EFFECTS OF ACIDIC CURING ON THE PROPERTIES OF UNTREATED AND TREATED POLYESTER FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE

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1 International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 3, May June 2016, pp , Article ID: IJCIET_07_03_018 Available online at Journal Impact Factor (2016): (Calculated by GISI) ISSN Print: and ISSN Online: IAEME Publication EFFECTS OF ACIDIC CURING ON THE PROPERTIES OF UNTREATED AND TREATED POLYESTER FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE Sonu Pal M.Tech scholar, Structural Engineering, B.I.T. Sindri, Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India M.K.Mishra Assistant Professor, Department of Chemistry, B.I.T. Sindri, Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India V. Pandey H.O.D, Department of Civil Engineering, B.I.T. Sindri, Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India ABSTRACT This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation carried out to study the effect of acidic water on fibre reinforced concrete. The acidic water was prepared by using concentrated Hydrochloric acid in deionised water. The Fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC) samples were cured in normal water and acidic water for 56 days. The concrete samples were studied for Compressive, split tensile and flexural. The untreated & treated polyester fibre was added 0%, 0.20%, 0.25% & 0.30% by weight of cement in M 25 grade of concrete. A comparison has been done between normal water curing and acidic curing of fibre reinforced concrete. Key words: Polyester Fibre, Compressive Strength, Split Tensile Strength, Flexural Strength, Acidic Water, Acidic Curing Environment Cite this Article: Sonu Pal, M.K.Mishra and V. Pandey, Effects of Acidic Curing on The Properties of Untreated and Treated Polyester Fibre Reinforced Concrete, International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 7(3), 2016, pp

2 Effects of Acidic Curing on The Properties of Untreated and Treated Polyester Fibre Reinforced Concrete INTRODUCTION In conventional concrete, micro-cracks develop before structure is loaded because of drying shrinkage and other causes of volume change. When the structure is loaded, the micro cracks open up and propagate because of development of such microcracks, results in inelastic deformation in concrete. Fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC) is concrete containing fibrous material which increases its structural integrity. It contains short discrete fibers that are uniformly distributed and randomly oriented. Fibers include steel fibers, glass fibers, synthetic fibers and natural fibers. In the FRC, a numbers of small fibres are dispersed and distributed randomly in the concrete at the time of mixing, and thus improve concrete properties in all directions. The fibers help to transfer load to the internal micro cracks. Concrete structures made of steel reinforced concrete normally suffer from corrosion of the steel by the salt, which results in the failure of those structures. Constant maintenance and repairing is needed to enhance the life cycle of those civil structures. There are many ways to minimize the failure of the concrete structures made of steel reinforce concrete. The custom approach is to adhesively bond polymer fiber composites is to the structure. This also helps to increase the toughness and tensile and improve the cracking and deformation characteristics of the resultant composite. The dispersion of PET fibre in concrete is not uniform, it creates the homogeneity problems. So, the PET is treated by alkaline solution for better dispersion in concrete. Climate change may manifest itself as typical harmful conditions like global warming and acid rain. The influence of acid rain on the environment can be seen to affect the durability of concrete structures.[1-5] This study specifically addresses a method to estimate the deterioration of of concrete structures under a severe acid environment MATERIALS AND METHODS Materials Used: Details are presented in table below Name of the Cement Material PET Distilled water Sodium hydroxide Hydrochloric acid Table I Details of material used Source of the materials PSC manufactured by ACC Recron 3s polyester fjbre manufactured by Reliance Industries Limited Sai Enterprises, Sindri, Dhanbad Sodium hydroxide pellets purified, E. Merck India Limited Ranken HCl, Manufactured by RFCL Limited METHODS Treatment of polyester fibre and addition of fibre Following steps were carried out for the treatment of fibre Preparation of 2% NaOH solution (by weight)- 2% NaOH solution was prepared by dissolving 2gm of NaOH in 20-30ml (approx.) of distilled water and make up the volume of 100 ml. Fibres were immersed in 2% NaOH solution for 24 hours. The alkaline treated fibres were subsequently washed 2 to 3 time using distilled water until no alkali was present in the wash. Then after washed fibre was oven dried at a temperature of o C for 2-3 hours

