EDUCATION POLICIES AND STRATEGIES

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1 EDUCATION POLICIES AND STRATEGIES Naional Educaion Secor Developmen Plan: A resul-based planning handbook 13

2 Educaion Policies and Sraegies 13

3 Educaion Policies and Sraegies 13 Naional Educaion Secor Developmen Plan: A resul-based planning handbook Secion for Educaion Suppor Sraegies Division for Educaion Sraegies and Capaciy Building U N E S C O

4 Auhor: Gwang-Chol Chang, Programme Specialis a UNESCO Division for Educaion Sraegies and Capaciy Building. The presen paper can be freely reproduced or cied, in par or enirely, wih he appropriae acknowledgemen. The auhor is responsible for he choice and presenaion of he facs conained in his book and for he opinions expressed herein, which are no necessarily hose of UNESCO and do no commi he Organizaion. Published in 2006 by he Unied Naions Educaional, Scienific and Culural Organizaion 7, place de Fonenoy, Paris 07 SP (France) UNESCO (ED-2008/WS/37)

5 Preface This is he hireenh volume in he series Educaion Policies and Sraegies launched in 2001 by UNESCO s former Division of Educaional Policies and Sraegies. Deliberaely eschewing an excessive concern wih heory, i seeks above all o be a collecion of good pracices. Through he choice of hemes addressed, UNESCO aims o share is experience no only wih educaion planners, bu more broadly wih all hose ineresed in he elaboraion and implemenaion of educaion policies and sraegies. Devoed o he subjec of resul-based planning in educaion, his issue is addressed o managemen specialiss in naional adminisraions, policy-makers and educaion minisry officials concerned wih improving heir knowledge of he mehods and ools used in educaional planning and managemen. This handbook illusraes he way educaional planning can be improved by means of he Logical Framework Approach. I describes he differen sages of sraegic planning in educaion (such as: sysem analysis, policy design, acion planning, monioring and evaluaion), as well as he way he logical links can be assured across hese sages in an effor o promoe a resul-based educaion planning and managemen. A few oher planning mehods and echniques, such as simulaion modelling, resource projecions, ec. are also relaed in his documen. This paper is he firs aemp o applying he Logical Framework Approach o educaion in a secor-wide planning conex. I is hoped ha his handbook will assis Member Saes in srenghening heir capaciy in resul-based educaion planning, using heir resources more effecively and voicing heir sraegic prioriies for educaional developmen. I is also hoped ha programme officers a various eniies of UNESCO and oher developmen agencies will find useful help in improving heir planning skills and echniques in suppor of naional educaion planning and managemen. Mohamed Radi Direcor, a.i.; Division for Educaion Sraegies and Capaciy Building v

6 Conens PREFACE...v INTRODUCTION...1 CHAPTER I. THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT CYCLE An overview The basic srucure of plan or programme documens...8 CHAPTER II. SECTOR ANALYSIS Diagnosic aspecs o be analyzed Secor analysis hrough he LFA Logical Framework Approach: An overview Siuaion analysis Sakeholder analysis...27 CHAPTER III. POLICY OBJECTIVES Educaion policy aspecs Policy dialogue Policy aspecs o be addressed Formulaion of policy objecives hrough he LFA Definiions and underlying principles of Logframe Analysis of objecives Analysis of alernaive sraegies...37 CHAPTER IV. PROGRAMME OF ACTION Acion planning hrough he LFA Preliminary remarks Designing acions and heir aribues wih he Logframe Marix Developing an acion plan hrough nesing of Logframes Planning for monioring, review and evaluaion Performance indicaors Three classificaions of evaluaion Objecs of monioring and evaluaion...57 CHAPTER V. ESTIMATION OF COSTS Coss/resources a he aciviy level Budgeing hrough simulaion echniques...62 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES...64 ANNEXES...65 Annex 1. Main aspecs o be analyzed for a diagnosis of he educaion secor...65 Annex 2. Sakeholders: differen perspecives...95 Annex 3. Simulaion in policy formulaion and acion planning...99 Annex 4. The reconsruced cohor mehod vii

