Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 High Availability Add-On Overview. Overview of the High Availability Add-On for Red Hat Enterprise Linux Edition 6

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1 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 High Availability Add-On Overview Overview of the High Availability Add-On for Red Hat Enterprise Linux Edition 6

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3 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 High Availability Add-On Overview Overview of the High Availability Add-On for Red Hat Enterprise Linux Edition 6

4 Legal Notice Copyright 2014 Red Hat, Inc. and others. This do cument is licensed by Red Hat under the Creative Co mmo ns Attributio n- ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. If you distribute this document, or a modified version of it, you must provide attribution to Red Hat, Inc. and provide a link to the original. If the document is modified, all Red Hat trademarks must be remo ved. Red Hat, as the licensor of this document, waives the right to enforce, and agrees not to assert, Section 4d of CC-BY-SA to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law. Red Hat, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the Shadowman logo, JBoss, MetaMatrix, Fedora, the Infinity Logo, and RHCE are trademarks of Red Hat, Inc., registered in the United States and other co untries. Linux is the registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States and other countries. Java is a registered trademark o f Oracle and/o r its affiliates. XFS is a trademark of Silicon Graphics International Corp. or its subsidiaries in the United States and/o r o ther co untries. MySQL is a registered trademark of MySQL AB in the United States, the European Union and o ther co untries. Node.js is an official trademark of Joyent. Red Hat Software Collections is not formally related to or endorsed by the official Joyent Node.js open source or commercial project. The OpenStack Wo rd Mark and OpenStack Lo go are either registered trademarks/service marks or trademarks/service marks of the OpenStack Foundation, in the United States and other countries and are used with the OpenStack Foundation's permission. We are not affiliated with, endo rsed o r spo nso red by the OpenStack Fo undatio n, o r the OpenStack co mmunity. All o ther trademarks are the pro perty o f their respective o wners. Abstract High Availability Add- On Overview pro vides an o verview o f the High Availability Add- On fo r Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.

5 T able of Cont ent s Table of Contents. Int.. roduct ion Do cument Co nventio ns Typ o g rap hic Co nventio ns Pull-q uo te Co nventio ns No tes and Warning s 6 2. We Need Feed b ack! 6. Chapt..... er High..... Availabilit y. Add-.... O.. n.. O. verview Cluster Basics Hig h Availab ility Ad d -O n Intro d uctio n Cluster Infrastructure 8. Chapt..... er Clust..... er.. Management wit... h. CMAN Cluster Q uo rum Q uo rum Disks Tie-b reakers 11. Chapt..... er RG... Manager Failo ver Do mains Behavio r Examp les Service Po licies Start Po licy Reco very Po licy Restart Po licy Extensio ns Reso urce Trees - Basics / Definitio ns Parent / Child Relatio nship s, Dep end encies, and Start O rd ering Service O p eratio ns and States Service O p eratio ns The freeze O p eratio n Service Behavio rs when Fro zen Service States Virtual Machine Behavio rs No rmal O p eratio ns Mig ratio n RG Manag er Virtual Machine Features Virtual Machine Tracking Transient Do main Sup p o rt Manag ement Features Unhand led Behavio rs Reso urce Actio ns Return Values 20. Chapt..... er Fencing Chapt..... er Lock..... Management DLM Lo cking Mo d el Lo ck States 27. Chapt..... er Configurat ion... and.... Administ rat.. ion.... T. ools Cluster Ad ministratio n To o ls 28. Chapt..... er Virt... ualizat ion.... and.... High.... Availabilit y VMs as Hig hly Availab le Reso urces/services G eneral Reco mmend atio ns 31 1

6 Red Hat Ent erprise Linux 6 High Availabilit y Add- O n O verview G eneral Reco mmend atio ns 7.2. G uest Clusters Using fence_scsi and iscsi Shared Sto rag e G eneral Reco mmend atio ns Revision Hist... ory

