NANOTECHNOLOGY BACKGROUND

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "NANOTECHNOLOGY BACKGROUND"

Transcription

1 NANOTECHNOLOGY BACKGROUND Introduction and Overview Nanotechnology is defined as the study of the fundamental laws and theories of atoms and structures that have critical dimensions between 1 and 100 nanometers. But why is nanotechnology so unique? Chemists study elements and molecules with dimensions much smaller than nanometers, and chemistry has been around for hundreds of years. Yet here is the crux of the importance and splendor of nanotechnology. Chemists study particles and atoms and molecules that are found throughout nature, yet nanoscientists are able to use the molecules and elements from chemistry and engineer them to form different useful, incredibly small tools. The nanometer is at the conflux of human synthetic ability and natural occurring molecules. Anything that is smaller than a nanometer is just a vagrant molecule or random speck, so structures on the nanoscale are the smallest structures that humans can possibly make. So while it is possible to observe and define materials smaller than a nanometer, it is impossible to fabricate materials any smaller. As we delve deeper and deeper into the mysterious realms of nanotechnology, we find that things are not the same very small as they are on a normal scale. For example, this is a gear constructed on the nanoscale. It is about 425 micrometers small. Not quite on the nanoscale, but it still works. This gear works similarly to a normal gear you see, say perhaps on a bike. It can rotate, spin, drive, or give mechanical advantage. However, the material properties that you worry with a normal gear are quite different then the properties that are prevalent in a micro-scale gear. With macro-size gears forces such as friction, hardness, and heat transfer are all important in considering the design and engineering of the gear. When structures are on the nanoscale, there is so little surface contact between materials that friction and heat transfer are almost non-existent. However, forces that have little effect on the macrogear have a tremendous impact on how the nano-gear works. However, properties such as molecular polarity and wave-particle duality are examples of a few of these. Also, factors such as wind and water contact have little impact on bicycles gears, but can be disastrous to a nanosized gear.

2 The Science behind Nanotechnology Nanotechnology draws from disciplines such as chemistry, physics, mechanics, biology, and material science. It is important to have a basic idea of the concepts behind each of these disciplines. The Atomic Level All describable matter in the universe is comprised of three basic particles: the proton, neutron, and electron. While there are sub-atomic particles (quarks, leptons and the like) protons, neutrons, and electrons represent the simplest particles required to describe matter. Electrons are extremely light particles--electron mass is often disregarded entirely that have a negative charge. Protons are positively charged particles found in the nucleus, or center, of an atom. Neutrons are similar to protons in size but have no charge. Protons and neutrons make up the nucleus of the atom, while electrons orbit the nucleus. When two particles are close to each other, they interact by one of the most fundamental laws of nature know as Coulomb s law. By definition, two charged particles separated by distance r, the force acting between them is given as F=Q 1 Q 2 /r In this case, F is the force that is acting between the particles separated by distance r. The charges on the two particles are Q 1, Q 2. Note that if the two particles are both electrons, then the force will be positive. Positive forces imply that the two particles push away from each other, much like two north ends of a magnet. Likewise, a positively charged proton and a negatively charged electron have a negative force and therefore are attracted to each other. This explains how an atom is held together. Note also that the farther away two particles are (r gets bigger), the smaller the force acting on them. Coulomb s Law helps us explain why particles do what they do, and how atoms are held together. There are a total of 91 naturally occurring elements in our world, and they differ in the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Together in different combinations, they make up all natural matter in our world. The size of natural atoms are essentially the same, with the smallest being.1 nanometer, and the biggest being.22 nanometers. In an uncharged atom, the number of protons equals the number of electrons, thereby making the entire atom s charge neutral. However, often times protons and electrons differ in number, thereby giving the atom a positive or negative charge. For example, if an atom has 3 protons and 4 electrons, it has a net charge of - 1. These charged atoms are called ions, and they play an extremely important role in science. How can 91 different atoms make up the myriad of forms of matter we see every day in our world? The answer is in the structure and combination of the atoms. When two different atoms combine in a fixed structure, the result is called a molecule. There are millions of different atom combinations, and therefore millions of different molecules. Atoms bond to form

3 molecules by a variety of chemical ways. Chemical bonds such as covalent and ionic bonds are a key aspect of nanotechnology. Nanotechnologists can manipulate different molecules and bonds to form a certain desired function or structure. Because this is such a small scale, a chemical bond or reaction just might be the rotating gear or the moving lever that allow nanostructures to function properly. It is these structures that allow for different fabrication techniques, and the most interesting is self-assembly which allows molecule structures to form on their own. The Macroscopic Level Most of the 91 naturally occurring elements like to cluster with their own kind, and this process makes macro structures that contain billions and billions of structures of the same atom. Many of these large structures (relative to the nano scale that is) become hard, shiny, ductile structures called metals. We are all familiar with metals such as aluminum, titanium, gold, copper, silver, and different alloys. The unique aspects of metals are their ability to conduct electricity. This happens because the metals electrons leave their individual atoms and flow freely throughout the metal structure as a whole. Power lines, extension cords, and speaker wires are all examples of this concept. The huge groups of atoms that are not metals are usually lighter such as: graphite, coal, diamonds, and yellow sulfur. These materials are mostly insulators because they do not allow the free flow of electrons. Another two types of materials worth mentioning are polymers and ceramics. The most common polymers are plastics, which we obviously deal with everyday in many different structures and functions. Polymers are extremely long chains of carbon bonded to itself. They can be classified into two categories: crosslinked polymers and amorphous polymers. Crosslinked polymers are polymers that tend to connect to one another in parallel and represent the more rigid structures such as Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC piping); whereas amorphous polymers are polymers that wrap like spaghetti, forming pliable and rubbery materials such as a styrofoam cup. The naturally occurring polymers are substances such as DNA molecules, proteins, and polysaccharides. Polymers generally do not conduct electricity and are commonly used as insulators. Ceramics on the other hand are materials containing oxides, which are materials where there is one extending atom that is oxygen. Examples of ceramics include: clay, sand, firebrick, and a more commonly a toilet. Ceramics are also poor at conducting and are therefore used as insulators (although some ceramics can become superconductors if super-cooled). Biosystems Our bodies are interesting in the fact that they need many different trace elements such as zinc, copper, iodine, manganese, and selenium. However, around 95 percent of our bodies contain the four elements hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements can form many varieties of bond types; therefore nature can use them to make many different nanostructures that carry out the complex processes of life. The polymers made by these natural processes are usually more complex, irregular polymers. There are four large categories of biological molecules: nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and a catchall category which are specialized molecules. Of course proteins and protein variations carry out most of the functions of our life processes; therefore they act as bio-machines. Nucleic acids come in two main types:

