# Density (r) Chapter 10 Fluids. Pressure 1/13/2015

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Density (r) Chapter 10 Fluids. Pressure 1/13/2015"

## Transcription

1 1/13/015 Density (r) Chapter 10 Fluids r = mass/volume Rho ( r) Greek letter for density Units - kg/m 3 Specific Gravity = Density of substance Density of water (4 o C) Unitless ratio Ex: Lead has a sp. Gravity of 11.3 (11.3 times denser than water Calculate the mass of an iron ball of radius 18 cm (V = 4/3 pr 3, r = 7800 kg/m 3 ) You have a 00 g sample of carbon tetrachloride which has a specific gravity of Water s density is 1000 kg/m 3. a) Calculate the density of carbon tetrachloride. b) Calculate the volume of the 00 g sample. (190 kg) (190 kg) Pressure Force per unit area P = F/A Unit - N/m (Pascal) The larger the area, the less the pressure Shoeshoes Elephant feet Bed of nails 1

2 1/13/015 Fluid Pressure Pressure: Example 1 A fluid exerts the same pressure in all directions at a given depth P = rgh The atmosphere is a fluid A water storage tank is 30 m above the water faucet in a house. Calculate the pressure at the faucet: We will neglect the atmospheric pressure since it is the same at the tank and at the surface DP = rgh = (1000 kg/m 3 )(9.8 m/s )(30 m) DP = 9,000 kgm /m 3 s = 9,000 kg m/s m DP = 9,000 N/m Pressure: Example The Kraken can live at a depth of 00 m. Calculate the pressure the creature can withstand: Pressure: Example DP = rgh = (1000 kg/m 3 )(g)(00 m) DP = 1.96 X 10 6 N/m Atmospheric Pressure 1 atm = X 10 5 N/m = kpa 1 bar = 1 X 10 5 N/m (used by meteorologists) Gauge pressure We usually measure gauge pressure Ex: A tire gauge reads 0 kpa, what is the absolute pressure? P = P atm + P G P = kpa + 0 kpa = 31 ka P = P atm + P G Absolute pressure atmospheric pressure Gauge pressure

3 1/13/015 Suppose a submarine is travelling 10.0 m below the surface of the ocean. a) Calculate the gauge pressure at that depth. b) Calculate the absolute pressure at that depth, Straw Example You can pick up soda in a straw using your finger. Why doesn t the soda fall out? Another Straw Example Pascal s Principle What pushes soda up a straw when you drink through it? Pressure applied to a confined fluid increases the pressure the same throughout P in = P out F in = F out A in A out Pascal s Principle A hydraulic lift can produce 00 lb of force. How heavy a car can be lifted if the area of the lift is 0 times larger that the input of the Force? Pascal s Principle A hydraulic lift has a large piston 30.0 cm in diameter and a small piston cm in diameter. a) Calculate the force required to lift a 1500 kg car. b) Calculate the pressure in the confined liquid. F in = F out A in A out F out = F in A out = (00 lb) (0) = 4000 lbs A in 1 3

4 1/13/015 Pascal s Principle An a hydraulic press, the large piston has a cross sectional area of 00 cm and the small an area of 5 cm. If a force of 50 N is applied to the small piston, calculate the force on the large piston. P = P atm + P G P = P atm + rgh Torrecilli s Work What is the highest column of water that the atmosphere can support? P = P atm + rgh 0 = X 10 5 N/m + (1000kg/m 3 )(9.8m/s )(h) h = 10.3 m No vacuum pump can pump more than ~30 feet Try the same calculation with mercury P = P atm + rgh 0 = X 10 5 N/m + (13,600kg/m 3 )(9.8m/s )(h) h = m (760 mm) 1 atm = 760 mm Hg (760 torr) Can an astronaut attach suction cups to the boots of his spacesuit to help him climb around the space shuttle while in space? 4

5 1/13/015 Buoyancy Buoyancy The lift provided by water Objects weight less in water than out Caused by pressure differential between top and bottom of an object. F bouyant = rgv Derivation of the Buoyancy Formula F b = F F 1 P = F/A F = PA F = rgha F b = rgh A rgh 1 A F b = rga(h - h 1 ) F b = rgv Archimedes Principle The bouyant force on an object equals the weight of fluid displaced by the object w = weight of an object in water (or any liquid) w = mg - F b Buoyancy: Example 1 A 7000-kg ancient statue lies at the bottom of the sea. Its volume is 3.0 m 3. How much force is needed to lift it? F b = rgv F b = (1000 kg/m 3 )(9.8 m/s )(3.0m 3 ) F b =.94 X 10 4 kg-m/s F b =.94 X 10 4 N F b mg w = mg - F b w = (7000 kg)(9.8m/s ) -.94 X 10 4 N w = 3.9 X 10 4 N A block of wood massing 7.6 kg is tied to a string and immersed in water. The wood has a density of 750 kg/m 3. Say, isn t w just the sum of the forces? Yep. F b a) Calculate the volume of the object b) Calculate the buoyant force on the wood. c) Calculate the tension in the string. SF = w mg 5