7 Int roduct ion Introduction This document provides a high-level overview of the High Availability Add-On for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6. Although the information in this document is an overview, you should have advanced working knowledge of Red Hat Enterprise Linux and understand the concepts of server computing to gain a good comprehension of the information. For more information about using Red Hat Enterprise Linux, refer to the following resources: Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide Provides information regarding installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6. Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide Provides information regarding the deployment, configuration and administration of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6. For more information about this and related products for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, refer to the following resources: Configuring and Managing the High Availability Add-On Provides information about configuring and managing the High Availability Add-On (also known as Red Hat Cluster) for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6. Logical Volume Manager Administration Provides a description of the Logical Volume Manager (LVM), including information on running LVM in a clustered environment. Global File System 2: Configuration and Administration Provides information about installing, configuring, and maintaining Red Hat GFS2 (Red Hat Global File System 2), which is included in the Resilient Storage Add-On. DM Multipath Provides information about using the D evice-mapper Multipath feature of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6. Load Balancer Administration Provides information on configuring high-performance systems and services with the Red Hat Load Balancer Add-On (Formerly known as Linux Virtual Server [LVS]). Release Notes Provides information about the current release of Red Hat products. Note For information on best practices for deploying and upgrading Red Hat Enterprise Linux clusters using the High Availability Add-On and Red Hat Global File System 2 (GFS2) refer to the article " Red Hat Enterprise Linux Cluster, High Availability, and GFS D eployment Best Practices" on Red Hat Customer Portal at. https://access.redhat.com/kb/docs/d OC This document and other Red Hat documents are available in HTML, PDF, and RPM versions on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux D ocumentation CD and online at 1. Document Convent ions This manual uses several conventions to highlight certain words and phrases and draw attention to specific pieces of information. 3

8 Red Hat Ent erprise Linux 6 High Availabilit y Add- O n O verview 1.1. T ypographic Convent ions Four typographic conventions are used to call attention to specific words and phrases. These conventions, and the circumstances they apply to, are as follows. Mo no -spaced Bo l d Used to highlight system input, including shell commands, file names and paths. Also used to highlight keys and key combinations. For example: To see the contents of the file my_next_bestsel l i ng _no vel in your current working directory, enter the cat my_next_bestsel l i ng _no vel command at the shell prompt and press Enter to execute the command. The above includes a file name, a shell command and a key, all presented in mono-spaced bold and all distinguishable thanks to context. Key combinations can be distinguished from an individual key by the plus sign that connects each part of a key combination. For example: Press Enter to execute the command. Press C trl +Al t+f2 to switch to a virtual terminal. The first example highlights a particular key to press. The second example highlights a key combination: a set of three keys pressed simultaneously. If source code is discussed, class names, methods, functions, variable names and returned values mentioned within a paragraph will be presented as above, in mo no -spaced bo l d. For example: File-related classes include fi l esystem for file systems, fi l e for files, and d i r for directories. Each class has its own associated set of permissions. Proportional Bold This denotes words or phrases encountered on a system, including application names; dialog-box text; labeled buttons; check-box and radio-button labels; menu titles and submenu titles. For example: Choose System Preferences Mouse from the main menu bar to launch Mouse Preferences. In the Butto ns tab, select the Left-hand ed mo use check box and click C l o se to switch the primary mouse button from the left to the right (making the mouse suitable for use in the left hand). To insert a special character into a gedit file, choose Applications Accessories Character Map from the main menu bar. Next, choose Search Find from the Character Map menu bar, type the name of the character in the Search field and click Next. The character you sought will be highlighted in the C haracter T abl e. Double-click this highlighted character to place it in the T ext to co py field and then click the C o py button. Now switch back to your document and choose Edit Paste from the gedit menu bar. The above text includes application names; system-wide menu names and items; application-specific menu names; and buttons and text found within a GUI interface, all presented in proportional bold and all distinguishable by context. Mono-spaced Bold Italic or Proportional Bold Italic 4