4 DNA and RNA. DNA is a well known double-helix structure that is probably the most important part of our bodies because it contains the code that controls all of the functions that are cells carry out every second. DNA contains four different base pairs: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Thymine (abbreviated A, G, C, and T respectively). These bases always form pairs with A and G always pairing together and C and T always pairing together (this property allows for many applications at the nano level as discussed later). The sequence of these pairs makes a readable code that is transported by RNA to the ribosomes within a cell. The ribosome will then make a certain protein that will carry out a certain function to continue the process of life. The next big class of macromolecules in biology is polysaccharides, which are long chains which form sugars. These sugars give the cells the energy they need to perform certain functions, however they have not been found to have a major use in nanotechnology. The fourth large classification is a sort of catchall category. This includes molecules we are all familiar with such as: water, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and nitric oxide. These small molecules perform many functions vital to survival and can have many applications in medical nanotechnology. Molecular Recognition This is where all of the above information comes together, well mostly. Molecules have certain shapes and charges, and this means that the molecules will be made of different numbers of electrons and have different electron masses. Also, Coulomb s law describes the attraction of oppositely charged particles, and this means that molecules have the ability to interact with one another through Coulombic forces. Many of the functions of our bodies are based on molecular recognition such as: allergies, olfactory sense, and pheromones. Molecular recognition is very important as we will learn later because of the ability to build nanostructures from the bottomup. That is using the properties of molecular recognition to allow the molecules to arrange themselves or at least only provide a certain structure or mold that they can follow. Here is a macroscale example, [Insert Analogy] Electrical Conduction This is one of the most interesting fundamentals of nanotechnology. Biologically, all of the processes that take place in our bodies are a result of nerve impulses. These impulses are caused by electrical impulses traveling down a nerve axon and in most cases causing a

5 neurotransmitter to release and a certain function to be performed. These electrical impulses are extremely crucial not only to our bodies, but in our everyday lives. Electrical conductance allows power to be delivered to our houses, cell phones, and any other object that requires energy to work on. As mentioned above, metals are extremely great conductors, most commonly copper. The defining equation for most cases of electricity evaluation is Ohm s Law: V = I*R A common analogy used for this concept is a river. I represents the flow of electrons, or current, and correlates with the flow of water down the river. R represents the resistance to the flow of electrons, or resistance, and correlates with rocks or maybe a dam that resists the flow of water down a river. Then of course V represents the force that moves the current of electrons, or voltage, and correlates with gravity or a pump that pushes the water down a river. This law is obeyed in most common circuits, however there are circuits that do not obey this law. These circuits fall into categories such as superconductors and semiconductors. These are circuit elements in which there is effectively no resistance and allow for maximum power usage and transfer. There are also certain nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes that are found to at least be semiconductors, which lead to exciting and interesting applications for these structures. Quantum Theory Newtonian physics guides the motion and properties of every object that we can see and experience at the macro scale. But there are other laws for governing motion at the nanoscale and below. Atoms and electrons do not act like we normally predict. Electrons have a unique property because they act both like a wave and a particle (wave-particle duality). So the ideas of classical mechanics have been replaced by a newer theory called quantum mechanics. We will not go into the extent of this theory, but we will discuss the main ideas and the important parts as they apply to nanotechnology. First off, at this scale energy cannot be added in a continuous way, it must be added in small chunks referred to as quanta (plural of quantum). For example, to change the charge on an ion, it can only be done one electron unit charge at a time. This theory governs nanoscale properties such as: how small a wire can be and still carry electrical charge, or how much energy we have to put into a molecule before it can change its charge state or act as a memory element. Optics This section describes how light interacts with matter. For example, the large molecule called phthalocyanine, which provides the blue color in jeans, can be changed to give greenish or purplish colors by modifying the chemical or geometric structure of the molecule. Matter can also transfer heat like a black car on a sunny day, or give off light energy like a light bulb or fireworks. Another property worth mentioning is that the smaller the metallic object, the quanta of energy that apply to them become larger.