6 1/13/015 Archimedes tested a crown for the king. Out of water, it masses 14.7 kg. In water, it massed 13.4 kg. Was the crown gold? w = m cr g F b w = m cr g rgv cr (13.4 kg)(g) = (14.7 kg)(g) (1000 kg/m 3 )(g)(v cr ) 131 N = 144 N (9800 kg/ms )(V cr ) V cr = m 3 Now we can calculate the density of the crown: r = m/v = 14.7 kg/ m 3 r = 11,053 kg/m 3 Gold s density is about 19,000kg/m 3. This is much closer to lead. A metal ball weighs N in air, and N in water. Calculate the density of the metal. Floating Objects that are less dense than water will float Part of the object will be above the water line A case of static equilibrium SF = 0 F b (3840 kg/m 3 ) mg Floating A 100 kg log is floating in water. What volume of the log is under water? SF = 0 V log = m (Hey, the g s cancel!) r V log = 100 kg = 1. m kg/m 3 SF = 0 = mg F b F b mg = F b mg = rgv log V log = mg rg mg 6

7 1/13/015 Floating A wooden raft has a density of 600 kg/m 3, an area of 5.7 m, and a volume of 0.60 m 3. How much of the raft is below water in a freshwater lake? Let s first calculate the mass of the raft: r = m/v m = rv = (600 kg/m 3 )(0.60 m 3 ) = 360 kg Now we can worry about the raft. SF = 0 SF = 0 = mg F b mg = F b mg = rgv submerged mg = rgh submerged A mg = rgh submerged A m = rh submerged A (Hey, the g s cancelled!) h submerged = m/ra h submerged = 360 kg = m (1000 kg/m 3 )(5.7 m ) Floating: Example 3 Suppose a continent is floating on the mantle rock. Estimate the height of the continent above the mantle (assume the continent is 35 km thick). SF = 0 = mg F b 0 = m c g r man gv c(submerged) m c g = r man gv c(submerged) m c = r man V c(submerged) We don t know the mass of the continent r c = m c /V c(total) m c = r c V c(total) m c = r man V c(submerged) m c = r man V c(submerged) m c = r c V c(total) r man V c(submerged) = r c V c(total) V c(submerged) = r c = (800 kg/m 3 ) = 0.85 V c(total) r man (3300 kg/m 3 ) This means that 85% of the continent is submerged, and only 15% is above: (0.15)(35 km) = 5.5 km 7

8 1/13/015 Fluid Flow Laminar Flow Smooth, streamline flow (laminar means in layers ) Turbulent Flow erratic flow with eddies Viscosity Internal friction of a liquid High viscosity = slow flow Viscosity is NOT the same as density Equation of Continuity Equation of Continuity A 1 v 1 = A v A 1 v 1 = A v A = Area of a pipe v = velocity of the liquid Fluid will flow faster through a smaller opening Placing your finger over a hose opening. The term Av is the volume rate of flow Eqn. Of Continuity: Example 1 A = m v = m/s Av = m 3 /s A garden hose has a radius of 1.00 cm and the water flows at a speed of 0.80 m/s. What will be the velocity if you place your finger over the hose and narrow the radius to 0.10 cm? A 1 = pr = (3.14)(0.01 m) = 3.14 X 10-4 m A = pr = (3.14)(0.001 m) = 3.14 X 10-6 m 8

9 1/13/015 A 1 v 1 = A v v = A 1 v 1 A v = (3.14 X 10-4 m )(0.80 m/s) = 80 m/s (3.14 X 10-6 m ) Eqn. Of Continuity: Example A water hose 1.00 cm in radius fills a 0.0-liter bucket in one minute. What is the speed of water in the hose? A 1 = pr = (3.14)(1 cm) = 3.14 cm Remember that Av is volume rate of flow. A v =0.0 L 1 min 1000 cm 3 = 333 cm 3 /s 1 min 60 s 1 L A 1 v 1 = A v v 1 = A v /A 1 v 1 = 333 cm 3 /s = 3.14 cm 160 cm/s or 1.60 m/s 10 m 3 /h of water flows through a pipe with 100 mm inside diameter. The pipe is reduced to an inside dimension of 80 mm. a) Convert the flow rate to m 3 /s. b) Calculate the initial velocity (Av = flow rate(m 3 /s) c) Calculate the velocity in the narrow section of the pipe. (A 1 v 1 = A v ) Eqn. Of Continuity: Example 3 A sink has an area of about 0.5 m. The drain has a diameter of 5 cm. If the sink drains at 0.03 m/s, how fast is water flowing down the drain? A d = pr = (p)(0.05 m) = 1.96 X 10-3 m 3 A d v d = A s v s v d = A s v s /A d =[(0.5 m )(0.03 m/s)]/(1.96 X 10-3 m 3 ) v d = 3.8 m/s Eqn. Of Continuity: Example 4 The radius of the aorta is about 1.0 cm and blood passes through it at a speed of 30 cm/s. A typical capillary has a radius of about 4 X 10-4 cm and blood flows through it at a rate of 5 X 10-4 m/s. Estimate how many capillaries there are in the human body. 9