9 Int roduct ion Whether mono-spaced bold or proportional bold, the addition of italics indicates replaceable or variable text. Italics denotes text you do not input literally or displayed text that changes depending on circumstance. For example: To connect to a remote machine using ssh, type ssh domain.name at a shell prompt. If the remote machine is exampl e. co m and your username on that machine is john, type ssh jo exampl e. co m. The mo unt -o remo unt file-system command remounts the named file system. For example, to remount the /ho me file system, the command is mo unt -o remo unt /ho me. To see the version of a currently installed package, use the rpm -q package command. It will return a result as follows: package-version-release. Note the words in bold italics above: username, domain.name, file-system, package, version and release. Each word is a placeholder, either for text you enter when issuing a command or for text displayed by the system. Aside from standard usage for presenting the title of a work, italics denotes the first use of a new and important term. For example: Publican is a DocBook publishing system Pull-quot e Convent ions Terminal output and source code listings are set off visually from the surrounding text. Output sent to a terminal is set in mo no -spaced ro man and presented thus: books Desktop documentation drafts mss photos stuff svn books_tests Desktop1 downloads images notes scripts svgs Source-code listings are also set in mo no -spaced ro man but add syntax highlighting as follows: static int kvm_vm_ioctl_deassign_device(struct kvm *kvm, struct kvm_assigned_pci_dev *assigned_dev) { int r = 0; struct kvm_assigned_dev_kernel *match; mutex_lock(& kvm->lock); match = kvm_find_assigned_dev(& kvm->arch.assigned_dev_head, assigned_dev->assigned_dev_id); if (!match) { printk(kern_info "%s: device hasn't been assigned before, " "so cannot be deassigned\n", func ); r = -EINVAL; goto out; } kvm_deassign_device(kvm, match); kvm_free_assigned_device(kvm, match); 5

10 Red Hat Ent erprise Linux 6 High Availabilit y Add- O n O verview out: mutex_unlock(& kvm->lock); return r; } 1.3. Not es and Warnings Finally, we use three visual styles to draw attention to information that might otherwise be overlooked. Note Notes are tips, shortcuts or alternative approaches to the task at hand. Ignoring a note should have no negative consequences, but you might miss out on a trick that makes your life easier. Important Important boxes detail things that are easily missed: configuration changes that only apply to the current session, or services that need restarting before an update will apply. Ignoring a box labeled Important will not cause data loss but may cause irritation and frustration. Warning Warnings should not be ignored. Ignoring warnings will most likely cause data loss. 2. We Need Feedback! If you find a typographical error in this manual, or if you have thought of a way to make this manual better, we would love to hear from you! Please submit a report in Bugzilla: against the product Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, the component doc-high_availability_add- On_Overview and version number: If you have a suggestion for improving the documentation, try to be as specific as possible when describing it. If you have found an error, please include the section number and some of the surrounding text so we can find it easily. 6

11 Chapt er 1. High Availabilit y Add- O n O verview Chapter 1. High Availability Add-On Overview The High Availability Add-On is a clustered system that provides reliability, scalability, and availability to critical production services. The following sections provide a high-level description of the components and functions of the High Availability Add-On: Section 1.1, Cluster Basics Section 1.2, High Availability Add-On Introduction Section 1.3, Cluster Infrastructure 1.1. Clust er Basics A cluster is two or more computers (called nodes or members) that work together to perform a task. There are four major types of clusters: Storage High availability Load balancing High performance Storage clusters provide a consistent file system image across servers in a cluster, allowing the servers to simultaneously read and write to a single shared file system. A storage cluster simplifies storage administration by limiting the installation and patching of applications to one file system. Also, with a cluster-wide file system, a storage cluster eliminates the need for redundant copies of application data and simplifies backup and disaster recovery. The High Availability Add-On provides storage clustering in conjunction with Red Hat GFS2 (part of the Resilient Storage Add-On). High availability clusters provide highly available services by eliminating single points of failure and by failing over services from one cluster node to another in case a node becomes inoperative. Typically, services in a high availability cluster read and write data (via read-write mounted file systems). Therefore, a high availability cluster must maintain data integrity as one cluster node takes over control of a service from another cluster node. Node failures in a high availability cluster are not visible from clients outside the cluster. (high availability clusters are sometimes referred to as failover clusters.) The High Availability Add-On provides high availability clustering through its High Availability Service Management component, rg manag er. Load-balancing clusters dispatch network service requests to multiple cluster nodes to balance the request load among the cluster nodes. Load balancing provides cost-effective scalability because you can match the number of nodes according to load requirements. If a node in a load-balancing cluster becomes inoperative, the load-balancing software detects the failure and redirects requests to other cluster nodes. Node failures in a load-balancing cluster are not visible from clients outside the cluster. Load balancing is available with the Load Balancer Add-On. High-performance clusters use cluster nodes to perform concurrent calculations. A high-performance cluster allows applications to work in parallel, therefore enhancing the performance of the applications. (High performance clusters are also referred to as computational clusters or grid computing.) 7

