# Statistiek II. John Nerbonne. October 1, Dept of Information Science

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1 Dept of Information Science October 1, 2010

2 Course outline 1 One-way ANOVA. 2 Factorial ANOVA. 3 Repeated measures ANOVA. 4 Correlation and regression. 5 Multiple regression. 6 Logistic regression.

3 Lecture outline Today: One-way ANOVA 1 General motivation 2 F -test and F -distribution 3 ANOVA example 4 The logic of ANOVA Short break 5 ANOVA calculations 6 Post-hoc tests

4 What s ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA)? Most popular statistical test for numerical data Generalized t-test Compares means of more than two groups Fairly robust Based on F -distribution compares variances (between groups and within groups) Two basic versions: a One-way (or single) ANOVA: compare groups along one dimension, e.g., grade point average by school class b N-way (or factorial) ANOVA: compare groups along 2 dimensions, e.g., grade point average by school class and gender

5 Typical applications One-way ANOVA: Compare time needed for lexical recognition in 1. healthy adults 2. patients with Wernicke s aphasia 3. patients with Broca s aphasia Factorial ANOVA: Compare lexical recognition time in male and female in the same three groups

6 Comparing multiple means For two groups: use t-test Note: testing for p-value of 0.05 shows significance 1 time in 20 if there is no difference in population mean (effect of chance) But suppose there are 7 groups, i.e., we test ( 7 2) = 21 pairs of groups Caution: several tests (on the same data) run the risk of finding significance through sheer chance

7 Multiple comparison problem Example: Suppose you run k = 3 tests, always seeking a result significant at α = 0.05 probability of getting at least one false positive is given by: α FW = 1 P(zero false positive results) = 1 (1 α) k = 1 (1 0.05) 3 = 1 (0.95) 3 = Hence, with only 3 pairwise tests, the chance of committing type I error almost 15% (and 66% for 21 tests!) α FW called Bonferroni family-wise α-level

8 Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons To guarantee a family-wise α-level of 0.05, divide α by number of tests. Example: 0.05/3 (= α/# tests) = (note: ) set α = (= Bonferroni-corrected α-level) If p-value is less than the Bonferroni-corrected target α: reject the null hypothesis. If p-value greater than the Bonferroni-corrected target α: do not reject the null hypothesis.

9 Analysis of variance ANOVA automatically corrects for looking at several relationships (like Bonferroni correction) Based on F -distribution: Moore & McCabe, 7.3, pp Measures the difference between two variances (variance σ 2 ) F = s2 1 s 2 2 always positive since variances are positive two degrees of freedom interesting, one for s 1, one for s 2

10 F -test vs. F -distribution F -value: F = s2 1 s 2 2 F -values used in F -test (Fisher s test) H 0 : samples are from same distribution (s 1 = s 2 ) H a : samples are from different distributions (s 1 s 2 ) - value near 1 indicates same variance - value near 0 or + indicates difference in variance F -test very sensitive to deviations from normal ANOVA uses F -distribution, but is different: ANOVA F -test!

11 F -distribution Critical area for F -distribution at p = 0.05 (df: 12,10) Probability density rejection region acceptance region rejection region Note the symmetry: P( s2 1 s 2 2 F value < x) = P( s2 2 s 2 1 (because y < x 1 y > 1 x for x, y R + ) > 1 x )

12 F -test Example: height group sample mean standard size deviation boys cm 6cm girls 9 168cm 4cm Is the difference in standard deviation significant? Examine F = s2 boys s 2 girls Degrees of freedom: df boys = 16 1 df girls = 9 1

13 F -test critical area (for two-tailed test with α = 0.05) P(F (15, 8) > x) = α 2 = P(F (15, 8) < x) = P(F (15, 8) < 4.1) = Moore & McCabe, Table E, p. 706 P(F (15, 8) < x) = P(F (8, 15) > x ) = where x = 1 x P(F (8, 15) > 3.2) = (tables) P(F (15, 8) < ) = P(F (15, 8) < 0.31) = (no values directly for P(F (df 1, df 2 ) > x)) Reject H 0 if F < 0.31 or F > 4.1 Here, F = = 2.25 (hence no evidence of difference in distributions)