7 Inroducion Planning is a process whereby a direcion is se forh and hen he ways and means for following ha direcion are specified. There are many forms of planning wih several ypes of aciviies involved in his process. A plan is he produc of he planning process and can be defined as a se of decisions abou wha o do, why, and how o do i. A plan of acion is a living reference framework for acion. This implies ha: 4 As a reference of acion, he plan is he resul of consensus building process, o be agreed upon by all hose working in he fields covered as well as he oher sakeholders conribuing o is implemenaion; 4 As an indicaive, living framework, i is designed in such a way as o allow for adjusmens in ligh of new developmens during implemenaion; 4 As a working ool, i includes no only policy and expendiure frameworks, bu also he hierarchy of objecives, key acions and insiuional arrangemens for implemenaion, monioring and evaluaion. More and more, educaion managers are compelled o hink and plan sraegically, due o some following reasons: 4 Firs, one may wish o plan and carry ou all he aciviies deemed needed, bu wihou achieving he ulimae goals. 4 Furhermore, more resources do no necessarily sand for he bes resuls. The way one uses hese resources can lead o a differen level of benefis. 4 Thirdly, i has become more and more difficul o plan everyhing one would wish o do. One ough o make choices, ofen ough ones, hrough a balanced decision-making, rade-offs across he sysem and consensus building process. These lead o espouse sraegic planning. A sraegic plan in he educaion secor is he physical produc of he sraegic planning process and embodies he guiding orienaions on how o run an educaion sysem wihin a larger naional developmen perspecive, which is evolving by naure and ofen involves consrains. 1

8 A resul-based planning handbook The erm sraegy 1 was firs used in he miliary conex. Generals had he asks of having a wider view of all facors, for he longer erm purpose of evenually ensuring he securiy of heir counry. In he early 1960s, his erm was proposed o be used ouside he miliary conex, firs in business and hen in he social secors as well. Educaion is no excepion. Like any oher sysems, educaion has inpus, processes, oupus and oucomes: 4 Inpus o he educaion sysem include resources such as eachers, buildings, equipmen, books, ec. 4 These inpus go hrough a process (hroughpu) whereby hey are mixed (inpu mix), combined and/or moved along o achieve resuls. 4 Educaional oupus are angible resuls produced by processes in he sysem, such as enrolmens, graduaes and learning achievemens. 4 Anoher kind of resul, which can be called oucome, is he benefis for he sudens, heir families and/or he sociey as well. As a way of sraegic managemen, educaion sysems should be analyzed and hough ou in erms of relevance, efficiency, effeciveness, impac and susainabiliy: for example, one will wonder wheher he inpus o he educaion sysem are relevan for addressing he needs, o wha exen he processes (uilizaion of resources) are efficienly driven and how well he anicipaed oupus are effecively produced. Oucomes should be weighed in erms of heir impac and susainabiliy. Long range v. operaional v. sraegic planning In he pas, planners usually referred o he erm long-range planning. More recenly, hey use he erm sraegic planning. Alhough many sill use hese erms inerchangeably, sraegic planning and long-range planning differ. Long-range planning is generally considered o mean he developmen of a plan aimed a achieving a policy or se of policies over a period of several years, wih he assumpion ha he projecion of (or exrapolaion from) he pas and curren siuaion is sufficien o ensure he implemenaion of he fuure aciviies. In oher words, long-range planning assumes ha he environmen is sable, while sraegic planning assumes ha a sysem mus be responsive o a dynamic and changing environmen. The erm sraegic planning is mean o capure sraegic (comprehensive, holisic, houghful or fundamenal) naure of his ype of planning. 1 From Greek sraegia generalship, from sraegos general, from sraos army + agein o lead. According o Merriam- Webser Online Dicionary, 10h Ediion, sraegy means he science and ar of miliary command exercised o mee he enemy in comba under advanageous condiions. 2