12 Red Hat Ent erprise Linux 6 High Availabilit y Add- O n O verview Note The cluster types summarized in the preceding text reflect basic configurations; your needs might require a combination of the clusters described. Additionally, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux High Availability Add-On contains support for configuring and managing high availability servers only. It does not support high-performance clusters High Availabilit y Add-On Int roduct ion The High Availability Add-On is an integrated set of software components that can be deployed in a variety of configurations to suit your needs for performance, high availability, load balancing, scalability, file sharing, and economy. The High Availability Add-On consists of the following major components: Cluster infrastructure Provides fundamental functions for nodes to work together as a cluster: configuration-file management, membership management, lock management, and fencing. High availability Service Management Provides failover of services from one cluster node to another in case a node becomes inoperative. Cluster administration tools Configuration and management tools for setting up, configuring, and managing a the High Availability Add-On. The tools are for use with the Cluster Infrastructure components, the high availability and Service Management components, and storage. Note Only single site clusters are fully supported at this time. Clusters spread across multiple physical locations are not formally supported. For more details and to discuss multi-site clusters, please speak to your Red Hat sales or support representative. You can supplement the High Availability Add-On with the following components: Red Hat GFS2 (Global File System 2) Part of the Resilient Storage Add-On, this provides a cluster file system for use with the High Availability Add-On. GFS2 allows multiple nodes to share storage at a block level as if the storage were connected locally to each cluster node. GFS2 cluster file system requires a cluster infrastructure. Cluster Logical Volume Manager (CLVM) Part of the Resilient Storage Add-On, this provides volume management of cluster storage. CLVM support also requires cluster infrastructure. Load Balancer Add-On Routing software that provides IP-Load-balancing. the Load Balancer Add-On runs in a pair of redundant virtual servers that distributes client requests evenly to real servers that are behind the virtual servers Clust er Infrast ruct ure The High Availability Add-On cluster infrastructure provides the basic functions for a group of computers (called nodes or members) to work together as a cluster. Once a cluster is formed using the 8

13 Chapt er 1. High Availabilit y Add- O n O verview cluster infrastructure, you can use other components to suit your clustering needs (for example, setting up a cluster for sharing files on a GFS2 file system or setting up service failover). The cluster infrastructure performs the following functions: Cluster management Lock management Fencing Cluster configuration management 9