14 ANOVA Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) most popular statistical test for numerical data several types - single, one-way - factorial, two-, three-,..., n-way - single/factorial repeated measures examines variation - between-groups gender, age, etc. - within-groups overall automatically corrects for looking at several relationships (like Bonferroni correction) uses F -distribution, where F (n, m) fixes n typically at the number of groups (minus 1), m at the number of subjects, i.e., data points (minus number of groups)

15 Detailed example: one-way ANOVA Question: Are exam grades of four groups of foreign students Nederlands voor anderstaligen the same? More exactly, are the four averages the same? H 0 : µ 1 = µ 2 = µ 3 = µ 4 H a : µ 1 µ 2 or µ 1 µ 3... or µ 3 µ 4 Alternative hypothesis: at least one group has a different mean For the question of whether any particular pair is different, the t-test is appropriate. For testing whether all language groups are the same, pairwise t-tests exaggerate differences (increase the chance of type I error) We therefore want to apply one-way ANOVA

16 Data: Dutch proficiency of foreigners Four groups of ten students each: Group Europe America Africa Asia Mean Samp. SD Samp. Variance

17 ANOVA conditions ANOVA assumptions: Normal distribution per subgroup Same variance in subgroups: least SD > one-half of largest SD independent observations: watch out for test-retest situations! Check differences in SD s! (some SPSS computing)

18 ANOVA conditions Assumption: normal distribution per group, check with normal quantile plot, e.g., for Europeans below (repeat for every group) Normal Q-Q plot of toets.nl voor anderstalige

19 Visualizing ANOVA data Is there a significant difference in the means (of the groups being contrasted)? Take care that boxplots sketch medians not means.

20 Sketch of ANOVA Group Eur. Amer. Africa Asia x 1j x 2j x 3j x 4j x 1 x 2 x 3 x 4 Notation: Group index: i {1, 2, 3, 4} Sample index: j N i = size of group i Data point x ij : ith group, jth observation Number of groups: I = 4 Total mean: x Group mean: x i For any data point x ij : (x ij x) = (x i x) + (x ij x i ) total residue = group diff. + error ANOVA question: does group membership influence the response variable?

21 Two variances Reminder of high school algebra: (a + b) 2 = a 2 + b 2 + 2ab ab a 2 a b 2 ab b

22 Two variances Data point x ij : (x ij x) = (x i x) + (x ij x i ) Want sum of squared deviates for each group: (x ij x) 2 = (x i x) 2 + (x ij x i ) 2 + 2(x i x)(x ij x i ) Sum over elements in ith group: N i (x ij x) 2 = j=1 N i N i (x i x) 2 + (x ij x i ) 2 + 2(x i x)(x ij x i ) j=1 j=1 j=1 N i

23 Two variances Note that this term must be zero: Because: N i 2(x i x)(x ij x i ) j=1 (a) (b) N i 2(x i x)(x ij x i ) = 2(x i x) (x ij x i ) j=1 N i (x ij x i ) = 0 x i = j=1 N i j=1 } {{ } Ni j=1 x ij 0 N i

24 Two variances So we have: N i j=1 (x ij x) 2 = N i N i (x i x) 2 + (x ij x i ) 2 j=1 j=1 N i (+ 2(x i x)(x ij x i ) = 0) j=1 Therefore: N i j=1 (x ij x) 2 = N i N i (x i x) 2 + (x ij x i ) 2 j=1 j=1 And finally we can sum over all groups: I N i I N i I N i (x ij x) 2 = (x i x) 2 + (x ij x i ) 2 i=1 j=1 i=1 j=1 i=1 j=1

25 ANOVA terminology (x ij x) = (x i x) + (x ij x i ) total residue = group diff. + error I N i I I N i (x ij x) 2 = N i (x i x) 2 + (x ij x i ) 2 i=1 j=1 i=1 i=1 j=1 SST SSG SSE Total Sum of Squares = Group Sum of Squares + Error Sum of Squares (n 1) = (I 1) + (n I ) DFT DFG DFE Total Degrees of Freedom = Group Degrees of Freedom + Error Degrees of Freedom

26 Variances are mean squared differences to the mean Note that SST/DFT: P I P Ni i=1 j=1 (x ij x) 2 n 1 is a variance, and likewise SSG/DFG: labelled MSG ( Mean square between groups ), and SSE/DFE: labelled MSE ( Mean square error or sometimes Mean square within groups ) In ANOVA, we compare MSG (variance between groups) and MSE (variance within groups), i.e. we measure F = MSG MSE If this F -value is large, differences between groups overshadow differences within groups.