6 Nanoscience Measuring Tools In order to work at the nano-scale, scientists and engineers must be able to observe and measure what they are working with. There are a variety of different tools which are used to accomplish these goals on the nanoscale. Scanning Probe Instruments: One of the most common forms of measuring nanostructures is using scanning probe instruments. In all scanning probe instruments, a nanoscale sized probe, or tip, slides across the surface to be measured. As the tip slides, different materials exert different forces on the tip, and computer software is able to tell where one material starts and the other stops. Think of running your finger across a metal plate and then across a rough piece of wood, it is quite easy to tell the difference. As the probe moves across the surface, it can measure a number of different forces. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measures the actual physical force of the tip on the surface, much like the finger on the wood. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measures the amount of electrical current between the tip and surface. Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) employs a magnetic tip that reads the magnetic structure of the surface. Spectroscopy: One of the oldest and most general techniques is a concept called spectroscopy. As the name infers, spectroscopy employs light in its measurements. We all have seen examples of a type of spectroscopy in the macro-world. X-ray machines pass extremely high energy light waves through an object and read the resulting scattering of the waves due to different materials. By using different energies of light, nanoscientists can analyze nanostructures. However, spectroscopy does have its drawbacks. Because visible light has a constant wavelength, it is impossible to measure objects that are smaller than that wavelength. Since the visible light wavelength ranges from about 400 nanometers to 900 nanometers, it is difficult to measure objects that are only a few nanometers in size. Because of these limitations, spectroscopy is generally employed in measuring nanostructures as a group. Electrochemistry: The concept of electrochemistry refers to how the application of electric current can change different chemical reactions and processes, and how chemical reactions can generate electric currents. This technique is common in nanofabrication, but can also be useful in nanostructure analysis. Instruments can analyze the different electrochemical properties of different materials in order to measure or observe them.

List the 3 main types of subatomic particles and indicate the mass and electrical charge of each.

List the 3 main types of subatomic particles and indicate the mass and electrical charge of each. Basic Chemistry Why do we study chemistry in a biology course? All living organisms are composed of chemicals. To understand life, we must understand the structure, function, and properties of the chemicals

More information

Chapter 2: The Chemical Context of Life

Chapter 2: The Chemical Context of Life Chapter 2: The Chemical Context of Life Name Period This chapter covers the basics that you may have learned in your chemistry class. Whether your teacher goes over this chapter, or assigns it for you

More information

Matter, Elements, Compounds, Chemical Bonds and Energy

Matter, Elements, Compounds, Chemical Bonds and Energy Science of Kriyayoga IST 111-01, Spring 2005 Matter, Elements, Compounds, Chemical Bonds and Energy In our discussion so far, we have discussed human nervous system and cell biology, in addition to the

More information

18.2 Comparing Atoms. Atomic number. Chapter 18

18.2 Comparing Atoms. Atomic number. Chapter 18 As you know, some substances are made up of only one kind of atom and these substances are called elements. You already know something about a number of elements you ve heard of hydrogen, helium, silver,

More information

EXPERIMENT 4: Electron Configuration of elements

EXPERIMENT 4: Electron Configuration of elements Material: laboratory display of the elements and a wall periodic table is required. Objective: To learn the use of periodic table for writing electron configuration of elements. INTRODUCTION Basic building

More information

Basic chemistry for A level Biology

Basic chemistry for A level Biology Basic chemistry for A level Biology Make a list of the missing words from the text please. Chose from this list; MISSING WORDS Neutrons, arrangement, carbon-14, charge, weak, alkaline, covalently, number,

More information

- smallest particle of matter that has all its chemical properties

- smallest particle of matter that has all its chemical properties Atom- - smallest particle of matter that has all its chemical properties -Atoms are made up of 3 smaller particles. These smaller particles are: protons particle with a positive charge located in the nucleus

More information

Guided Reading Activities

Guided Reading Activities Name Period Chapter 2: The Chemical Basis of Life Guided Reading Activities Big idea: Elements, atom, and compounds Answer the following questions as you read modules 2.1 2.4: 1. Match the following terms

More information

2.5 The Modern View of Atomic Structure: An Introduction

2.5 The Modern View of Atomic Structure: An Introduction 2.5 The Modern View of Atomic Structure: An Introduction Figure 2.13 a & b (a) Expected Results of the Metal Foil Experiment if Thomson's Model Were Correct (b) Actual Results Copyright Houghton Mifflin

More information

After completing this chapter, the student will be able to:

After completing this chapter, the student will be able to: Fundamentals of Electricity OBJECTVES After completing this chapter, the student will be able to: Define atom, matter, element, and molecule. List the parts of an atom. Define the valence shell of an atom.

More information

Benchmark Study Guide Biology Fall Unit 1: Scientific Method. Independent Variable. Dependent Variable. Control. Constant

Benchmark Study Guide Biology Fall Unit 1: Scientific Method. Independent Variable. Dependent Variable. Control. Constant Benchmark Study Guide Biology Fall 2016 Name: Unit 1: Scientific Method Term Definition Independent Variable Dependent Variable Control Constant 1. Holly wants to know which plant food is the best for

More information

Coulomb s Law. F = k q 1q 2. k = x 10 9 N m 2 /C 2

Coulomb s Law. F = k q 1q 2. k = x 10 9 N m 2 /C 2 Electricity Electricityisaforcemuchlikegravitybutmillionsoftimemorepowerful. Unlike gravity, electricity can be attractive and repulsive. There are two types of electric charge which are labeled positive

More information

7.4. Using the Bohr Theory KNOW? Using the Bohr Theory to Describe Atoms and Ions

7.4. Using the Bohr Theory KNOW? Using the Bohr Theory to Describe Atoms and Ions 7.4 Using the Bohr Theory LEARNING TIP Models such as Figures 1 to 4, on pages 218 and 219, help you visualize scientific explanations. As you examine Figures 1 to 4, look back and forth between the diagrams

More information

Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules & Life

Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules & Life Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules & Life What Are Atoms? An atom are the smallest unit of matter. Atoms are composed of Electrons = negatively charged particles. Neutrons = particles with no charge (neutral).