14 Red Hat Ent erprise Linux 6 High Availabilit y Add- O n O verview Chapter 2. Cluster Management with CMAN Cluster management manages cluster quorum and cluster membership. CMAN (an abbreviation for cluster manager) performs cluster management in the High Availability Add-On for Red Hat Enterprise Linux. CMAN is a distributed cluster manager and runs in each cluster node; cluster management is distributed across all nodes in the cluster. CMAN keeps track of membership by monitoring messages from other cluster nodes. When cluster membership changes, the cluster manager notifies the other infrastructure components, which then take appropriate action. If a cluster node does not transmit a message within a prescribed amount of time, the cluster manager removes the node from the cluster and communicates to other cluster infrastructure components that the node is not a member. Other cluster infrastructure components determine what actions to take upon notification that node is no longer a cluster member. For example, Fencing would disconnect the node that is no longer a member. CMAN keeps track of cluster quorum by monitoring the count of cluster nodes. If more than half the nodes are active, the cluster has quorum. If half the nodes (or fewer) are active, the cluster does not have quorum, and all cluster activity is stopped. Cluster quorum prevents the occurrence of a " splitbrain" condition a condition where two instances of the same cluster are running. A split-brain condition would allow each cluster instance to access cluster resources without knowledge of the other cluster instance, resulting in corrupted cluster integrity Clust er Quorum Quorum is a voting algorithm used by CMAN. A cluster can only function correctly if there is general agreement between the members regarding their status. We say a cluster has quorum if a majority of nodes are alive, communicating, and agree on the active cluster members. For example, in a thirteen-node cluster, quorum is only reached if seven or more nodes are communicating. If the seventh node dies, the cluster loses quorum and can no longer function. A cluster must maintain quorum to prevent split-brain issues. If quorum was not enforced, quorum, a communication error on that same thirteen-node cluster may cause a situation where six nodes are operating on the shared storage, while another six nodes are also operating on it, independently. Because of the communication error, the two partial-clusters would overwrite areas of the disk and corrupt the file system. With quorum rules enforced, only one of the partial clusters can use the shared storage, thus protecting data integrity. Quorum doesn' t prevent split-brain situations, but it does decide who is dominant and allowed to function in the cluster. Should split-brain occur, quorum prevents more than one cluster group from doing anything. Quorum is determined by communication of messages among cluster nodes via Ethernet. Optionally, quorum can be determined by a combination of communicating messages via Ethernet and through a quorum disk. For quorum via Ethernet, quorum consists of a simple majority (50% of the nodes + 1 extra). When configuring a quorum disk, quorum consists of user-specified conditions. Note By default, each node has one quorum vote. Optionally, you can configure each node to have more than one vote. 10

15 Chapt er 2. Clust er Management wit h CMAN Quorum Disks A quorum disk or partition is a section of a disk that's set up for use with components of the cluster project. It has a couple of purposes. Again, I'll explain with an example. Suppose you have nodes A and B, and node A fails to get several of cluster manager's "heartbeat" packets from node B. Node A doesn't know why it hasn't received the packets, but there are several possibilities: either node B has failed, the network switch or hub has failed, node A' s network adapter has failed, or maybe just because node B was just too busy to send the packet. That can happen if your cluster is extremely large, your systems are extremely busy or your network is flakey. Node A doesn't know which is the case, and it doesn't know whether the problem lies within itself or with node B. This is especially problematic in a two-node cluster because both nodes, out of touch with one another, can try to fence the other. So before fencing a node, it would be nice to have another way to check if the other node is really alive, even though we can't seem to contact it. A quorum disk gives you the ability to do just that. Before fencing a node that's out of touch, the cluster software can check whether the node is still alive based on whether it has written data to the quorum partition. In the case of two-node systems, the quorum disk also acts as a tie-breaker. If a node has access to the quorum disk and the network, that counts as two votes. A node that has lost contact with the network or the quorum disk has lost a vote, and therefore may safely be fenced. Further information about configuring quorum disk parameters is provided in the chapters on Conga and ccs administration in the Cluster Administration manual T ie-breakers Tie-breakers are additional heuristics that allow a cluster partition to decide whether or not it is quorate in the event of an even-split - prior to fencing. A typical tie-breaker construct is an IP tiebreaker, sometimes called a ping node. With such a tie-breaker, nodes not only monitor each other, but also an upstream router that is on the same path as cluster communications. If the two nodes lose contact with each other, the one that wins is the one that can still ping the upstream router. Of course, there are cases, such as a switchloop, where it is possible for two nodes to see the upstream router - but not each other - causing what is called a split brain. That is why, even when using tie-breakers, it is important to ensure that fencing is configured correctly. Other types of tie-breakers include where a shared partition, often called a quorum disk, provides additional details. clumanager 1.2.x (Red Hat Cluster Suite 3) had a disk tie-breaker that allowed operation if the network went down as long as both nodes were still communicating over the shared partition. More complex tie-breaker schemes exist, such as QD isk (part of linux-cluster). QD isk allows arbitrary heuristics to be specified. These allow each node to determine its own fitness for participation in the cluster. It is often used as a simple IP tie-breaker, however. See the qdisk(5) manual page for more information. CMAN has no internal tie-breakers for various reasons. However, tie-breakers can be implemented using the API. This API allows quorum device registration and updating. For an example, look at the QD isk source code. You might need a tie-breaker if you: 11

