 Logic and metaphysics 5 3 Ethics and politics 12 4 The school of experience and association 21 5 Naturalism and the criterion of general good 30 6 The dialectic of criticism and allegiance 35 7 Naturalism, objectivity, autonomy 38 8 Mill in the present 43 2 THE ANALYSIS OF LANGUAGE 48 1 'Of the necessity of commencing with an analysis of language' 48 2 Propositions 49 3 Classification of names 51 4 Connotation and denotation 53 5 The import of propositions: Conceptualism and Nominalism 59 6 The import of propositions: Mill's theory 63 7 Proper names 67 Predication, assertion, denial 69 9 Simple and compound propositions Mill and Frege 74

3 3 VERBAL PROPOSITIONS AND APPARENT INFERENCE 78 1 Agenda 78 2 Real and verbal propositions 79 3 Non-connotative propositions are verbal 81 4 Real and apparent inference 83 5 Mill's 'verbal' and Kant's 'analytic' 85 6 Essence 87 7 Defining a name 90 8 The foundation of an attribute 92 9 'Nominalism' and Mill's nominalism 95 4 THE JUSTIFICATION OF DEDUCTION 99 1 Introductory 99 2 Analysis of rules of deductive inference Mill's analysis of the syllogism 'Is the syllogism a petitio principii?' General propositions have no probative force of their own Demystifying deduction All inference is from particulars to particulars The Logic of Consistency and the Logic of Truth EMPIRICISM IN LOGIC AND MATHEMATICS Reviewing the strategy Geometry Arithmetic: the refutation of'nominalism' Numbers and aggregates Arithmetic contains real propositions The laws of thought Perceptual imagination Necessity, aprioricity and conceivability The a priori in reasoning 160 Appendix: Mill's 'psychologism' INDUCTION AND INDUCTIVISM Inductive logic 'The question of Inductive Logic stated' The Law of Universal Causation The eliminative methods of induction (i) The eliminative methods of induction (ii) 185

4 6 The place of the eliminative methods in Mill's inductive logic Inductive scepticism and the internal validation of induction Hypotheses INDUCTION, PERCEPTION AND CONSCIOUSNESS The 'phenomenal relativity of knowledge' Inductivism and the manifest image Inductivism and inductive scepticism Naturalism and the classical pre-understanding of meaning The'interpretation of consciousness' The 'introspective' and the 'psychological' methods Phenomenalism Minds Phenomenalism and naturalism Subjective and objective THE LOGIC OF THE MORAL SCIENCES 'Human conduct as a subject of science' Freedom as rational autonomy Empirical and ultimate laws: explanation and reduction The primacy of psychology: associationism Ethology: the historicity of human nature Sociology: the evolutionary science of society The methods of social science Methodological individualism Can there be a'science of human nature'? Interpretation UTILITARIANISM Introductory The'proof, of the Principle of Utility The objectivity of ends: (i) Humean scepticism The objectivity of ends: (ii) The desire-satisfaction model Hedonism The refutation of hedonism Kinds of pleasure and categorial diversity of ends 303

5 8 Impartiality and agent-neutral reasons Philosophical utilitarianism Utilitarianism and the distinctness of individuals Indirect utilitarianism Bentham and Coleridge: conservative holism Justice and rights Autonomy and distribution Reflective equilibrium LIBERTY The themes of On Liberty The Liberty Principle Foundations for liberty: utility, natural rights, scepticism Individuality Autonomy Paternalism Utility and ideals Liberty, justice and the private domain Liberty of expression: the dialogue model Liberty of expression: fallibilism Liberty of expression: truth, autonomy and the ideal of rationality Towards liberalism 384 Notes \389 Bibliography 418 Index 426

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