9 Inroducion Wih regard o operaional and sraegic planning, a narrow definiion would be ha sraegic planning is done wih involvemen of high levels of managemen, while operaional planning is done a lower levels. However, his documen proposes o give i a wider definiion as shown in he following able. Operaional planning Sraegic planning Focus Rouine aciviies Achieving goals Purpose Achieving he bes use of available resources Planning he bes courses of acion Rewards Efficiency, sabiliy Effeciveness, impac Informaion Presen siuaion Fuure opporuniies Organizaion Bureaucraic, sable Enrepreneurial, flexible Problem solving Relies on pas experience Finds new ways and alernaives Risks Low High This maerial illusraes he way he Logical Framework Approach can be used in sraegic educaional planning and in he design of specific projec documens for he implemenaion of he naional educaion developmen plans. I is mean o be a pracical guide on resul-based, sraegic and acion planning wih wo resricions. Firs, i deals wih he planning issues of educaion sysems a he macro level (naional, or sae/ provincial level, especially in he case of federal sysems), raher han a he micro level (e.g. insiuions). Second, i addresses planning and managemen issues a upsream sages, raher han a he acual implemenaion phase. The erm upsream is mean o designae he sage of he developmen of naional educaion policies, programmes and/or projecs, because i comes before he implemenaion of he programmes, or downsream phase. Many managemen aspecs are no he objec of his guide insofar as hey concern downsream sages. The handbook presens firs a synopic view of he differen sages of he sraegic managemen cycle in he educaion secor (Chaper I). Subsequen chapers describe he differen sages of sraegic and acion planning by means of he Logical Framework Approach: sysem analysis (Chaper II), policy design (Chaper III) and acion programming (Chaper IV). Resource cosing echniques, especially hrough simulaion modelling, are also explained (Chaper V). 3

10 A resul-based planning handbook In sum, readers of his handbook are kindly reminded ha: 4 This documen does no inend o be exhausive and exclusive. I explains he main feaures of he analyical and planning echniques as proposed by he Logical Framework Approach, bu does no give exensive deails of his mehod. 4 I focuses on he logical sequencing in he design of a naional educaion secor developmen plan or a projec, bu gives lile deails on he acual aspecs of daa and policy analysis, which mehodology can be found in he maerials lised in he bibliographical references of his handbook; 4 Depending on heir level and ineres, readers can go sraigh o he chapers or secions of heir choice in his handbook. 4

11 Chaper I. The sraegic managemen cycle 1.1. An overview There are a variey of erminologies used in sraegic managemen and a variey of approaches o carry i ou. One canno say ha here is a single perfec way o conduc sraegic planning. Each insiuion has is own paricular inerpreaion of he approaches and aciviies in sraegic managemen. However, wha is generic o sraegic managemen are cerain ypical sages involving similar aciviies carried ou in a similar sequence. Any managemen involves four basic sages: analysis, planning, implemenaion and evaluaion. Diagram 1: The sraegic managemen cycle Evaluaion Monioring & Review Feedback Implemenaion The Sraegic Managemen Cycle Analysis Operaionaisaion Appraisal Planning In a more sophisicaed way, we can say ha sraegic managemen is a coninuum of successive sages such as: criical analysis of a sysem, policy formulaion and appraisal, acion planning, managemen and monioring, review and evaluaion. Experience and lessons learn from implemenaion, monioring and evaluaion provide feedback for adjusing he curren programme or for he nex cycle of policy formulaion and acion planning. 5

12 A resul-based planning handbook Diagram 1 oulines his cyclical paern of sraegic managemen: 4 Any managemen cycle begins wih analysis, whereby he curren siuaion of a sysem and he criical issues peraining o is saus and funcioning are firs analysed. 4 Findings and remedial opions are hen formulaed and appraised, hus providing policy orienaions. 4 When he sysem is analysed and he fuure direcions are raced, one can proceed wih planning he necessary acions o correc or improve he siuaion. A plan can be long range (6 o 10 years), medium erm (3 o 5 years) or shor erm (1 o 2 years). 4 Operaionalizaion consiss of aking he necessary reform and insiuional measures ha are conducive o he smooh implemenaion of plans or programmes and before he acual execuion sars, including: 4 Designing specific developmen projecs or programmes and/or mobilizing resources required o implemen he planned acions and aciviies. 4 Planning and managemen are subjec o feedback-providing operaions, i.e. monioring, review and evaluaion. In he educaion secor, he managemen operaions relaed o upsream, planning work consis of: (i) sysem analysis; (ii) policy formulaion; (iii) acion planning. Secor analysis: This diagnosic sage consiss of conducing daa collecion on and criical analysis of he aspecs relaing o (and surrounding) he educaion secor. Planners carefully review how he sysem funcions (inernal dynamics) and examine various conexual, deermining facors (he environmen of which educaion is a par), e.g. macro-economic and socio-demographic siuaions and developmens. They look ino he above aspecs from he perspecive of he sysem s srenghs, weaknesses, opporuniies and hreas (beer known as he SWOT analysis) regarding educaional developmen. This will help o idenify he criical issues, o idenify he challenges and o consruc remedial acions. Some call his phase of educaion secor analysis (ESA) he diagnosic work. Secor review, sysem analysis, ec. are also used. Noe: Policy dialogue wih sakeholders should conribue o a common undersanding of he problems and issues. Lack of reliable informaion and relevan analysis ofen lead o misundersanding and confusion among sakeholders. A ool/mechanism should be se up in order o provide relevan daa and informaion for discussions, which will allow people o sing on he same shee of music. Tailoring daa appropriaely o he differen requiremens of differen sakeholders is ofen ignored, o he peril of such imporan consulaion. 6