3 Sonu Pal, M.K.Mishra and V. Pandey Polyester fibre (12mm size) was added in concrete at percentages of 0%, 0.20%, 0.25%, and 0.30% by weight of cement. This addition was carried out with both untreated & treated fibre. Testing of cement Portland Slag Cement conforming to IS: 455 were used in the entire experimental study. To avoid the long storage times and to avoid the loss of, cement was procured according to the phase wise requirement. The cement was stored in bags in air tight room to have minimum exposure to humidity. The detail of physical properties of cement is presented in table III. Table III Physical and mechanical properties of cement Properties Results Standard Limits (IS: 455) Consistency 32% _ Soundness Expansion 4 mm <10mm Initial setting time (min) 115 minutes >30 min Final setting time 295 minutes <600 min Specific gravity _ Fineness 1.5% Retain on 90 micron sieve <10% Compressive 1. 3days 2. 7days days N/ According to table III, the test results within standard limits. Testing of aggregate Aggregates are the important constituents in concrete. The fact that the aggregates occupy 70-80% of volume of concrete, their impact on various characteristics and properties of concrete is undoubtedly considerable. The test results conducted on fine and coarse aggregate for this thesis are given in table IV and V respectively. N/ Table IV Tests of Fine Aggregate >16 >22 >33 S. No. Test Fine Aggregate 1 Zone III 2 Moisture content 0.20% 3 Specific gravity Fineness Modulus Water Absorption 1.15%

4 Effects of Acidic Curing on The Properties of Untreated and Treated Polyester Fibre Reinforced Concrete Table V Tests of Coarse Aggregate S. No. Test Coarse Aggregate 1 Moisture content 0.2 % 2 Water absorption 0.55 % 3 Specific gravity Crushing value % 5 Impact value % Selection of mix design The experimental investigation consisted of making M 25 concrete was designed as per IS 10262:2009 and the mix proportions are given in Table VI. Table VI Quantity of Materials for M 25 Concrete Water Cement fine aggregate coarse aggregate kg/m kg/m kg/m kg/m Methods of curing Curing is the most important & sensitive factor that plays an important role on development and durability of concrete. Properly cured concrete has an adequate amount of moisture for continued hydration and development of, volume stability and resistance to freezing and thawing. This research work has been carried out to study the effect of acidic curing on the and durability of hardened concrete. So, this experimental work was carried out in following curing conditions (i) Normal water curing (ii) Acidic curing Normal water curing Water unsuitable for drinking is generally considered unsuitable for curing concrete as well. The water used for normal water curing of concrete samples was taken from concrete technology laboratory, B.I.T Sindri. The concrete samples were tested after 56 days of proper curing. Acidic curing Concrete is not fully resistant to acids and most acids disintegrate the cement slowly or rapidly depending upon the type of ph value of acidic water. The solution used for acidic curing of concrete samples was prepared using concentrated HCl, which was diluted to obtain a ph of 4.5. The concrete samples were tested after 56 days of proper acidic curing. Preparation of Acidic water (for ph of 4.5) The following steps were carried out to prepare acidic water: Take 1 litre of deionised water. The Molarity of M was used to get ph of 4.5 of acidic solution. As per this Molarity, approximately 0.3 ml of concentrated HCl was added in 1 litre of deionised water and mixed thoroughly to obtain acidic solution. Finally, a digital ph meter was used to measure the ph value of the solution and which obtained the solution of ph 4.5 [6]

5 Sonu Pal, M.K.Mishra and V. Pandey NOMENCLATURE Concrete mix sample code F 0 F U0.20 F T0.20 F U0.25 F T0.25 F U0.30 F T0.30 Description Addition of 0% fibre by weight of cement Addition of 0.20% untreated fibre by weight of cement Addition of 0.20% treated fibre by weight of cement Addition of 0.25% untreated fibre by weight of cement Addition of 0.25% treated fibre by weight of cement Addition of 0.30% untreated fibre by weight of cement Addition of 0.30% treated fibre by weight of cement RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Study of hardened concrete The most valuable property in concrete is the compressive because it gives the overall quality of hardened concrete. The hardened concrete tests conducted were compressive test, split tensile test and the flexure test. Compressive test The compressive test was conducted on 150 mm size of cubes at 56 days after curing process. The compressive is determined using 2000 KN compression testing machine in accordance with IS: The values of compressive for different percentages of untreated & treated fibre reinforced concrete after 56 days of Normal water curing and Acidic curing are given in table VII & fig. 1. Table VII Compressive test result for fibre reinforced concrete after 56 days of Normal water curing & Acidic curing (AC) Concrete Mix Avg. Compressive (N/mm 2 ) after 56 days NWC compressive w.r.t. F 0 after 56 days NWC Avg. Compressive (N/mm 2 ) after 56 days AC compressive w.r.t. F 0 after 56 days AC compressive of FRC in AC w.r.t NWC F % % -5.15% F U % % -4.41% F T % % -3.32% F U % % -3.03% F T % % -2.03% F U % % -7.04% F T % % -1.58%