10 1/13/015 A a v a = NA c v c (N is the number of capillaries) Eqn. Of Continuity: Example 5 A a = pr = (3.14)(0.01 m) = 3.14 X 10-4 m A c = pr = (3.14)(4 X 10-6 cm) = 5.0 X cm How large must a heating duct be to replenish the air in a room 300 m 3 every 15 minutes? Assume air moves through the vent at 3.0 m/s. N = A a v a / A c v c N = (3.14 X 10-4 m )(0.30 m/s) = ~ 4 billion (5.0 X cm )(5 X 10-4 m/s) A d v d = A r v r A r v r = volume rate of flow: A r v r = 300 m 3 1 min = m 3 /s 15 min 60 s Bernoulli s Principle The velocity and pressure of a fluid are inversely related. A d = A r v r /v d A d = m 3 /s = 0.11 m 3.0 m/s Applications of Bernoulli s Principle Why does a shower curtain sometimes attack a person taking a shower? 1. Airplane wing What will happen to closed windows during a tornado? Will they blow in or out? 10

11 1/13/015 Applications of Bernoulli s Principle. Prairie Dog Burrows 1. Air moves faster (lower pressure) at the top. Draws air through the burrow 3. The exact same thing happens with our chimneys Applications of Bernoulli s Principle 3. Spray Paint Flow of air (low pressure) Applications of Bernoulli s Principle 4. Dime in a cup Bernoulli s Equation P t + ½rv t + rgy t = P b + ½rv b + rgy b (note: you often have to use the Eqn. Of Continuity in these situations:) A 1 v 1 = A v Often useful when you have both a change in height and area: If there is no change in altitude, the equation simplifies: Pipe from a water reservoir to a house Pipe from a house into a sewer pipe P t + ½rv t + rgy t = P b + ½rv b + rgy b P t + ½rv t = P b + ½rv b 11

12 1/13/015 Bernoulli s Equation: Example 1 A water heater in the basement of a house pumps water through a 4.0 cm pipe at 0.50 m/s and 3.0 atm. What will be the flow speed and pressure through a.6 cm spigot on the second floor, 5.0 m above? 3.0 atm X 10 5 N/m = 3.0 X 10 5 N/m 1 atm Flow speed: A t v t = A b v b v t = A b v b/ A t (Remember A = pr ) v t = pr bv b (Hey, the p s cancel!) pr t v t = r bv b = (0.0 m) (0.50m/s) = 1. m/s r t (0.013 m) Now the pressure: P t + ½rv t + rgy t = P b + ½rv b + rgy b P t + ½(1000)(1.) + (1000)(9.8)(5) = 3.0X ½(1000)(0.50) + (1000)(9.8)(0) P t =.5 X 10 5 N/m Bernoulli s Equation: Example A drunken redneck shoots a hole in the bottom of an aboveground swimming pool. The hole is 1.5 m from the top of the tank. Calculate the speed of the water as it comes out of the hole. y t = 1.5 m y b = 0 m The top of the pool is a much larger area than the hole. We will assume that the v t = 0. P t + ½rv t + rgy t = P b + ½rv b + rgy b P t + rgy t = P b + ½rv b + rgy b Also, both the top and the hole are open to the atmosphere, so P t = P b Set the bottom of the pool as y b = 0. rgy t = ½rv b + rgy b rgy t = ½rv b v b = rgy t /r v b = gy t v b = ()(9.8m/s )(1.5 m) v b = 5.4 m/s P t + rgy t = P b + ½rv b + rgy b rgy t = ½rv b + rgy b 1

### Chapter 13 Fluids. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 13 Fluids 13-1 Phases of Matter The three common phases of matter are solid, liquid, and gas. A solid has a definite shape and size. A liquid has a fixed volume but can be any shape. A gas can

### Fluids flow conform to shape of container. Mass: mass density, Forces: Pressure Statics: Human body 50-75% water, live in a fluid (air)

Chapter 11 - Fluids Fluids flow conform to shape of container liquids OR gas Mass: mass density, Forces: Pressure Statics: pressure, buoyant force Dynamics: motion speed, energy friction: viscosity Human

### General Physics (PHY 2130)

General Physics (PHY 30) Lecture 3 Solids and fluids buoyant force Archimedes principle Fluids in motion http://www.physics.wayne.edu/~apetrov/phy30/ Lightning Review Last lecture:. Solids and fluids different

### Chapter 9: The Behavior of Fluids

Chapter 9: The Behavior of Fluids 1. Archimedes Principle states that A. the pressure in a fluid is directly related to the depth below the surface of the fluid. B. an object immersed in a fluid is buoyed

### Archimedes. F b (Buoyant Force) DEMO. Identical Size Boxes Which has larger F B. Which is heavier. styrofoam (1 cm 3 ) steel ( 1 cm 3 )

Fluids Density 1 F b (Buoyant Force) DEMO Archimedes Identical Size Boxes Which has larger F B Which is heavier styrofoam (1 cm 3 ) steel ( 1 cm 3 ) steel ( 1 cm 3 ) styrofoam (1 cm 3 ) 2 Finding the Weight