27 Two variances 1) Estimate the pooled variance of the population (MSE): MSE = DFE SSE PI P Ni = i=1 j=1 (x ij x i ) 2 n I equiv = P I i=1 DF i s 2 i P I i=1 DF i In our example (Nederlands for anderstaligen): P I i=1 DF i s 2 i P I i=1 DF i = (N1 1)s2 1 + (N 3 1)s (N 3 1)s (N 4 1)s 2 4 (N 1 1) + (N 3 1) + (N 3 1) + (N 4 1) = = = Estimates the variance in groups (using DF), aka within-groups estimate of variance

28 Two variances 2) Estimate the between-groups variance of the population (MSG): MSG = DFG SSG P = I i=1 N i (x i x) 2 I 1 In our example (Nederlands for anderstaligen): We had 4 group means: 25.0, 21.9, 23.1, 21.3, grand mean: 22.8 MSG = 10 (( )2 +( ) 2 +( ) 2 +( ) 2 ) 4 1 = 26.6 The between-groups variance (MSG) is an aggregate estimate of the degree to which the four sample means differ from one another

29 Interpreting estimates with F -scores If H 0 is true, then we have two variances: Between-groups estimate: s 2 bg = Within-groups estimate: s 2 wg = and and their ratio s 2 bg s 2 wg follows an F -distribution with: (# groups 1) = 3 degrees of freedom for s bg 2 and (# observations # groups) = 36 degrees of freedom for swg 2 In our example: F (3, 36) = = 0.55 P(F (3, 40) > 2.84) = 0.05 (see tables), so there is no evidence of non-uniform behavior

30 SPSS summary No evidence of non-uniform behavior

31 Other questions ANOVA H 0 : µ 1 = µ 2 =... = µ n But sometimes particular contrasts are important e.g., are Europeans better (in learning Dutch)? Distinguish (in reporting results): prior contrasts questions asked before data is collected and analyzed post hoc (posterior) questions questions asked after data collection and analysis data-snooping is exploratory, cannot contribute to hypothesis testing

32 Prior contrasts Questions asked before data collection and analysis e.g., are Europeans better (in learning Dutch)? Another way of putting this: H 0 : µ Eur = 1 3 (µ Am + µ Afr + µ Asia ) H a : µ Eur 1 3 (µ Am + µ Afr + µ Asia ) Reformulation (SPSS requires this): H 0 : 0 = µ Eur µ Am µ Afr µ Asia

33 Prior contrasts in SPSS Mean of every group gets a coefficient Sum of coefficients is 0 A t-test is carried out and two-tailed p-value is reported (as usual): No significant difference here (of course) Note: prior contrasts are legitimate as hypothesis tests as long as they are formulated before data collection and analysis

34 Post-hoc questions Assume H 0 is rejected: which means are distinct? Data-snooping problem: in a large set, some distinctions are likely to be statistically significant But we can still look (we just cannot claim to have tested the hypothesis) We are asking whether m i m j is significantly larger, we apply a variant of the t-test The relevant sd is MSE n (differences among scores), but there is a correction since we re looking at a proportion of the scores in any one comparison

35 SD in post-hoc ANOVA questions Standard deviation (among differences in groups i and j): sd = t = MSE N i +N j N = = 4.9 x i x j sd q 1 N i + 1 N j The critical t-value is calculated as p c where p is the desired significance level and c is the number of comparisons. For pairwise comparisons: c = ( ) I 2

36 Post-hoc questions in SPSS SPSS post-hoc Bonferroni -searches among all groupings for statistically significant ones But in this case there are none (of course)

37 How to win at ANOVA Note the ways in which the F -ratio increases (i.e., becomes more significant): F = MSG MSE 1. MSG increases: differences in means between groups grow larger 2. MSE decreases: overall variation within groups grows smaller

38 Two models for grouped data x ij = µ + ɛ ij x ij = µ + α i + ɛ ij First model: no group effect each data point represents error (ɛ) around a mean (µ) Second model: real group effect each data point represents error (ɛ) around an overall mean (µ), combined with a group adjustment (α i ) ANOVA asks: is there sufficient evidence for α i?

39 Next week Next week: factorial ANOVA

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