Impressionists: What they have in Common

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1 Impressionism 1

2 Impressionism The movement has its roots in: Romanticism (feelings and emotions) AND the Realists (challenging the academies) The term is coined from a Monet painting titled, Impression: Sunrise The Impressionists exhibited together at eight shows between 1874 and 1886 (this does not mean they were always in complete agreement with each other!) 2

3 Impressionists: What they have in Common Painting captures an impression a moment Brushwork: short and choppy The effects of light on color! Plein Air (painting outside) Limited use of black paint Shadows created with dark green, blue, purple, and brown Juxtaposition of complementary colors to create vibrancy Creative, cropped compositions with unusual angles For most, the Parisian middle class--bourgeoisie

4 The Avant-Garde Originally used for the French military the units that advanced further from the troops In art, those that led the way with bold concepts and works Ahead of the mainstream Generally, they were misunderstood by the public and rejected by the salons When a style becomes mainstream (Impressionism does in the 1890s), it s no longer considered avant-garde

5 CLAUDE MONET, Impression: Sunrise, 1872*. Oil on canvas, 1 7 1/2 x 2 1 1/2. Musée Marmottan, Paris. 5

6 Monet At 19, moves to Paris but rejects the conventional training of the Ecole des Beaux Arts, instead choosing the more relaxed private schools His wealthy family cuts him off, his wife dies and leaves him with two children, so he moves to Giverny In 1890, he buys property in Giverny and employs six gardeners Towards the end of his life, lives like a recluse with extremely failing eyesight

7 CLAUDE MONET, Rouen Cathedral: The Portal (in Sun), 1894*. Oil on canvas, 3 3 1/4 x 2 1 7/8. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York 7

8

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10 CLAUDE MONET, Saint-Lazare Train Station, 1877*. Oil on canvas, 2 5 3/4 x 3 5. Musée d Orsay, Paris. (Industrialization ) 10

11 GUSTAVE CAILLEBOTTE, Paris: A Rainy Day, 1877*. Oil on canvas, 6 9 x 9 9. The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago 11

12 Caillebotte Wealthy engineer and boat builder who befriends the Impressionists Helped to finance Impressionist exhibitions and collected more than 60 pieces of their work these were left to the French people when he died Although not with loose brushwork, subject matter and composition make it an Impressionist work

13 PIERRE-AUGUSTE RENOIR, Le Moulin de la Galette, 1876*. Oil on canvas, 4 3 x 5 8. Musée d Orsay, Paris. 13

14 RENOIR Most famous for genre paintings of the bourgeoisie of Paris (females) Friends with Monet Used the model, Suzanne Valadon in paintings In 1892, developed severe rheumatoid arthritis but continued to paint for over twenty years

15

16 ÉDOUARD MANET, Bar at the Folies-Bergère, 1882*. Oil on canvas, 3 1 x 4 3. Courtauld Institute of Art Gallery, London. 16

17 MANET WITH IMPRESSIONISM Influences Impressionism and in turn, they influence him Never exhibited with the Impressionists His style is hard to pinpoint (Realism? Impressionism?) Died at age 51, after complications due to syphilis and arthritis

18 DEGAS Focused on the female like Renoir Classically trained (outstanding draughtsman). Considered an Impressionist but rejected the term for realist instead Known for interior scenes not plein air and did not adopt the same brushwork Although his works looks spontaneous, he produced MANY sketches beforehand but photography also affects his composition Later, his compositions adopt a peering through a keyhole approach and are influenced by Japanese woodblock prints

19 EDGAR DEGAS, Ballet Rehearsal, 1874*. Oil on canvas, 1 11 x 2 9. Glasgow Art Galleries and Museum, Glasgow 19

20 Degas, The Rehearsal on Stage, c.1874*, pastel over brush and ink Metropolitan Museum of Art

21

22 WOMEN ARTISTS DURING IMPRESSIONISM American (studied in Philadelphia), ex-patriot in Paris Degas encouraged her to participate in the 4th Impressionist exhibition Both Degas and Cassatt did not paint en plein air focused on the domestic and social life of wealthy women Influenced by Degas and Japanese prints

23 MARY CASSATT, The Bath, ca. 1892*. Oil on canvas, 3 3 x 2 2. The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago 23

24 Mary Cassatt Maternal Caress 1891* Drypoint, softground etching, and aquatint on paper

25 Morisot Married to Eduoard Manet s brother Exhibited with the Impressionists Focused on outdoor leisure of Parisian middle-class (weekends to resorts at sea or the Seine) with a sense of melancholy Most paintings contain a main female figure, loose brushwork, natural light and color

26 BERTHE MORISOT, Villa at the Seaside, 1874*. Oil on canvas, 1 7 3/4 x 2 1/8". Norton Simon Art Foundation, Los Angeles. 26

27 Japonisme 27

28 Japanese Wood-block Prints In 1850, Japan opens itself to trade with the west Culture captivates Parisians: Japonisme A large exhibition of Japanese wood-block prints in 1890 influences ENORMOUSLY! Ukiyo-e floating world These prints are inexpensive and many Impressionists collected them

29 Hokusai, The Great Wave off Kanagawa, ca

30 Left: EDGAR DEGAS, The Tub, Pastel, 1 11 ½ X 2 8 3/8. Musee d Orsay, Paris. Right: TORII KIYONAGA, detail of Two Women at the Bath, ca Color woodblock, full print 10 ½ X 7 ½, detail 3 ¾ X 3 ½. Musee Guimet, Paris. 30

31 Monet with his collection of ukiyo-e

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