16 Red Hat Ent erprise Linux 6 High Availabilit y Add- O n O verview Have a two node configuration with the fence devices on a different network path than the path used for cluster communication Have a two node configuration where fencing is at the fabric level - especially for SCSI reservations However, if you have a correct network and fencing configuration in your cluster, a tie-breaker only adds complexity, except in pathological cases. 12

17 Chapt er 3. RG Manager Chapter 3. RGManager RGManager manages and provides failover capabilities for collections of cluster resources called services, resource groups, or resource trees. These resource groups are tree-structured, and have parent-child dependency and inheritance relationships within each subtree. How RGManager works is that it allows administrators to define, configure, and monitor cluster services. In the event of a node failure, RGManager will relocate the clustered service to another node with minimal service disruption. You can also restrict services to certain nodes, such as restricting httpd to one group of nodes while mysq l can be restricted to a separate set of nodes. There are various processes and agents that combine to make RGManager work. The following list summarizes those areas. Failover D omains - How the RGManager failover domain system works Service Policies - Rgmanager' s service startup and recovery policies Resource Trees - How rgmanager' s resource trees work, including start/stop orders and inheritance Service Operational Behaviors - How rgmanager' s operations work and what states mean Virtual Machine Behaviors - Special things to remember when running VMs in a rgmanager cluster ResourceActions - The agent actions RGManager uses and how to customize their behavior from the cl uster. co nf file. Event Scripting - If rgmanager' s failover and recovery policies do not fit in your environment, you can customize your own using this scripting subsystem Failover Domains A failover domain is an ordered subset of members to which a service may be bound. Failover domains, while useful for cluster customization, are not required for operation. The following is a list of semantics governing the options as to how the different configuration options affect the behavior of a failover domain. preferred node or preferred member: The preferred node was the member designated to run a given service if the member is online. We can emulate this behavior by specifying an unordered, unrestricted failover domain of exactly one member. restricted domain: Services bound to the domain may only run on cluster members which are also members of the failover domain. If no members of the failover domain are available, the service is placed in the stopped state. In a cluster with several members, using a restricted failover domain can ease configuration of a cluster service (such as httpd), which requires identical configuration on all members that run the service. Instead of setting up the entire cluster to run the cluster service, you must set up only the members in the restricted failover domain that you associate with the cluster service. unrestricted domain: The default behavior, services bound to this domain may run on all cluster members, but will run on a member of the domain whenever one is available. This means that if a service is running outside of the domain and a member of the domain comes online, the service will migrate to that member, unless nofailback is set. ordered domain: The order specified in the configuration dictates the order of preference of 13

18 Red Hat Ent erprise Linux 6 High Availabilit y Add- O n O verview members within the domain. The highest-ranking member of the domain will run the service whenever it is online. This means that if member A has a higher-rank than member B, the service will migrate to A if it was running on B if A transitions from offline to online. unordered domain: The default behavior, members of the domain have no order of preference; any member may run the service. Services will always migrate to members of their failover domain whenever possible, however, in an unordered domain. failback: Services on members of an ordered failover domain should fail back to the node that it was originally running on before the node failed, which is useful for frequently failing nodes to prevent frequent service shifts between the failing node and the failover node. Ordering, restriction, and nofailback are flags and may be combined in almost any way (ie, ordered+restricted, unordered+unrestricted, etc.). These combinations affect both where services start after initial quorum formation and which cluster members will take over services in the event that the service has failed Behavior Examples Given a cluster comprised of this set of members: {A, B, C, D, E, F, G}. O rdered, restricted failover domain {A, B, C} With nofailback unset: A service 'S' will always run on member 'A' whenever member 'A' is online and there is a quorum. If all members of {A, B, C} are offline, the service will not run. If the service is running on 'C' and 'A' transitions online, the service will migrate to 'A'. With nofailback set: A service 'S' will run on the highest priority cluster member when a quorum is formed. If all members of {A, B, C} are offline, the service will not run. If the service is running on 'C' and 'A' transitions online, the service will remain on 'C' unless 'C' fails, at which point it will fail over to 'A'. Unordered, restricted failover domain {A, B, C} A service 'S' will only run if there is a quorum and at least one member of {A, B, C} is online. If another member of the domain transitions online, the service does not relocate. O rdered, unrestricted failover domain {A, B, C} With nofailback unset: A service 'S' will run whenever there is a quorum. If a member of the failover domain is online, the service will run on the highest-priority member, otherwise a member of the cluster will be chosen at random to run the service. That is, the service will run on 'A' whenever 'A' is online, followed by 'B'. With nofailback set: A service 'S' will run whenever there is a quorum. If a member of the failover domain is online at quorum formation, the service will run on the highest-priority member of the failover domain. That is, if 'B' is online (but 'A' is not), the service will run on 'B'. If, at some later point, 'A' joins the cluster, the service will not relocate to 'A'. Unordered, unrestricted failover domain {A, B, C} This is also called a "Set of Preferred Members". When one or more members of the failover domain are online, the service will run on a nonspecific online member of the failover domain. If another member of the failover domain transitions online, the service does not relocate Service Policies 14