6 compressive (N/mm 2 ) Effects of Acidic Curing on The Properties of Untreated and Treated Polyester Fibre Reinforced Concrete % 0.20% 0.25% 0.30% % fibre addition Treated FRC at (acidi curing) Treated FRC (acidic curing) Concrete Mix Figure 1 Compressive of Untreated vs. Treated FRC after 56 days of normal water& acidic curing From fig.1, it was found that the compressive of fibre reinforced concrete with normal water curing is more as compared to the compressive of fibre reinforced concrete with acidic curing. It was also found that the compressive of untreated fibre reinforced concrete with acidic curing is least as compared to the compressive of fibre reinforced concrete with Normal water curing. The effect of acidic attack is found to be least on treated fibre reinforced concrete as compared with untreated fibre reinforced concrete. Split tensile test This test was conducted using 1000 KN compression testing machine as per the procedure given in IS: The split tensile test was conducted on cylindrical specimens of 150 mm diameter x 300 mm height at 56 days after curing process. The values of split tensile for different percentages of untreated & treated fibre reinforced concrete after 56 days of Normal water curing & acidic curing are given in table VIII & fig. 2. Table VIII Split tensile test data for fibre reinforced concrete after 56 days of Normal water curing & Acidic curing (AC) Avg. Split tensile (N/mm 2 ) after 56 days NWC split tensile w.r.t. F 0 after 56 days NWC Avg. Split tensile (N/mm 2 ) after 56 days AC split tensile w.r.t. F 0 after 56 days AC split tensile of FRC in AC w.r.t NWC F % % -5.07% F U % % -6.46% F T % % -4.32% F U % % -3.53% F T % % -3.30% F U % % -1.83% F T % % -5.21%

7 Split tensile (N/mm 2 ) Sonu Pal, M.K.Mishra and V. Pandey Treated FRC at (acidi curing) Treated FRC (acidic curing) 0 0% 0.20% 0.25% 0.30% % fibre addition Figure 2 Split tensile of Untreated vs. Treated FRC after 56 days of normal water & acidic curing From fig.2, it was observed that the split tensile of fibre reinforced concrete with 0.25% addition of fibre is more than the split tensile of fibre reinforced concrete with other percentage addition of fibre. The treated fibre reinforced concrete has more as compared to untreated fibre reinforced concrete for both normal water and acidic curing. Also, the split tensile of fibre reinforced concrete with normal water curing is more than the split tensile of fibre reinforced concrete with acidic curing. Flexural Strength Test The flexural test was performed in accordance with IS: on the beams of size 500 x 100 x 100 mm after curing period of 56 days with 200 kn universal testing machine. The specimen was supported on two roller support spaced at 400 mm center to center. The values of flexural for different percentages of untreated & treated fibre reinforced concrete after 56 days of Normal water curing & Acidic curing are given in table IX & fig

8 Flexural (N/mm 2 ) Concrete Mix Effects of Acidic Curing on The Properties of Untreated and Treated Polyester Fibre Reinforced Concrete Table IX Flexural test data for fibre reinforced concrete after 56 days of Normal Water curing & Acidic curing (AC) Avg. Flexural (N/mm 2 ) after 56 days NWC flexural w.r.t. F 0 after 56 days NWC Avg. Flexural (N/mm 2 ) after 56 days AC flexural strngth w.r.t. F 0 after 56 days AC flexural of FRC in AC w.r.t NWC F % % -7.69% F U % % -4.65% F T % % -6.38% F U % % -5.88% F T % % -3.70% F U % % -6.12% F T % % -3.84% % 0.20% 0.25% 0.30% % fibre addition Treated FRC at (acidi curing) Figure 3 Flexural of Untreated vs. Treated FRC after 56 days of normal water & acidic curing From fig.3.4, it was observed that the flexural of fibre reinforced concrete with 0.25% addition of fibre is more than the flexural of fibre reinforced concrete with other percentage addition of fibre. The treated fibre reinforced concrete has more as compared to untreated fibre reinforced concrete for both normal water and acidic curing. Also, the flexural of fibre reinforced concrete with normal water curing is more than the flexural of fibre reinforced concrete with acidic curing. CONCLUSIONS It may be concluded that The addition of untreated and treated fibre (0.25% by weight of cement) into the concrete improved its compressive by 8.75% and 20.32% respectively after 56 days of normal water curing and by 11.18% & 24.26% respectively after 56 days of acidic curing. But the compressive of untreated & treated fibre reinforced