### Physics 6B. Philip Lubin

Physics 6B Philip Lubin prof@deepspace.ucsb.edu http://www.deepspace.ucsb.edu/classes/physics-6b-spring-2015 Course Outline Text College Physics Freedman 2014 Cover Chap 11-13, 16-21 Chap 11- Fluid Chap

### oil liquid water water liquid Answer, Key Homework 2 David McIntyre 1

Answer, Key Homework 2 David McIntyre 1 This print-out should have 14 questions, check that it is complete. Multiple-choice questions may continue on the next column or page: find all choices before making

### Chapter 8 Fluid Flow

Chapter 8 Fluid Flow GOALS When you have mastered the contents of this chapter, you will be able to achieve the following goals: Definitions Define each of the following terms, and use it in an operational

### In previous Chapters we considered objects that were solid and assumed to. Fluids E R

1929 2009 C H A P T 10 E R We start our study with fluids at rest, such as water in a glass or a lake. Pressure in a fluid increases with depth, a fact that allows less dense objects to float the pressure

### Write True or False in the space provided.

CP Physics -- Exam #7 Practice Name: _ Class: Date: Write True or False in the space provided. 1) Pressure at the bottom of a lake depends on the weight density of the lake water and on the volume of the

### Physics Principles of Physics

Physics 1408-002 Principles of Physics Lecture 21 Chapter 13 April 2, 2009 Sung-Won Lee Sungwon.Lee@ttu.edu Announcement I Lecture note is on the web Handout (6 slides/page) http://highenergy.phys.ttu.edu/~slee/1408/

### Density. Density is how concentrated or compact matter is.

Density Density is how concentrated or compact matter is. Packing snow into snowballs increases its density. You are squeezing large amounts of matter into small volumes of space. Equation for Density

### Physics 1114: Unit 6 Homework: Answers

Physics 1114: Unit 6 Homework: Answers Problem set 1 1. A rod 4.2 m long and 0.50 cm 2 in cross-sectional area is stretched 0.20 cm under a tension of 12,000 N. a) The stress is the Force (1.2 10 4 N)

### Why Study Fluids? Solids and How They Respond to Forces. Solids and How They Respond to Forces. Crystal lattice structure:

States of Matter Gas In a gas, the molecules are far apart and the forces between them are very small Solid In a solid, the molecules are very close together, and the form of the solid depends on the details

### CHAPTER 3: FORCES AND PRESSURE

CHAPTER 3: FORCES AND PRESSURE 3.1 UNDERSTANDING PRESSURE 1. The pressure acting on a surface is defined as.. force per unit. area on the surface. 2. Pressure, P = F A 3. Unit for pressure is. Nm -2 or

### Chapter 15. FLUIDS. 15.1. What volume does 0.4 kg of alcohol occupy? What is the weight of this volume? m m 0.4 kg. ρ = = ; ρ = 5.

Chapter 15. FLUIDS Density 15.1. What volume does 0.4 kg of alcohol occupy? What is the weight of this volume? m m 0.4 kg ρ = ; = = ; = 5.06 x 10-4 m ρ 790 kg/m W = D = ρg = 790 kg/m )(9.8 m/s )(5.06 x

### Chapter 14 - Fluids. -Archimedes, On Floating Bodies. David J. Starling Penn State Hazleton PHYS 213. Chapter 14 - Fluids. Objectives (Ch 14)

Any solid lighter than a fluid will, if placed in the fluid, be so far immersed that the weight of the solid will be equal to the weight of the fluid displaced. -Archimedes, On Floating Bodies David J.

### Clicker Questions Chapter 10

Clicker Questions Chapter 10 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Essential College Physics Rex/Wolfson Question 10.1 Density If one material has a higher density than another, does this mean that the molecules

### Name Partner Date Class

Name Partner Date Class FLUIDS Part 1: Archimedes' Principle Equipment: Dial-O-Gram balance, small beaker (150-250ml), metal specimen, string, calipers. Object: To find the density of an object using Archimedes'

### F mg (10.1 kg)(9.80 m/s ) m

Week 9 homework IMPORTANT NOTE ABOUT WEBASSIGN: In the WebAssign versions of these problems, various details have been changed, so that the answers will come out differently. The method to find the solution

### Fluid Mechanics Definitions

Definitions 9-1a1 Fluids Substances in either the liquid or gas phase Cannot support shear Density Mass per unit volume Specific Volume Specific Weight % " = lim g#m ( ' * = +g #V \$0& #V ) Specific Gravity

### Chapter 13 - Solutions

= Chapter 13 - Solutions Description: Find the weight of a cylindrical iron rod given its area and length and the density of iron. Part A On a part-time job you are asked to bring a cylindrical iron rod

### 14-1. Fluids in Motion There are two types of fluid motion called laminar flow and turbulent flow.

Fluid Dynamics Sections Covered in the Text: Chapter 15, except 15.6 To complete our study of fluids we now examine fluids in motion. For the most part the study of fluids in motion was put into an organized

### E 490 Fundamentals of Engineering Review. Fluid Mechanics. M. A. Boles, PhD. Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

E 490 Fundamentals of Engineering Review Fluid Mechanics By M. A. Boles, PhD Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering North Carolina State University Archimedes Principle and Buoyancy 1. A block

### Buoyant Force and Archimedes Principle

Buoyant Force and Archimedes Principle Predict the behavior of fluids as a result of properties including viscosity and density Demonstrate why objects sink or float Apply Archimedes Principle by measuring

### PHYS 1405 Conceptual Physics I Laboratory # 8 Density and Buoyancy. Investigation: How can we identify a substance by figuring out its density?