More information

Name Class Date. What is ionic bonding? What happens to atoms that gain or lose electrons? What kinds of solids are formed from ionic bonds?

Name Class Date. What is ionic bonding? What happens to atoms that gain or lose electrons? What kinds of solids are formed from ionic bonds? CHAPTER 1 2 Ionic Bonds SECTION Chemical Bonding BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is ionic bonding? What happens to atoms that gain or lose

More information

Q1. Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, mainly alkanes. The number of carbon atoms in the molecules ranges from 1 to over 100.

Q1. Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, mainly alkanes. The number of carbon atoms in the molecules ranges from 1 to over 100. Q. Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, mainly alkanes. The number of carbon atoms in the molecules ranges from to over 00. (a) How does the boiling point change as the number of carbon atoms

More information

Coulomb's Law. Two like charges of 1 Coulomb placed 1 meter apart repel each other with a force of 9 x 10 9 Newtons

Coulomb's Law. Two like charges of 1 Coulomb placed 1 meter apart repel each other with a force of 9 x 10 9 Newtons Electricity Electricity is a force much like gravity but many times more powerful. Unlike gravity, electrical forces can be attractive or repulsive. Gravity has only one type of mass. Electricity has two

More information

Unit 1 Building Blocks

Unit 1 Building Blocks Unit 1 Building Blocks a) Substances (i) Elements Everything in the world is made from about 100 elements. Each element has a name and a symbol. Elements are classified in different ways, including naturallyoccurring/made

More information

Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete each sentence. 11. Ammonia can be reacted with an acid to produce the salt ammonium nitrate.

Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete each sentence. 11. Ammonia can be reacted with an acid to produce the salt ammonium nitrate. Q. This question is about salts of ammonia and salts of lead. (a) Ammonia dissolves in water to make an alkaline solution. Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete each sentence. The ph of a solution

More information

Atomic Structure: Chapter Problems

Atomic Structure: Chapter Problems Atomic Structure: Chapter Problems Bohr Model Class Work 1. Describe the nuclear model of the atom. 2. Explain the problems with the nuclear model of the atom. 3. According to Niels Bohr, what does n stand

More information

Welcome to the World of Chemistry

Welcome to the World of Chemistry Welcome to the World of Chemistry The Language of Chemistry CHEMICAL ELEMENTS - pure substances that cannot be decomposed by ordinary means to other substances. Aluminum Bromine Sodium The Language of

More information

Principles of Imaging Science I (RAD119) Physical Environment Classifications. Atomic Structure. Matter

Principles of Imaging Science I (RAD119) Physical Environment Classifications. Atomic Structure. Matter Principles of Imaging Science I (RAD119) Atomic Structure Atomic Structure & Matter In radiography, it is important to understand the structure of matter and the fundamentals of electromagnetic radiation

More information

Structure of Metals 110

Structure of Metals 110 Structure of Metals 110 Welcome to the Tooling University. This course is designed to be used in conjunction with the online version of this class. The online version can be found at http://www.toolingu.com.

More information

Atomic Number. Electron Arrangement. Chemical Symbol. Element Name. Atomic Mass

Atomic Number. Electron Arrangement. Chemical Symbol. Element Name. Atomic Mass Atom and Periodic Table Notes 6 C Carbon 12 2 4 Atomic Number Electron Arrangement Chemical Symbol Element Name Atomic Mass A. Element Key Information about elements are listed on the periodic table. This

More information

Section 3 Covalent and Metallic Bonds

Section 3 Covalent and Metallic Bonds Section 3 Covalent and Metallic Bonds Key Concept Covalent bonds form when atoms share electrons. Metallic bonds form by the attraction of metal ions and the electrons around them. What You Will Learn

More information

Building Macromolecules

Building Macromolecules Building Macromolecules NGSSS: SC.A.912.L.18.1 Describe the basic molecular structures and primary functions of the four major categories of biological macromolecules. (AA) Background: Biological macromolecules

More information

The Periodic Table of Elements

The Periodic Table of Elements The Periodic Table of Elements The periodic table of elements exhibits many types of symmetry which we will try to understand better through careful consideration of examples. First, a word about the structure

More information

Science Standard Articulated by Grade Level Strand 5: Physical Science

Science Standard Articulated by Grade Level Strand 5: Physical Science Concept 1: Properties of Objects and Materials Classify objects and materials by their observable properties. Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 PO 1. Identify the following observable properties

More information

Name Class Date ELECTRONS AND THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS

Name Class Date ELECTRONS AND THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS Name Class Date The Periodic Table ELECTRONS AND THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS 6.1 Organizing the Elements Essential Understanding Although Dmitri Mendeleev is often credited as the father of the periodic table,

More information

ATOMS AND BONDS. Bonds

ATOMS AND BONDS. Bonds ATOMS AND BONDS Atoms of elements are the simplest units of organization in the natural world. Atoms consist of protons (positive charge), neutrons (neutral charge) and electrons (negative charge). The

More information

Atoms. Chemistry 100. Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell. Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry Chapter 2

Atoms. Chemistry 100. Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell. Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry Chapter 2 Chemistry 100 Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell Ninth Edition Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry Chapter 2 Atoms Classifications of Matter: Elements An Element is a substance (for example,

More information

Chapter 2 - Chemical Foundations

Chapter 2 - Chemical Foundations Chapter 2 - Chemical Foundations I. Introduction By weight, cells are about 70% water, about 1% ions, about 6% small organic molecules (including amino acids, sugars, nucleotides), and about 23% macromolecules.