13 I. The sraegic managemen cycle Policy and sraegy formulaion: Careful (and criical) analysis of he educaional sysem underaken during he secor analysis leads o quesions abou wha he educaion secor mus do in order o address he major issues, challenges and opporuniies. These quesions include wha overall resuls (sraegic goals) he sysem should achieve and he overall mehods (or sraegies) o implemen policies designed o bring abou such objecives. This sage of sraegic planning is called policy formulaion. Noe: Paricipaory policy formulaion requires no only he paricipaion of sakeholders in he design of policies and sraegies bu also he availabiliy of considerable informaion and a number of policy opions/alernaives ha can allow for evidence-based policy dialogue and consensus building. Noe: Goals and expeced resuls can, for example, be worded o be specific, measurable, agreed upon, realisic, imely, exending he capabiliies of hose working o achieve he goals, and rewarding o hem (SMART or SMARTER as acronym). Using he SMART ool can help adjus exising educaional policies and sraegies or updae hem in he ligh of new developmens. Acion planning: Acion planning is a process whereby one ranslaes he policy saemens (opions and sraegies) ino execuable, measurable and accounable acions (EMA). In a broader sense, acion planning includes specifying objecives, oupus, sraegies, responsibiliies and imelines (wha, wha for, how, who and when). The oupu of his process is a plan of acion. For he purpose of resul-based planning, he Logical Framework Approach is also widely used when preparing developmen projecs, programmes and plans, hus conribuing o resuls-based programming, managemen and monioring in he educaion secor. Noe: The plan of acion is a sor of business plan 2 (someimes called operaional plan, implemenaion plan or operaing plan), which describes he acions, inpus and resources required over he nex years. I also includes mehods and indicaors for monioring and evaluaing he planned aciviies. In general, i comprises (i) he secor analysis; (2) he policy direcions; and (iii) he acion programme (See also Box 1). The secor analysis summarises he findings of he srucural, funcional, and pedagogical diagnoses of an educaion sysem as well as he design of policy opions and areas for improvemen. The par dealing wih policies and sraegies presens he policy framework concerning he mission, he policy objecives/orienaions, as well as he sraegies of insiuional reform and effecive implemenaion of he educaion policy. The acion programme, medium-erm in general, describes he acions and aciviies o be carried ou, he resources (human, echnical, physical, and financial) required, he responsibiliies and he implemenaion imeframe. Ofen, minisries will develop shor-erm plans (1 o 2 years) for each sub-secor, deparmen, ec., which are someimes called work plans. 2 In addiion o he sraegic plan or quie ofen as par of i, one will have o prepare an acion plan of medium range. This rolling medium-erm plan (in general, 3-5 years according o counries planning pracices) will permi mid-erm updaes and necessary adjusmens o long-erm policies and sraegies in place. 7