PHYS 1405 Conceptual Physics I Laboratory # 8 Density and Buoyancy Investigation: How can we identify a substance by figuring out its density? What to measure: Volume, mass. Measuring devices: Calipers,

### Pressure. Pressure is one of those words we frequently use, perhaps knowing intuitively what it means. In science, we define pressure as follows:

Weather reports in the media provide information on variables such as temperature, precipitation and wind speed. In this chapter, we discuss three physical quantities that help determine weather: (1) Temperature,

### Fluid Mechanics. Fluid Statics [3-1] Dr. Mohammad N. Almasri. [3] Fall 2010 Fluid Mechanics Dr. Mohammad N. Almasri [3-1] Fluid Statics

1 Fluid Mechanics Fluid Statics [3-1] Dr. Mohammad N. Almasri Fluid Pressure Fluid pressure is the normal force exerted by the fluid per unit area at some location within the fluid Fluid pressure has the

### Forces. Definition Friction Falling Objects Projectiles Newton s Laws of Motion Momentum Universal Forces Fluid Pressure Hydraulics Buoyancy

Forces Definition Friction Falling Objects Projectiles Newton s Laws of Motion Momentum Universal Forces Fluid Pressure Hydraulics Buoyancy Definition of Force Force = a push or pull that causes a change

### Mercury is poured into a U-tube as in Figure (14.18a). The left arm of the tube has crosssectional

Chapter 14 Fluid Mechanics. Solutions of Selected Problems 14.1 Problem 14.18 (In the text book) Mercury is poured into a U-tube as in Figure (14.18a). The left arm of the tube has crosssectional area

### Grade 8 Science Chapter 9 Notes

Grade 8 Science Chapter 9 Notes Force Force - Anything that causes a change in the motion of an object. - usually a push or a pull. - the unit for force is the Newton (N). Balanced Forces - forces that

### Applied Fluid Mechanics

Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 6. Flow of Fluid and

### Chapter 3. Table of Contents. Chapter 3. Objectives. Chapter 3. Kinetic Theory. Section 1 Matter and Energy. Section 2 Fluids

States of Matter Table of Contents Objectives Summarize the main points of the kinetic theory of matter. Describe how temperature relates to kinetic energy. Describe four common states of matter. List

### Fluids Quiz Science 8

Fluids Quiz Science 8 Introduction to Fluids 1. What are fluids essential for? Industrial Processes 2. What devices use knowledge of fluids? Hydraulic and pneumatic devices and machines A Close-Up Look

### Name Date Class. The Nature of Force and Motion (pages ) 2. When one object pushes or pulls another object, the first object is

CHAPTER 4 MOTION AND FORCES SECTION 4 1 The Nature of Force and Motion (pages 116-121) This section explains how balanced and unbalanced forces are related to the motion of an object. It also explains

### Matter and the Universe. Ancient Views. Modern Views. Periodic Table of Elements. Ernest Rutherford

Matter and the Universe Ancient Views Early atomists believed that matter had a smallest indivisible bit, an atom. Aristotle, the most famous of the early Greek philosophers, didn't agree with the idea

### Concept Questions Archimedes Principle. 8.01t Nov 24, 2004

Concept Questions Archimedes Principle 8.01t Nov 24, 2004 Pascal s Law Pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted undiminished to every portion of the fluid and the walls of the containing vessel

### Three Methods for Calculating the Buoyant Force Gleue: Physics

Three Methods for Calculating the Buoyant Force Gleue: Physics Name Hr. The Buoyant Force (F b ) is the apparent loss of weight for an object submerged in a fluid. For example if you have an object immersed

### 1206 Concepts in Physics. Monday, October 19th

1206 Concepts in Physics Monday, October 19th Notes Problems with webpage over the weekend If this is not fixed by tonight, I will find another way to display the material Either webct or printouts The

### AP2 Fluids. Kinetic Energy (A) stays the same stays the same (B) increases increases (C) stays the same increases (D) increases stays the same

A cart full of water travels horizontally on a frictionless track with initial velocity v. As shown in the diagram, in the back wall of the cart there is a small opening near the bottom of the wall that

### Fluids I. Level : Conceptual Physics/Physics I. Q1) Order the following materials from lowest to greatest according to their densities.

Fluids I Level : Conceptual Physics/Physics I Teacher : Kim 1. Density One of the properties of any substances (solids, liquids and gases) is the measure of how tightly the material is packed together.