More information

Atoms Atom smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Each element has a distinct atom based on structure.

Atoms Atom smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Each element has a distinct atom based on structure. Atoms Atom smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Each element has a distinct atom based on structure. Nucleus- positively charged contains protons (p+), neutrons(n0),

More information

ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS General Electricity is a form of energy called electrical energy. It is sometimes called an "unseen" force because the energy itself cannot be seen, heard, touched, or smelled. However, the effects of

More information

Properties of Objects. Quantization of Charge. Conservation of Charge. Conductors, Insulators and Semiconductors. How to Put Charge on an Object

Properties of Objects. Quantization of Charge. Conservation of Charge. Conductors, Insulators and Semiconductors. How to Put Charge on an Object Properties of Objects Fundamental Particles Atoms and Ions Quantization of Conservation of Conductors, Insulators and Semiconductors Polarization How to Put on an Object 1 Physical Properties That which

More information

AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 2 WORKSHEET

AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 2 WORKSHEET Name Date _ AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 2 WORKSHEET MULTIPLE CHOICE. 25 pts. Place the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question in the blank.. 1. About 25 of the 92 natural

More information

305 ATOMS, ELEMENTS, AND MINERALS

305 ATOMS, ELEMENTS, AND MINERALS DATE DUE: Name: Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 ATOMS, ELEMENTS, AND MINERALS Instructions: Read each question carefully before selecting the BEST answer. Use GEOLOGIC VOCABULARY where APPLICABLE!

More information

Investigating Electrical Energy Workshop. QUT Extreme Engineering

Investigating Electrical Energy Workshop. QUT Extreme Engineering Investigating Electrical Energy Workshop QUT Extreme Engineering Investigating Electrical Energy Introduction This workshop is designed for grades 6-7, to give them some hands-on experience in building

More information

Ion Formation Grade Nine

Ion Formation Grade Nine Ohio Standards Connection: Physical Sciences Benchmark A Describe that matter is made of minute particles called atoms and atoms are comprised of even smaller components. Explain the structure and properties

More information

Complete tests for CO 2 and H 2 Link observations of acid reactions to species

Complete tests for CO 2 and H 2 Link observations of acid reactions to species Acids and Bases 1. Name common acids and bases found at home and at school 2. Use formulae for common acids and bases 3. Give examples of the uses of acids and bases 4. State that all solutions are acidic,

More information

(Almost) Everything You NEED in Chemistry

(Almost) Everything You NEED in Chemistry (Almost) Everything You NEED in Chemistry An atom consists of a central portion, the NUCLEUS (made up of Protons and Neutrons) and Electrons which are found outside the nucleus. An uncharged atom has an

More information

Chapter Outline. 3 Elements and Compounds. Elements and Atoms. Elements. Elements. Elements 9/4/2013

Chapter Outline. 3 Elements and Compounds. Elements and Atoms. Elements. Elements. Elements 9/4/2013 3 Elements and Compounds Chapter Outline 3.1 Elements A. Distribution of Elements Foundations of College Chemistry, 14 th Ed. Morris Hein and Susan Arena Copyright This reclining Buddha in Thailand is

More information

Unit 5 Lesson 4 Ionic, Covalent, and Metallic Bonding. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 5 Lesson 4 Ionic, Covalent, and Metallic Bonding. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Opposites Attract What is an ion? An atom has a neutral charge because it has an equal number of electrons and protons. An ion is a particle with a positive or negative charge. An ion forms when an atom

More information

Chemical Building Blocks: Chapter 3: Elements and Periodic Table

Chemical Building Blocks: Chapter 3: Elements and Periodic Table Name: Class: Date: Chemical Building Blocks: Chapter 3: Elements and Periodic Table Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

More information

DNA is found in all organisms from the smallest bacteria to humans. DNA has the same composition and structure in all organisms!

DNA is found in all organisms from the smallest bacteria to humans. DNA has the same composition and structure in all organisms! Biological Sciences Initiative HHMI DNA omponents and Structure Introduction Nucleic acids are molecules that are essential to, and characteristic of, life on Earth. There are two basic types of nucleic

More information

PS-6.2 Explain the factors that determine potential and kinetic energy and the transformation of one to the other.

PS-6.2 Explain the factors that determine potential and kinetic energy and the transformation of one to the other. PS-6.1 Explain how the law of conservation of energy applies to the transformation of various forms of energy (including mechanical energy, electrical energy, chemical energy, light energy, sound energy,

More information

Chapter 17 Study Questions Name: Class:

Chapter 17 Study Questions Name: Class: Chapter 17 Study Questions Name: Class: Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. If two charges repel each other, the two charges

More information

Introduction to materials science and engineering. structures and properties of materials. Materials Engineering

Introduction to materials science and engineering. structures and properties of materials. Materials Engineering .Materials Science o The discipline of investigating the relationships that exist between the structures and properties of materials. Materials Engineering o The discipline of designing or engineering

More information

Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End!

Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End! Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End! General Chemical Principles 1. bonds are characterized by the sharing of electrons between the participating atoms. a. hydrogen b.

More information

The Periodic Table elements Dimitri Mendeleev increasing atomic mass periodically Henry Moseley increasing atomic number

The Periodic Table elements Dimitri Mendeleev increasing atomic mass periodically Henry Moseley increasing atomic number 1 The Periodic Table Scientists had identified certain substances as elements and so there were many attempts to arrange the known elements so that there were some correlations between their known properties.