9 Sonu Pal, M.K.Mishra and V. Pandey concrete cured with acidic water was found to decrease by 3.03% & 2.03% respectively with respect to normal water curing. Due to the addition of untreated and treated fibre (0.25% by weight of cement) in the concrete, its split tensile increased by 43.48% and 53.62% respectively after 56 days of normal water curing and by 45.80% & 56.48% respectively after 56 days of acidic curing. However, there was decrease in the split tensile of untreated & treated fibre reinforced concrete cured with acidic water by 3.53% & 3.30% respectively when compared with normal water curing. The flexural of untreated and treated fibre (0.25% by weight of cement) reinforced concrete improved by 8.75% and 20.32% respectively after 56 days of normal water curing and by 33.33% & 44.44% respectively after 56 days of acidic curing. But the flexural of untreated & treated fibre reinforced concrete cured with acidic water decreased by 5.88% & 3.70% respectively with respect to normal water curing. The of FRC cured in acidic water, decreased at every percentage addition of untreated and treated polyester fibre when compared with normal water curing. The optimum percentage of polyester fibre that can be used to reinforce concrete is 0.25%. REFERENCES [1] Amit Rai and Dr. Y.P Joshi, Applications and Properties of Fibre Reinforced Concrete, International. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications ISSN: , 4(5) Version 1, pp , May 2014 [2] Vishal, Sheo Kumar, V.Pandey, Modified polyester fibre concrete ability to arrest cracking due to drying shrinkage, International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 4(8) pp , [3] Pitchai S, Jeyakodi Moses J, Swarna Natarajan, Study on the improvement of hydrophilic character on polyvinylalcohol treated polyester fabric, Polish Journal of Chemical Technology, 16, pp 21 27, [4] Tatsuo Kawahigashi, Corrosion of Concrete under Acid Environment, Institute for Science and Technology, Kinki University Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka , Japan (Received, January 23, 2004) [5] Concrete Committee, Japan Concrete Standard, Japan Society of Civil Engineers (2001). [6] OxyChem basic chemicals, Hydrochloric Acid Calculate ph Values of Hydrochloric Acid Solutions, OXY Occidental Chemical Corporation, [7] IS 456:2000, Indian standard code of practice for plain and Reinforced concrete, Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi [8] IS 10262: 1982, Reinforced Guidelines for concrete Mix design, Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi [9] IS 383: 1970, Specification for Coarse aggregate Fine aggregate from Natural sources for concrete, Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi [10] IS 516: 1959, Method of test for of concrete, Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi [11] Kolli. Ramujee, Strength properties of polypropylene Fiber Reinforced concrete, International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 2(8), pp ,

10 Effects of Acidic Curing on The Properties of Untreated and Treated Polyester Fibre Reinforced Concrete [12] Prerna Nautiyal, Saurabh Singh and Geeta Batham, A Comparative Study of The Effect of Infill Walls on Seismic Performance of Reinforced Concrete Buildings, International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 4(4), 2013, pp [13] P.S.Joanna, Jessy Rooby, Angeline Prabhavathy, R.Preetha and C.Sivathanu Pillai, Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Beams with 50 Percentage Fly Ash, International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 4(2), 2013, pp [14] Dhanya Rajendran, Comparison of Lateral Analysis of Reinforced Concrete and Steel Silo, International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 5(12), 2014, pp [15] Damyanti G. Badagha and C. D. Modhera, Experimental Approach to Enhance the Indirect Split Tensile Strength for Cylindrical and Cubic Specimen for Various Fibrous Mortars under Different Environment Conditions, Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 8(28), October

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