A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY ON PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT WITH SUGARCANE BAGASSE ASH, RICE HUSK ASH & STONE DUST

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1 International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 3, May June 2016, pp , Article ID: IJCIET_07_03_016 Available online at Journal Impact Factor (2016): (Calculated by GISI) ISSN Print: and ISSN Online: IAEME Publication A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY ON PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT WITH SUGARCANE BAGASSE ASH, RICE HUSK ASH & STONE DUST K Sampath Kumar, U M Praveen, A Prathyusha, V Akhila, P Sasidhar Department of Civil Engineering Nova College of Engineering and Technology, Hyderabad, India ABSTRACT A Large quantities of waste materials and by-products are generated from manufacturing processes, service industries and municipal solid wastes, etc. As a result, solid waste management has become one of the major environmental concerns in the world. With the increasing awareness about the environment, scarcity of land-fill space and due to its ever increasing cost, waste materials and by-products utilization has become an attractive alternative to disposal. High consumption of natural sources, high amount production of industrial wastes and environmental pollution require obtaining new solutions for a sustainable development. Ordinary Portland cement is recognized as a major construction material throughout the world. Significant research has been going-on in various parts of the world on the subject. Some waste materials and by-products have established their credentials in their usage in cement-based materials and for others research is in progress for exploring the potential applications. This waste, utilization would not only be economical, but may also result in foreign exchange earnings and environmental pollution control. Industrial wastes, such fly ash and silica fume are being used as supplementary cement replacement materials. Currently, there has been an attempt to utilize some amount of bagasse ash, rice husk ash and stone dust. Cite this Article: K Sampath Kumar, U M Praveen, A Prathyusha, V Akhila, P Sasidhar, A Comprehensive Study On Partial Replacement of Cement with Sugarcane Bagasse Ash, Rice Husk Ash & Stone Dust, International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 7(3), 2016, pp

2 K Sampath Kumar, U M Praveen, A Prathyusha, V Akhila, P Sasidhar 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1. GENERAL In civil engineering, theoretical knowledge is an application for practical knowledge which is quite different in any field. In civil engineering aspects now-a-days the construction of buildings, industries, residential complexes etc. are more essential. These are included with high expensive of cost, to built up. For that, the no. of techniques are implemented to reduce the cost of construction in all aspects. Economically it is very useful for construction purpose. Replacement of a material with another material is one type of technique which is mostly using in now-a-days to reduce the cost. Replacing of cement (or) coarse aggregates (or) fine aggregates with other materials which is made to be an economical NEED OF THE PRESENT PROJECT Cement is the most costlier and energy intensive component of concrete. The unit cost of concrete can be reduced by partial replacement of cement with SCBA, RHA & SD. Concrete making with conventional material is becoming costlier day by day. More over concrete suffers little resistance to cracking. These problems may overcome by inclusion of these admixtures into concrete MATERIALS USED Cement The most common cement used is ordinary Portland cement. Out of the total production, ordinary Portland cement accounts for about percent. Many tests were conducted to cement (53 Grade) some of them are consistency tests, setting tests, soundness tests, etc Fine Aggregate Locally available free of debris and nearby river bed sand from ferri river is used as fine aggregate. The sand particles should also pack to give minimum void ratio, higher voids content leads to requirement of more mixing water. In the present study the sand conforms to zone II as per the Indian standards Coarse Aggregate The crushed aggregates used were 20mm nominal maximum size and are tested as per Indian standards and results are within the permissible limit Water Water available in the college campus conforming to the requirements of water for concreting and curing as per IS: INTRODUCTION OF ADMIXTURES From these by-products in concrete production brings a positive effects to the environment which reduces waste disposals. Since we reduce the cement production also. AGRO INDUSTRIAL MINERAL ADMIXTURES is a factory which reduces the emissions generated by the disposal of all by-products

3 A Comprehensive Study On Partial Replacement of Cement with Sugarcane Bagasse Ash, Rice Husk Ash & Stone Dust Due to these admixtures there is a change in concrete in both physical and chemical conditions. The physical effects are the mixture which depends on size, shape, and textures of particle. The chemical effects are capability of providing aluminous compounds which react chemically in the presence of water like calcium hydroxide etc., the two scientists namely GOLDMAN &BENTUR Said that by mixture of these admixtures there is a physical effects are more than the chemical effects. The admixtures which are used for the replacement of cement are as follows. SUGARCANE BAGASSE ASH RICE HUSK ASH STONE DUST (or) QUARRY DUST 3. PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 3.1. GENERAL The materials used in the experimental work namely cement, Bagasse ash, Rice husk ash, Stone dust, fine aggregates and coarse aggregate have been in laboratory for use in mix designs. The details are present below Cement [IS: ] Ordinary Portland cement of 53 grade was used in this project. The general standard values of different tests on cement described below. Table 1 SL.NO. PARTICULARS OPC 53 GRADE 1. Normal consistency 32% 2. Specific gravity Setting time Initial setting time Final setting time 45 min 583 min 4. Soundness test of cement 3 mm 5. Fineness of cement FINE AGGREGATE (As per IS: 383) Aggregates smaller than 4.75mm and up to 0.075mm are considered as fine aggregate SPECIFIC GRAVITY The specific gravity of fine aggregate are in a ranges between 2.6 to COARSE AGGREGATE (As per IS: 383) Aggregates greater than 4.75mm are considered as coarse aggregates. Generally the size of coarse aggregates used are 20mm and 10mm SPECIFIC GRAVITY The specific gravity of coarse aggregates used is and