More information

2. Does the following diagram represent a chemical or physical change? How do you know?

2. Does the following diagram represent a chemical or physical change? How do you know? hem 150 Answers Problem set 1 1. Which of the following figures represents? a) A pure element b) A mixture of two elements c) A pure compound d) A mixture of an element and a compound i and v: pure element;

More information

Physical Science EOCT Practice Part I. Milton High School

Physical Science EOCT Practice Part I. Milton High School Physical Science EOCT Practice Part I Milton High School The diagram shows different types of electromagnetic waves and their relative frequencies and wavelengths. Which of the following conclusions is

More information

Topic 3 National Chemistry Summary Notes. Bonding, Structure and Properties of Substances. Covalent Bonds

Topic 3 National Chemistry Summary Notes. Bonding, Structure and Properties of Substances. Covalent Bonds Topic 3 National Chemistry Summary Notes Bonding, Structure and Properties of Substances LI 1 Covalent Bonds Most atoms do not exist as single atoms. They are mainly found combined with other atoms in

More information

Atoms, Molecules, Formulas, and Subatomic Particles

Atoms, Molecules, Formulas, and Subatomic Particles Introduction to Chemistry Chapter 5 1 Atoms, Molecules, Formulas, and Subatomic Particles The Atom: The smallest particle of an element that can exist and still have the properties of the element building

More information

Unit 6 Particles with Internal Structure 3-1

Unit 6 Particles with Internal Structure 3-1 Unit 6 Particles with Internal Structure 3-1 The Elements Remember, elements are combined to form molecules the way letters are combined to form words. Presently there are about 115 known elements. Only

More information

Q1. The chart shows the processes involved in the manufacture of nitric acid from ammonia.

Q1. The chart shows the processes involved in the manufacture of nitric acid from ammonia. Chemistry C2 Foundation and Higher Questions Q1. The chart shows the processes involved in the manufacture of nitric acid from ammonia. (a) Complete the word equation for the reaction that takes place

More information

CHAPTER 3: MATTER. Active Learning Questions: 1-6, 9, 13-14; End-of-Chapter Questions: 1-18, 20, 24-32, 38-42, 44, 49-52, 55-56, 61-64

CHAPTER 3: MATTER. Active Learning Questions: 1-6, 9, 13-14; End-of-Chapter Questions: 1-18, 20, 24-32, 38-42, 44, 49-52, 55-56, 61-64 CHAPTER 3: MATTER Active Learning Questions: 1-6, 9, 13-14; End-of-Chapter Questions: 1-18, 20, 24-32, 38-42, 44, 49-52, 55-56, 61-64 3.1 MATTER Matter: Anything that has mass and occupies volume We study

More information

Molecular Models in Biology

Molecular Models in Biology Molecular Models in Biology Objectives: After this lab a student will be able to: 1) Understand the properties of atoms that give rise to bonds. 2) Understand how and why atoms form ions. 3) Model covalent,

More information

IPS Unit 8 Periodic Table Review Worksheet

IPS Unit 8 Periodic Table Review Worksheet Name: Period: IPS Unit 8 Periodic Table Review Worksheet Directions: Use the terms below to correctly complete the statements. Write the terms in the blanks to the left. Then find and circle each term

More information

SCIENCE Chemistry Standard: Physical Science

SCIENCE Chemistry Standard: Physical Science Standard: Physical Science Nature of Matter A. Describe that matter is made of minute particles called atoms and atoms are comprised of even smaller components. Explain the structure and properties of

More information

Name Date Class THE PERIODIC TABLE. SECTION 6.1 ORGANIZING THE ELEMENTS (pages )

Name Date Class THE PERIODIC TABLE. SECTION 6.1 ORGANIZING THE ELEMENTS (pages ) 6 THE PERIODIC TABLE SECTION 6.1 ORGANIZING THE ELEMENTS (pages 155 160) This section describes the development of the periodic table and explains the periodic law. It also describes the classification

More information

1. Which of the following correctly organizes genetic material from the broadest category to the most specific category?

1. Which of the following correctly organizes genetic material from the broadest category to the most specific category? DNA and Genetics 1. Which of the following correctly organizes genetic material from the broadest category to the most specific category? A. genome chromosome gene DNA molecule B. genome chromosome DNA

More information

Test Bank - Chapter 4 Multiple Choice

Test Bank - Chapter 4 Multiple Choice Test Bank - Chapter 4 The questions in the test bank cover the concepts from the lessons in Chapter 4. Select questions from any of the categories that match the content you covered with students. The

More information

Modeling Molecules KEY CONCEPTS AND PROCESS SKILLS KEY VOCABULARY ACTIVITY OVERVIEW M OD E L I N G B-57

Modeling Molecules KEY CONCEPTS AND PROCESS SKILLS KEY VOCABULARY ACTIVITY OVERVIEW M OD E L I N G B-57 Modeling Molecules 40- to 2 50-minute sessions ACTIVITY OVERVIEW 17 M OD E L I N G Students continue their exploration of the organization of atoms and molecules as they use models to investigate atoms,

More information

Covalent Bonding. How Covalent Bonds Form

Covalent Bonding. How Covalent Bonds Form Covalent Bonding 1 Covalent Bonding How Covalent Bonds Form Just as you and your friend can work together by sharing your talents, atoms can become more stable by sharing electrons. The chemical bond formed

More information

THIRD GRADE CHEMISTRY 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

THIRD GRADE CHEMISTRY 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES THIRD GRADE CHEMISTRY 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES ROCK CYCLE OVERVIEW OF THIRD GRADE CHEMISTRY WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing elements of the periodic table. LAB: Discovering properties of compounds. POST:

