Mink Dissection of Muscles

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1 In this portion of our study of the Mink, we will be focusing on the muscular system. These instructions tell you what muscles you are to identify and provide instructions on information you are expected to learn about those muscles. Additionally, these instructions will reference passages in the dissection manual that explain how to locate the muscles listed here. The word dissect means to separate; the blunt probe will be your most useful tool with occasional use of scissors. When dissecting, or separating muscles, you are tearing the deep fascia that lies between muscles. As your feel for separating muscles improves, you will develop a sense of when you are applying too much pressure and are likely tearing into a muscle. If you see individual, torn, muscle fibers (fascicles), that is an indication you have broken through the perimysium that surrounds each muscle; this is obviously undesirable. You will quickly learn there is a good deal of variation in the dissection specimens. The muscles appear different colors, individual animals have varying amounts of superficial fascia (adipose/fat), the muscles differ in size and exact placement. It is highly recommended you study several different specimens to get a good sense of this variation. As your instructor, I will will provide as much support as I am able. You must do a good deal of the work on your own; it is not possible for me to complete the separation and identification of every muscle, on every specimen, for each team. I again stress the combined use of these instructions and the referenced passages in the provided dissection manuals to help you learn as much as possible on your own. You will be much more successful in learning the muscles if you utilize me to confirm your identifications and help you with only the most difficult to find muscles. There are several techniques I have found help students learn the muscles more easily and help them use that knowledge to develop an understanding of the function of the human body. Learn the muscles in antagonistic pairs; this step was begun by having you complete a table of antagonistic muscle pairs for each major body movement. Also learn the muscles based on their function in moving specific body parts. Find the origin and insertion of each muscle you are studying; you will be more confident of your identifications if you can follow the muscle to a correct origin and insertion as described in the dissection manual. Use the diagrams you are to complete as a tool to keep track of those muscles you have successfully identified, don t simply label the diagrams at the start or end of the lab. Palpate, feel, the muscles on your own body, this reinforces the connection to human anatomy, helps you learn where the muscles are, and can be used as a study technique outside of the lab.

2 Part One: Superficial Muscles that Move the Arm and Shoulder Action Prime Mover Text Page Reference for Origin and Insertion for the dissection manual Photo Manual Dissection Guide for the dissection manual Human Anatomy and Physiology Flex Shoulder Pectoralis major Extend Latissimus dorsi Shoulder Abduct Arm Deltoid Adduct Arm Pectoralis major Latissimus dorsi Flex Arm Biceps brachii Extend Arm Triceps brachii Flex Wrist Flexor carpi radialis Flexor carpi ulnaris Flexor digitorum superficialis Extend Wrist Extensor digitorum Flex Fingers Flexor digitorum(s) Extend Fingers Extensor digitorum(s)

3 Lateral Shoulder Deltoid Latissimus dorsi Triceps brachii Pectoantebrachialis Cut and Reflected Biceps brachii Pectoralis major Medial Upper Arm Triceps brachii

4 Extensor digitorums Medial Lower Arm Flexor carpi radialis Lateral Lower Arm Palmaris longus Flexor digitorum Flexor carpi ulnaris Lateral side of lower arm

5 Ventral Chest Pectoralis major Pectoralis major Pectoantebrachialis Dorsolateral Back Latissimus dorsi Here is the triceps peeking through Pectoralis major External obliques

6 Part Two: Muscles that Move the Leg Action Prime Mover Text Page Reference for Origin and Insertion for the dissection manual Photo Manual Dissection Guide for the dissection manual Human Anatomy and Physiology Flex Leg Iliopsoas , 152 Extend Leg Gluteus maximus Biceps femoris Abduct Leg Gluteus medius Adduct Leg Adductor Muscles , 152 Flex Leg Biceps femoris Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Extend Leg Rectus femoris Vastus Muscles , 152 Dorsiflexion (Page 230) Plantar Flexion (Page 230) Tibialis anterior , 153 Gastrocnemius Soleus , 153 Flex Toes Flexor digitorum longus Extend Toes Extensor digitorum longus

7 Gluteus maximus Gluteus medius Biceps femoris Vastus lateralis DorsoLateral Upper Hind Leg Semitendinosis Bicep femoris cut Vastus lateralis Semimembranosis Lateral Deep Upper Leg

8 Vastus medialis Sartorius cut Rectus femoris Gracilis cut Gracilis cut Medial Deep Upper Leg Medial Deep Upper Leg Adductor femoris Adductor longus Quadraceps muscles Sartorius cut Semitendinosis Semimembranosis Gracilis cut

9 Gastrocnemius Flexor digitorum longus Knee Tibialis anterior Lateral Lower Leg Medial Lower Leg Tibialis anterior Knee Extensor digitorum longus Soleus

10 Part Three: Muscles that Move the Torso (Waist and Chest) Action Prime Mover Text Page Reference for Origin and Insertion Bend Forward (Flex) Rectus abdominis External oblique Internal oblique for the dissection manual Photo Manual Dissection Guide for the dissection manual Human Anatomy and Physiology Straighten or Bend Backward (Extend) Rotate at Waist Erector spinae muscles (See Dorsal Neck Photo) External oblique Internal oblique Inhale External intercostals Exhale Internal intercostals Elevate Shoulders Square Shoulders Levator scapulae Rhomboids

11 Dorsal Back Erector spinae Backbone Backbone Backbone Backbone Ventral Abdomen Internal obliques External obliques (reflected) Rectus abdominus

12 Part Four: Muscles that Move the Neck and Face Action Prime Mover Text Page Reference for Origin and Insertion Bend Neck Forward (Flex) Straighten or Bend Neck Backward (Extend) for the dissection manual Photo Manual Dissection Guide for the dissection manual Human Anatomy and Physiology Sternocleidomastoid , 117 Semispinalis & Longissimus Smile Zygomaticus Frown (opposed to smile) Raise Eyebrows Scrunch Eyebrows Close Mouth (Flex) Open Mouth (Extend) Includes Depressor anguli oris Frontalis 294 Occipitalis 294 Masseter , 117 Digastric , 119

13 Ventral Deep Neck Sterno(cleido) mastoid(eus) Platysma cut Sternohyoid Trachea Dorsal Deep Neck Semispinalis & Longissimus Levator scapulae Trapezius cut

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