4 K Sampath Kumar, U M Praveen, A Prathyusha, V Akhila, P Sasidhar 3.5. PROPERTIES OF ADMIXTURES PROPETIES OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE ASH In our project sugarcane bagasse ash was collected from KCP sugar industries VUYYURU. The below mentioned SCBA composition was obtained with the help of Industry. Table 2 SL.NO. COMPONENTS MASS % 1. SiO Fe 2 O Al 2 O CaO MgO 2.02 Sugarcane bagasse ash was sieved by IS: 300 micron sieve before mixing in concrete PROPERTIES OF RICE HUSK ASH [IS: ] (Clause no ) The Rice husk ash was collected from RICE MILL, Jupudi. Table 3 COMPONENTS OPC RHA SiO Al 2 O Fe 2 O CaO MgO Na 2 O K 2 O LOI Specific gravity Rice husk ash was sieved by IS: 300 micron sieve before mixing in concrete PROPERTIES OF STONE DUST [IS: ] (part-3) The Stone dust was collected from QUARRIES, Jupudi. A. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Table 4 (a) PROPERTY STONE DUST TEST METHOD Specific gravity IS (part 3) Bulk relative density (kg/m3) IS (part 3) Absorption (%) IS (part 3) Moisture content (%) Nil IS (part 3) Fine particles less than mm (%) IS (part 1) Sieve analysis Zone II IS

5 A Comprehensive Study On Partial Replacement of Cement with Sugarcane Bagasse Ash, Rice Husk Ash & Stone Dust B. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES (OR) COMPOSITION [IS: ] Table 4 (b) COMPONENTS STONE DUST TEST METHOD SiO IS: Al 2 O IS: Fe 2 O IS: CaO 4.83 IS: MgO 2.56 IS: CONCRETE MIX PROPORTIONS Table 5 OPC SCBA RHA SD 100% 0% 0% 0% 94% 2% 2% 2% 88% 4% 4% 4% 82% 6% 6% 6% 76% 8% 8% 8% 70% 10% 10% 10% 6. WORKABILITY Workability of concrete Table 6 SL.NO. % REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT SLUMP VALUE (mm) 1. 0% % % % % % COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST The compressive strength is evaluated by placing a cubical specimen between the loading surfaces of compression testing machine of capacity 2000 KN, in such a way that the smooth surface receives the directly and the load is applied until failure of the cube, along the sides of the cube. The compressive strength is determined by the ratio of failure load to the cross sectional area of the specimen. The compressive strength of concrete has been evaluated by testing four cubes of size 15 cm x 15 cm x 15 cm, the testing procedure is shown in fig. (p) & fig. (q). The results are tabulated in table-7 and the graph is drawn, shown in graph

6 K Sampath Kumar, U M Praveen, A Prathyusha, V Akhila, P Sasidhar Before test: After test: Fig. (p) Fig. (q) Testing of Cubes in compressive sive testing machine for Compressive Strength Table 7 % Replacement of cement 7 days 28 days 0 % 2 % 4 % 6 % 8 % 10 % Graph 1 45 Compressive strength values (N/mm 2 ) days 28 days Mix Proportion %

7 A Comprehensive Study On Partial Replacement of Cement with Sugarcane Bagasse Ash, Rice Husk Ash & Stone Dust SPLIT TENSILE STRENGTH The Split tensile strength of concrete have been evaluated by testing the cylindrical specimens of size 15 cm diameter and 30 cm length. The testing procedure is shown in fig. (r) & fig. (s). The split tensile tests are done by placing a cylindrical specimen horizontally between the loading surface a compression testing machine and the load is applied until failure of cylinder, along the vertical. The split tensile test values determined for different specimens from tests are presented in table-8. The result obtained from the experimental work for 7 & 28 days are shown in the charts as given below. Before test: After test: Figure (r) Figure (s) Testing of cylinder in compressive testing machine for tensile strength Table 8 % Replacement of cement 0 % 2 % 4 % 6 % 8 % 10 % 7 days days