### Buoyancy Problem Set

Buoyancy Problem Set 1) A stone weighs 105 lb in air. When submerged in water, it weighs 67.0 lb. Find the volume and specific gravity of the stone. (Specific gravity of an object: ratio object density

### OUTCOME 1 STATIC FLUID SYSTEMS TUTORIAL 1 - HYDROSTATICS

Unit 41: Fluid Mechanics Unit code: T/601/1445 QCF Level: 4 Credit value: 15 OUTCOME 1 STATIC FLUID SYSTEMS TUTORIAL 1 - HYDROSTATICS 1. Be able to determine the behavioural characteristics and parameters

### Section 2 Buoyancy and Density

Section 2 Buoyancy and Density Key Concept Buoyant force and density affect whether an object will float or sink in a fluid. What You Will Learn All fluids exert an upward buoyant force on objects in the

### Name Class Date. F 2 2269 N A 1 88.12 cm 2 A 2 1221 cm 2 Unknown: Step 2: Write the equations for Pascal s principle and pressure, force, and area.

Skills Worksheet Math Skills Pascal s Principle After you study each sample problem and solution, work out the practice problems on a separate sheet of paper. Write your answers in the spaces provided.

### Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle. Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle Assume block is in equilibrium.

Assume block is in equilibrium. Then upward forces must equal downward forces. Upward force: pressure from fluid Downward force: atmospheric pressure plus weight Therefore In this case, the object is less

### Fluids in Motion Supplement I

Fluids in Motion Supplement I Cutnell & Johnson describe a number of different types of flow: Compressible vs incompressible (most liquids are very close to incompressible) Steady vs Unsteady Viscous or

### Physics 103 CQZ1 Solutions and Explanations. 1. All fluids are: A. gases. B. liquids. C. gases or liquids. D. non-metallic. E.

Physics 03 CQZ Solutions and Explanations. All fluids are: A. gases B. liquids C. gases or liquids D. non-metallic E. transparent Matter is classified as solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. Gases adjust volume

### 13.3 Buoyancy. Buoyant Force

The forces from pressure acting on the bottom of this golf ball are greater than those on the top. This produces a net force called the buoyant force that acts upward on the ball. Buoyant Force What is

### Density and Archimedes Principle

Density and Archimedes Principle Objectives: To understand the concept of density and its relationship to various materials. To understand and use Archimedes Principle. Equipment: Dial calipers, Graduated

### The Most General Applications of Bernoulli s Equation

The Most General Applications of Bernoulli s Equation Bởi: OpenStaxCollege Torricelli s Theorem [link] shows water gushing from a large tube through a dam. What is its speed as it emerges? Interestingly,

### Described by Isaac Newton

Described by Isaac Newton States observed relationships between motion and forces 3 statements cover aspects of motion for single objects and for objects interacting with another object An object at rest

### Typhoon Haiyan 1. Force of wind blowing against vertical structure. 2. Destructive Pressure exerted on Buildings

Typhoon Haiyan 1. Force of wind blowing against vertical structure 2. Destructive Pressure exerted on Buildings 3. Atmospheric Pressure variation driving the Typhoon s winds 4. Energy of Typhoon 5. Height

### XI / PHYSICS FLUIDS IN MOTION 11/PA

Viscosity It is the property of a liquid due to which it flows in the form of layers and each layer opposes the motion of its adjacent layer. Cause of viscosity Consider two neighboring liquid layers A

### Archimedes Principle. Biological Systems

Archimedes Principle Introduction Many of the substances we encounter in our every day lives do not have rigid structure or form. Such substances are called fluids and can be divided into two categories:

### Simulating Microgravity with Buoyancy A Space School Lesson Plan

ASTRONAUT TRAINING...UNDERWATER Simulating Microgravity with Buoyancy A Space School Lesson Plan by Bill Andrake, Swampscott Middle School Swampscott, Massachusetts Science Lesson: Buoyancy - Based on

### These slides contain some notes, thoughts about what to study, and some practice problems. The answers to the problems are given in the last slide.

Fluid Mechanics FE Review Carrie (CJ) McClelland, P.E. cmcclell@mines.edu Fluid Mechanics FE Review These slides contain some notes, thoughts about what to study, and some practice problems. The answers

### Section 1 Fluids and Pressure

Section 1 Fluids and Pressure Key Concept Fluid is a nonsolid state of matter. All fluids can flow and exert pressure evenly in all directions. What You Will Learn Pressure is the amount of force exerted

### A. 1 cm 3 /s, in B. 1 cm 3 /s, out C. 10 cm 3 /s, in D. 10 cm 3 /s, out E. It depends on the relative size of the tubes.