19 Chapt er 3. RG Manager RGManager has three service recovery policies which may be customized by the administrator on a per-service basis. Note These policies also apply to virtual machine resources St art Policy RGManager by default starts all services when rgmanager boots and a quorum is present. This behavior may be altered by administrators. autostart (default) - start the service when rgmanager boots and a quorum forms. If set to '0', the cluster will not start the service and instead place it in to the disabled state Recovery Policy The recovery policy is the default action rgmanager takes when a service fails on a particular node. There are three available options, defined in the following list. restart (default) - restart the service on the same node. If no other recovery policy is specified, this recovery policy is used. If restarting fails, rgmanager falls back to relocate the service. relocate - Try to start the service on other node(s) in the cluster. If no other nodes successfully start the service, the service is then placed in the stopped state. disable - Do nothing. Place the service in to the disabled state. restart-disable - Attempt to restart the service, in place. Place the service in to the disabled state if restarting fails Rest art Policy Ext ensions When the restart recovery policy is used, you may additionally specify a maximum threshold for how many restarts may occur on the same node in a given time. There are two parameters available for services called max_restarts and restart_expire_time which control this. The max_restarts parameter is an integer which specifies the maximum number of restarts before giving up and relocating the service to another host in the cluster. The restart_expire_time parameter tells rgmanager how long to remember a restart event. The use of the two parameters together creates a sliding window for the number of tolerated restarts in a given amount of time. For example: <service name="myservice" max_restarts="3" restart_expire_time="300"...>... </service> The above service tolerance is 3 restarts in 5 minutes. On the fourth service failure in 300 seconds, rgmanager will not restart the service and instead relocate the service to another available host in the cluster. 15

20 Red Hat Ent erprise Linux 6 High Availabilit y Add- O n O verview Note You must specify both parameters together; the use of either parameter by itself is undefined Resource T rees - Basics / Definit ions The following illustrates the structure of a resource tree, with a correpsonding list that defines each area. <service name="foo"...> <fs name="myfs"...> <script name="script_child"/> </fs> <ip address=" ".../> </service> Resource trees are XML representations of resources, their attributes, parent/child and sibling relationships. The root of a resource tree is almost always a special type of resource called a service. Resource tree, resource group, and service are usually used interchangeably on this wiki. From rgmanager' s perspective, a resource tree is an atomic unit. All components of a resource tree are started on the same cluster node. fs:myfs and ip: are siblings fs:myfs is the parent of script:script_child script:script_child is the child of fs:myfs Parent / Child Relat ionships, Dependencies, and St art Ordering The rules for parent/child relationships in the resource tree are fairly simple: Parents are started before children Children must all stop (cleanly) before a parent may be stopped From these two, you could say that a child resource is dependent on its parent resource In order for a resource to be considered in good health, all of its dependent children must also be in good health 3.4. Service Operat ions and St at es The following operations apply to both services and virtual machines, except for the migrate operation, which only works with virtual machines Service Operat ions The service operations are available commands a user may call to apply one of five available actions, defined in the following list. 16 enable start the service, optionally on a preferred target and optionally according to failover domain rules. In absence of either, the local host where clusvcadm is run will start the service. If

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