8 K Sampath Kumar, U M Praveen, A Prathyusha, V Akhila, P Sasidhar Graph - 2 Tensile strength values (N/mm 2 ) days 28 days Mix Proportion % 7. RESULT CUBES: Testing values for 7 days Normal mix 29.4 N/mm 2 Mixture of 2% 40.8 N/mm 2 Mixture of 4% 31.6 N/mm 2 Mixture of 6% 21.5 N/mm 2 Mixture of 8% 21.2 N/mm 2 Mixture of 10% 20.0 N/mm 2 Testing values of 28 days Normal mix 34.8 N/mm 2 Mixture of 2% 41.6 N/mm 2 Mixture of 4% 40.0 N/mm 2 Mixture of 6% 34.5 N/mm 2 Mixture of 8% 27.5 N/mm 2 Mixture of 10% 22.0 N/mm 2 CYLINDERS: Testing values for 7 days Normal mix 2.1 N/mm 2 Mixture of 2% 2.7 N/mm 2 Mixture of 4% 2.68 N/mm 2 Mixture of 6% 2.60 N/mm 2 Mixture of 8% 1.80 N/mm

9 A Comprehensive Study On Partial Replacement of Cement with Sugarcane Bagasse Ash, Rice Husk Ash & Stone Dust Mixture of 10% 1.48 N/mm 2 Testing values for 28 days Normal mix 2.86 N/mm 2 Mixture of 2% 3.13 N/mm 2 Mixture of 4% 3.04 N/mm 2 Mixture of 6% 2.76 N/mm 2 Mixture of 8% 2.26 N/mm 2 Mixture of 10% 2.19 N/mm 2 The Compressive and Tensile strength of cubes & cylinders are increases at 6% which includes 2% of each admixture, when compared to normal mix &other mix proportions. 8. CONCLUSIONS It has been observed that by the incorporation of SCBA, RHA & SD as a partial replacement to cement in plain concrete, increases workability when compared to workability with reference to concrete made without admixtures. The mix proportion of 6% replacement of cement with SCBA (2%), RHA (2%) & SD (2%) showed good properties like Compressive and Tensile strength. It has been observed that cement replacement using SCBA, RHA & SD can go up to 8% safely through strength values are less compared to 2% replacement of cement and is most economically feasible. 9. SCOPE FOR FURTHER INVESTIGATION Experiments can be encouraged with different proportions of replacement of cement in terms of other mineral and chemical admixtures. Durability aspects can also be investigated with different proportions of admixtures. Studies can be made when the mixes are exposed to high temperatures. REFERNCES [1] Admixtures specifications as per IS:9103 [2] Indian standard Recommended Guidelines for concrete mix design (IS: ) [3] Indian standard Specification for Coarse and Fine aggregate from Natural sources for concrete (IS: ) [4] Methods of test for strength of concrete (IS: ) [5] Indian standard Ordinary Portland Cement (IS:8112) [6] Indian standard Plain and Reinforced concrete (IS: ) [7] Specification for 53 grade ordinary Portland cement (IS: ) [8] Minimum grade of cement for different exposures with normal weight aggregates of 20mm normal maximum size (IS: ) (Clauses 6.1.2, , and 9.1.2) [9] Indian standard Methods of tests for Strength of concrete (IS: ) [10] Indian standard Methods of tests for Spilt Tensile Strength of Concrete (IS: ) [11] Methods for physical tests on cement (fineness part-2, soundness part-3, setting time part-5, compressive strength part-6) (IS: )

10 K Sampath Kumar, U M Praveen, A Prathyusha, V Akhila, P Sasidhar [12] M.S.SHETTY, Concrete Technoloty, S.CHAND & COMPANY Ltd New Delhi. (Text book) Use of industrial wastes and by products in concrete by SIDDIQUE. [13] Sagar Dhengare, Sourabh Amrodiya, Mohanish Shelote, Ankush Asati Nikhil Bandwal, Anand Khangan and Rahul Jichkar, Utilization of Sugarcane Bagasse Ash as A Supplementary Cementitious Material In Concrete and Mortar - A Review, International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 6(4), 2015, pp [14] Richard Onchiri, Kiprotich James, Bernadette Sabuni and Claude Busieney, Use Of Sugarcane Bagasse Ash as A Partial Replacement For Cement In Stabilization of Self-Interlocking Earth Blocks, International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 5(10), 2014, pp [15] Abeer Sabri Bshara, Er. Y. K.Bind and Prabhat Kumar Sinha, Effect of Stone Dust On Geotechnical Properties of Poor Soil, International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 5(4), 2013, pp

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