The figure shows volume flow rates (in cm 3 /s) for all but one tube. What is the volume flow rate through the unmarked tube? Is the flow direction in or out? A. 1 cm 3 /s, in B. 1 cm 3 /s, out C. 10 cm

### Density and Archimedes Principle

Density and Archimedes Principle Objectives: To understand the concept of density and its relationship to various materials. To understand and use Archimedes Principle. Equipment: Dial calipers, Graduated

### Chapter 27 Static Fluids

Chapter 27 Static Fluids 27.1 Introduction... 1 27.2 Density... 1 27.3 Pressure in a Fluid... 2 27.4 Pascal s Law: Pressure as a Function of Depth in a Fluid of Uniform Density in a Uniform Gravitational

### Gas Properties and Balloons & Buoyancy SI M Homework Answer K ey

Gas Properties and Balloons & Buoyancy SI M Homework Answer K ey 1) In class, we have been discussing how gases behave and how we observe this behavior in our daily lives. In this homework assignment,

### Review Chapter 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16. Conceptual Physics, 10e (Hewitt) Chapter 10

Review Chapter 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 Conceptual Physics, 10e (Hewitt) Chapter 10 23) What prevents satellites such as a space shuttle from falling? A) gravity B) the absence of air drag C) Nothing; they're

### Pressure In A Fluid. GE Define fluid in your own words. 2. Is a liquid a fluid? Is a gas a fluid? Explain your reasoning.

HPP Activity 38v1 Pressure In A Fluid Note that this unit contains the word "fluid" in the title. Let us carry on by examining the relationship between pressure and fluids. Exploration GE 1. 1. Define

### Chapter 15 Fluids (15.1)

When did science begin? Where did it begin? It began whenever and wherever men tried to solve the innumerable problems of life. The first solutions were mere expedients, but that must do for a beginning.

### Practice Problems on Bernoulli s Equation. V car. Answer(s): p p p V. C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 1 of 17 Last Updated: 2010 Sep 15

bernoulli_0 A person holds their hand out of a car window while driving through still air at a speed of V car. What is the maximum pressure on the person s hand? V car 0 max car p p p V C. Wassgren, Purdue

### Buoyant Force and Archimedes' Principle

Buoyant Force and Archimedes' Principle Introduction: Buoyant forces keep Supertankers from sinking and party balloons floating. An object that is more dense than a liquid will sink in that liquid. If

### INTERNATIONAL FIRE TRAINING CENTRE

INTERNATIONAL FIRE TRAINING CENTRE FIREFIGHTER INITIAL HYDRAULICS Throughout this note he means he/she and his means his/hers. Areas In bold type are considered to be of prime importance. INTRODUCTION

### Chapter 14. Fluid Mechanics

Chapter 14 Fluid Mechanics CHAPTER OUTLINE 14.1 Pressure 14.2 Variation of Pressure with Depth 14.3 Pressure Measurements 14.4 Buoyant Forces and Archimedes s Principle 14.5 Fluid Dynamics 14.6 Bernoulli

### Physics 117.3 Tutorial #1 January 14 to 25, 2013

Physics 117.3 Tutorial #1 January 14 to 25, 2013 Rm 130 Physics 8.79. The location of a person s centre of gravity can be determined using the arrangement shown in the figure. A light plank rests on two

### Chapter 3 Student Reading

Chapter 3 Student Reading If you hold a solid piece of lead or iron in your hand, it feels heavy for its size. If you hold the same size piece of balsa wood or plastic, it feels light for its size. The

Name: Class: Date: Exam 4--PHYS 101--F14 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A wheel, initially at rest, rotates with a constant acceleration

### 34 Pascal s Principle, the Continuity Equation, and Bernoulli s Principle

34 Pascal s Principle, the Continuity Equation, and Bernoulli s Principle There are a couple of mistakes that tend to crop up with some regularity in the application of the Bernoulli equation P + rv +

### The Most General Applications of Bernoulli's Equation

OpenStax-CNX module: m42208 1 The Most General Applications of Bernoulli's Equation OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0

### Pascal s Principle. Any change in the pressure of a fluid is transmitted uniformly in all directions throughout the fluid.

Pascal s Principle What happens inside a fluid when pressure is exerted on it? Does pressure have a direction? Does it transmit a force to the walls or bottom of a container? Any change in the pressure

### Density. Part 1: What is Density?

Density Part 1: What is Density? Starter Activity Which is heavier, steel or wood? Density We can use a number to describe how heavy something is for its size. Density is the mass per unit of volume. To

### A1. An object of mass m is projected vertically from the surface of a planet of radius R p and mass M p with an initial speed v i.

OBAFMI AWOLOWO UNIVRSITY, IL-IF, IF, NIGRIA. FACULTY OF SCINC DPARTMNT OF PHYSICS B.Sc. (Physics) Degree xamination PHY GNRAL PHYSICS I TUTORIAL QUSTIONS IN GRAVITATION, FLUIDS AND OSCILLATIONS SCTION

### Higher Technological Institute Civil Engineering Department. Lectures of. Fluid Mechanics. Dr. Amir M. Mobasher

Higher Technological Institute Civil Engineering Department Lectures of Fluid Mechanics Dr. Amir M. Mobasher 1/14/2013 Fluid Mechanics Dr. Amir Mobasher Department of Civil Engineering Faculty of Engineering

### Chapter 9 Statics. Review of Forces: Ex 1. Review of Forces: Ex 2. Two 50 lb. children sit on a see-saw. Will they balance in all three cases?

Two 50 lb. children sit on a see-saw. Will they balance in all three cases? Chapter 9 Statics Review of Forces: Ex 1 A dentist places braces on a person s teeth that exert 2.00 N in each direction as shown.