More information

Biology. Based on the principles of chemistry and physics All living organisms are a collection of atoms and molecules

Biology. Based on the principles of chemistry and physics All living organisms are a collection of atoms and molecules Biology Based on the principles of chemistry and physics All living organisms are a collection of atoms and molecules 1 Atoms Smallest functional units of matter that form all chemical substances Cannot

More information

KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER

KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER The kinetic-molecular theory is based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion. The theory can be used to explain the properties of solids, liquids,

More information

During photosynthesis, plants use light energy (sunlight) from the sun, carbon dioxide (CO 2. ) and water (H 2

During photosynthesis, plants use light energy (sunlight) from the sun, carbon dioxide (CO 2. ) and water (H 2 Scientist Guide The Spice of Life Introduction Plants make the oxygen we breathe and the food we consume. They do this through a process known as photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the single most important

More information

1. In most animal cells, a complex network of proteins provides which of the following?

1. In most animal cells, a complex network of proteins provides which of the following? Organic Molecules and Water 1. In most animal cells, a complex network of proteins provides which of the following? A. organization B. shape C. movement D. all of these 2. Technology Enhanced Questions

More information

21.1 Coulomb s Law - Electric Charge - Conductors and Insulators - Coulomb s law 21.2 Charge is quantized 21.3* Charge is conserved

21.1 Coulomb s Law - Electric Charge - Conductors and Insulators - Coulomb s law 21.2 Charge is quantized 21.3* Charge is conserved INTRODUCTION We will understand how electric and magnetic fields affect charged particles Lorentz Force Law: we will learn to describe how electric and magnetic fields are produced by charged particles

More information

How many atoms are in an ammonia molecule?... (1) The diagrams show the electron arrangement in nitrogen and hydrogen.

How many atoms are in an ammonia molecule?... (1) The diagrams show the electron arrangement in nitrogen and hydrogen. Q1. (a) The diagram represents an atom of nitrogen. Label the diagram. (3) (b) Ammonia has the formula NH 3. It is made from nitrogen and hydrogen. How many atoms are in an ammonia molecule?... (c) The

More information

The Molecules of Cells

The Molecules of Cells The Molecules of Cells Chapter 2 Introduction: Who Tends This Garden? Chemicals are the stuff that make up our bodies and those of other organisms They make up the physical environment as well The ordering

More information

Lesson Plan for Introduction to Electricity

Lesson Plan for Introduction to Electricity Lesson Plan for Introduction to Electricity Last Updated: 01/16/2009 Updated by: Science For Kids Electricity Lesson 1 Table of Contents Lesson Summary... 3 Lesson Information... 4 Activity Descriptions

More information

Matter, Materials, Crystal Structure and Bonding. Chris J. Pickard

Matter, Materials, Crystal Structure and Bonding. Chris J. Pickard Matter, Materials, Crystal Structure and Bonding Chris J. Pickard Why should a theorist care? Where the atoms are determines what they do Where the atoms can be determines what we can do Overview of Structure

More information

Chapter 2. The Chemistry of Life Worksheets

Chapter 2. The Chemistry of Life Worksheets Chapter 2 The Chemistry of Life Worksheets (Opening image courtesy of David Iberri, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/file:camkii.png, and under the Creative Commons license CC-BY-SA 3.0.) Lesson 2.1: Matter

More information

Atoms and the Periodic Table. Chemistry Models. Real Investigations in Science and Engineering

Atoms and the Periodic Table. Chemistry Models. Real Investigations in Science and Engineering Atoms and the Periodic Table Chemistry Models Real Investigations in Science and Engineering A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 Overview Chart for Investigations Chemistry Models Investigation Key Question Summary Learning

More information

What Makes A Good Conductor?

What Makes A Good Conductor? CHEMISTRY EXPERIMENTS ON FILE TM EXPLORING PATTERNS IN CHEMISTRY 4.08 1 What Makes A Good Conductor? Topic Chemical bonding Introduction An electrical current is the free movement of electrons. If a material

More information

Objectives. PAM1014 Introduction to Radiation Physics. Constituents of Atoms. Atoms. Atoms. Atoms. Basic Atomic Theory

Objectives. PAM1014 Introduction to Radiation Physics. Constituents of Atoms. Atoms. Atoms. Atoms. Basic Atomic Theory PAM1014 Introduction to Radiation Physics Basic Atomic Theory Objectives Introduce and Molecules The periodic Table Electronic Energy Levels Atomic excitation & de-excitation Ionisation Molecules Constituents

More information

Chemical bonds between atoms involve electrons.

Chemical bonds between atoms involve electrons. Chapter 6, Section 2 Key Concept: Chemical bonds hold compounds together. BEFORE, you learned Elements combine to form compounds Electrons are located in a cloud around the nucleus Atoms can lose or gain

More information

Chapter 5. Electrical Energy

Chapter 5. Electrical Energy Chapter 5 Electrical Energy Our modern technological society is largely defined by our widespread use of electrical energy. Electricity provides us with light, heat, refrigeration, communication, elevators,

More information

2. John Dalton did his research work in which of the following countries? a. France b. Greece c. Russia d. England

2. John Dalton did his research work in which of the following countries? a. France b. Greece c. Russia d. England CHAPTER 3 1. Which combination of individual and contribution is not correct? a. Antoine Lavoisier - clarified confusion over cause of burning b. John Dalton - proposed atomic theory c. Marie Curie - discovered

More information

Nanoscience Course Descriptions

Nanoscience Course Descriptions Nanoscience Course Descriptions NANO*1000 Introduction to Nanoscience This course introduces students to the emerging field of nanoscience. Its representation in popular culture and journalism will be

More information

The content is based on the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) standards and is aligned with state standards.