### Chapter 4: Buoyancy & Stability

Chapter 4: Buoyancy & Stability Learning outcomes By the end of this lesson students should be able to: Understand the concept of buoyancy hence determine the buoyant force exerted by a fluid to a body

### Fluid Dynamics. AP Physics B

Fluid Dynamics AP Physics B Fluid Flow Up till now, we hae pretty much focused on fluids at rest. Now let's look at fluids in motion It is important that you understand that an IDEAL FLUID: Is non iscous

### Viscosity: The Fluids Lab Teacher Version

Viscosity: The Fluids Lab Teacher Version California Science Content Standards: 1. Motion and Forces: Newton's laws predict the motion of most objects. 1b. Students know that when forces are balanced,

### Pressure in Fluids Ans. Ans. Ans. 4. (i) (ii) (iii) Ans. (i)

Pressure in Fluids 1. Derive an expression for pressure in a liquid at a point which is at a depth h units and density of liquid is ρ units. Ans. Consider a point x, at a depth h in a liquid of density

### Unit 2 Energy & States of Matter Part 1 - Objectives

Unit 2 Energy & States of Matter Part 1 - Objectives 1. Relate observations of diffusion to particle motion and collision in the gas and liquid phases. 2. Relate observations regarding the addition of

### ERBIL PLOYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY ERBIL TECHNICAL ENGINEERING COLLEGE. Fluid Mechanics. Lecture 3 - Solved Examples (7 examples) - Home works

ERBIL PLOYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY ERBIL TECHNICAL ENGINEERING COLLEGE Fluid Mechanics Lecture 3 - Solved Examples (7 examples) - Home works By Dr. Fahid Abbas Tofiq 1 Example 1: A plate 0.025 mm distant from

### Pressure. Pressure. Atmospheric pressure. Conceptual example 1: Blood pressure. Pressure is force per unit area:

Pressure Pressure is force per unit area: F P = A Pressure Te direction of te force exerted on an object by a fluid is toward te object and perpendicular to its surface. At a microscopic level, te force

### Applied Fluid Mechanics

Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 7. General Energy Equation

### = 800 kg/m 3 (note that old units cancel out) 4.184 J 1000 g = 4184 J/kg o C

Units and Dimensions Basic properties such as length, mass, time and temperature that can be measured are called dimensions. Any quantity that can be measured has a value and a unit associated with it.

### PHY 171. Homework 9 solutions. (Due by beginning of class on Thursday, March 8, 2012)

PHY 171 Due by beginning of class on Thursday, March 8, 2012 Submit neat work, with answers or solutions clearly marked by the question number. Unstapled, untidy work will be charged a handling fee of

### CHAPTER 2.0 ANSWER B.20.2

CHAPTER 2.0 ANSWER 1. A tank is filled with seawater to a depth of 12 ft. If the specific gravity of seawater is 1.03 and the atmospheric pressure at this location is 14.8 psi, the absolute pressure (psi)

### 25ml graduated. dish soap 100ml graduated cylinders. cylinders. Metric ruler with mm divisions. digital scale

You are challenged to get your film canister to float while filled with the most weight you can. The film canisters will not be capped, so if they go under water at all, they will sink. You want to get

### Basic Fluid Mechanics. Prof. Young I Cho

Basic Fluid Mechanics MEM 220 Prof. Young I Cho Summer 2009 Chapter 1 Introduction What is fluid? Give some examples of fluids. Examples of gases: Examples of liquids: What is fluid mechanics? Mechanics

### Gauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, and Pressure Measurement

Gauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, and Pressure Measurement Bởi: OpenStaxCollege If you limp into a gas station with a nearly flat tire, you will notice the tire gauge on the airline reads nearly zero

### Lesson 2 The Buoyant Force

Lesson 2 Student Labs and Activities Page Launch Lab 26 Content Vocabulary 27 Lesson Outline 28 MiniLab 30 Content Practice A 31 Content Practice B 32 School to Home 33 Key Concept Builders 34 Enrichment

### Tutorial 4. Buoyancy and floatation

Tutorial 4 uoyancy and floatation 1. A rectangular pontoon has a width of 6m, length of 10m and a draught of 2m in fresh water. Calculate (a) weight of pontoon, (b) its draught in seawater of density 1025

### PY1052 Problem Set 10 Autumn 2004 Solutions

PY052 Problem Set 0 Autumn 2004 Solutions () A garden hose with an internal diametre of.9 cm is connected to a nonrotating lawn sprinkler that consists of an enclosure with 24 identical circular holes.

### Problem 1. 12ft. Find: Velocity of truck for both drag situations. Equations: Drag F Weight. For force balance analysis: Lift and Drag: Solution:

Problem 1 Given: Truck traveling down 7% grade Width 10ft m 5 tons 50,000 lb Rolling resistance on concrete 1.% weight C 0.96 without air deflector C 0.70 with air deflector V 100 7 1ft Find: Velocity

### Fluids and Solids: Fundamentals

Fluids and Solids: Fundamentals We normally recognize three states of matter: solid; liquid and gas. However, liquid and gas are both fluids: in contrast to solids they lack the ability to resist deformation.