The content is based on the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) standards and is aligned with state standards. Literacy Advantage Physical Science Physical Science Literacy Advantage offers a tightly focused curriculum designed to address fundamental concepts such as the nature and structure of matter, the characteristics

More information

AP Chemistry Summer Work

AP Chemistry Summer Work AP Chemistry Summer Work 2016-2017 Welcome to AP Chemistry! This rigorous course will prepare you for the AP Chemistry test currently scheduled for May 1 st, 2017. Throughout the scope of this course we

More information

Trends of the Periodic Table Diary

Trends of the Periodic Table Diary Trends of the Periodic Table Diary Trends are patterns of behaviors that atoms on the periodic table of elements follow. Trends hold true most of the time, but there are exceptions, or blips, where the

More information

Cutting It Down to Nano

Cutting It Down to Nano Cutting It Down to Nano Organization: University of Wisconsin-Madison Materials Research Science and Engineering Center Contact person: Kim Duncan and Greta Zenner Contact information: kaduncan@wisc.edu

More information

Organic Molecules of Life - Exercise 2

Organic Molecules of Life - Exercise 2 Organic Molecules of Life - Exercise 2 Objectives -Know the difference between a reducing sugar and a non-reducing sugar. -Distinguish Monosaccharides from Disaccharides and Polysaccharides -Understand

More information

MAL 201E: Materials Science. COURSE MATERIALS (with text) GRADING 25.09.2012 COURSE SCHEDULE

MAL 201E: Materials Science. COURSE MATERIALS (with text) GRADING 25.09.2012 COURSE SCHEDULE MAL 201E: Materials Science Course Objective... Introduce fundamental concepts in Materials Science You will learn about: material structure how structure dictates properties how processing can change

More information

Name Pre-Test : Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table

Name Pre-Test : Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table 1 Pre-Test : Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table Directions: Circle the letter to indicate whether the following statements are either true ( T ) or false ( F ). 1. Atomic structure refers to the building

More information

Electro - Principles I

Electro - Principles I Electro - Principles I Atomic Theory Atomic Theory Page It is our intention here to handle atomic theory in a very light manner. Some knowledge is required in order to understand the characteristics of

More information

phys4.17 Page 1 - under normal conditions (pressure, temperature) graphite is the stable phase of crystalline carbon

phys4.17 Page 1 - under normal conditions (pressure, temperature) graphite is the stable phase of crystalline carbon Covalent Crystals - covalent bonding by shared electrons in common orbitals (as in molecules) - covalent bonds lead to the strongest bound crystals, e.g. diamond in the tetrahedral structure determined

More information

Chapter 2 The Molecules of Cells

Chapter 2 The Molecules of Cells Chemistry is the science dealing with the properties & the transformations (chemical reactions) of all forms of matter Matter is any substance: solid, liquid, gas, plasma All matter is composed of elements

More information

Power to Go SCIENCE TOPICS PROCESS SKILLS VOCABULARY

Power to Go SCIENCE TOPICS PROCESS SKILLS VOCABULARY SIDE DISPLAY Power to Go Visitors observe an electrochemical cell constructed from a small jar containing zinc and copper strips immersed in separate solutions. The strips are connected to a motor that

More information

Test Bank - Chapter 5 Multiple Choice

Test Bank - Chapter 5 Multiple Choice Test Bank - Chapter 5 The questions in the test bank cover the concepts from the lessons in Chapter 5. Select questions from any of the categories that match the content you covered with students. The

More information

Pure water is non-conducting. Gas discharges. Current flow of electric charge. L 26 Electricity and Magnetism [3] A salt water solution is a conductor

Pure water is non-conducting. Gas discharges. Current flow of electric charge. L 26 Electricity and Magnetism [3] A salt water solution is a conductor L 26 Electricity and Magnetism [3] Electric circuits what conducts electricity what doesn t conduct electricity Current voltage and resistance Ohm s Law Heat in a resistor power loss Making simple circuit

More information

Chapter 2 The Chemical Context of Life

Chapter 2 The Chemical Context of Life Chapter 2 The Chemical Context of Life Multiple-Choice Questions 1) About 25 of the 92 natural elements are known to be essential to life. Which four of these 25 elements make up approximately 96% of living

More information

Untitled Document. 1. Which of the following best describes an atom? 4. Which statement best describes the density of an atom s nucleus?

Untitled Document. 1. Which of the following best describes an atom? 4. Which statement best describes the density of an atom s nucleus? Name: Date: 1. Which of the following best describes an atom? A. protons and electrons grouped together in a random pattern B. protons and electrons grouped together in an alternating pattern C. a core

More information

Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education

Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education *0123456789* CHEMISTRY 0620/03 Paper 3 Theory (Core) For Examination from 2016 SPECIMEN PAPER 1 hour

More information

Elements in the periodic table are indicated by SYMBOLS. To the left of the symbol we find the atomic mass (A) at the upper corner, and the atomic num

Elements in the periodic table are indicated by SYMBOLS. To the left of the symbol we find the atomic mass (A) at the upper corner, and the atomic num . ATOMIC STRUCTURE FUNDAMENTALS LEARNING OBJECTIVES To review the basics concepts of atomic structure that have direct relevance to the fundamental concepts of organic chemistry. This material is essential

More information