14 A resul-based planning handbook Usually, projecions of resource requiremens are included in sraegic, operaing or work plans. Resources can be human, echnical, physical and financial. Informaion on financial resources include: he cos esimaes required for he implemenaion of he plan, he budge likely o be available in he fuure and he funding gaps (addiional funding) o fill in for each of he years included in he span of ime, giving paricular aenion o he firs years. The MTEF (Mid-Term Expendiure Framework) processes in place in some counries should conribue o fruiful negoiaions and rade-offs beween he op-down budge ceiling and boom-up iniiaives for resource envelope for he secor. 3 Plans build on he MTEF and furher deail how he funds will be spen (by recurren budge, capial budge, projec budges, ec.) Noe: In he conex of sraegic planning, policy simulaion modelling is widely used when preparing educaion secor developmen plans or programmes, as a ool for scenario planning and resource projecions. Since here are oo many acors, ineress and he inerrelaions beween hese in he educaion secor, i is necessary o have no only a reliable informaion sysem, bu also an objecive forecasing ool o faciliae policy consulaions regarding policy feasibiliy, financial consrains and heir consequences on educaion and naional developmen The basic srucure of plan or programme documens A plan or programme documen usually follows wih a variey of varians he logic srucure of which is presened in Box 1. The following chapers presen some aspecs ha are subjec o analysis hroughou he process of secor developmen planning, viz. diagnosis, policy formulaion and acion planning. Furhermore, hey describe how he Logical Framework Approach can be used in he conex of he design of an educaion secor developmen plan or programme. 3 See Public Expendiure Managemen Handbook World Bank for a concepual and pracical overview of he MTEF procedures. 8

15 I. The sraegic managemen cycle Box 1. The basic srucure of plan documens I. SECTOR ANALYSIS I.1. General conex I.2. Sysem descripion I.3. Siuaion analysis (achievemens, lessons, issues, challenges and opporuniies) I.5. Sakeholder analysis II. POLICY AND STRATEGY II.1. Developmen objecive and overall goals II.2. Specific objecives and sraegy for achieving developmen objecive II.3. Beneficiaries II.4. Insiuional arrangemens II.5. Major sub-programmes (or Sub-secors) III. PROGRAMMES OF ACTION III.1. Sub-programme 1 III.1.1. Programme objecive (Saemen and descripion of he programme) III.1.2. Componens (Resuls-> Acions ->Inpus/Resources) III.2. Sub-programme 2 III.X. Sub-programme X IV. MANAGEMENT, MONITORING AND EVALUATION IV.1. Governance and managemen IV.2. Developmen coordinaion (governmen, donors, NGOs, privae secor, ec.) IV.2. Risk assessmen and assumpions IV.3 Monioring and evaluaion V. COSTS VI. ANNEXES 9

16 Chaper II. Secor analysis Secor analysis is he firs sage of secor developmen planning. Secor review, siuaion analysis, diagnosis, ec. are someimes used inerchangeably. Basically, secor analysis consiss in conducing daa collecion on and criical analysis of he aspecs relaing o (and surrounding) he educaion secor. Planners and managers carefully examine boh inernal and exernal aspecs of he educaion sysem. In oher words, hey: 4 review how he sysem funcions (inernal dynamics) o mee people s needs and economic demand; 4 examine various driving forces behind he educaion sysem and exernal condiions (he environmen of which educaion is a par), e.g. macro-economic and socio-demographic siuaions and developmens. Planners and managers can look a he above aspecs from he perspecive of he sysem s srenghs, weaknesses, lessons and opporuniies regarding educaional developmen. They also examine he relevance, efficiency and effeciveness of he inpus, processes and oupus of he sysem in is curren seing. This helps o idenify criical issues, challenges and consruc remedial acions and policy provisions Diagnosic aspecs o be analyzed The main caegories of aspecs o be considered when conducing an Educaion Secor Analysis (ESA) and/or when describing he diagnosic par of an educaion secor developmen plan are: (i) macro-economic and socio-demographic frameworks; (ii) access o and paricipaion in educaion; (iii) qualiy of educaion; (iv) exernal efficiency; (v) coss and financing of educaion; and (vi) managerial and insiuional aspecs. The aspecs (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) and (vi) can be documened by sub-secor (preschool, primary and secondary educaion, echnical and vocaional educaion, higher educaion, non formal educaion, ec.) The following paragraphs describe, by caegory, he major aspecs o be analysed in erms of achievemens, lessons, issues, challenges and/or opporuniies. Annex 1 presens in more deail he various aspecs ha can be considered for a diagnosis of he educaion secor, including he daa and indicaors o be provided. 4 Macro-economic and socio-demographic frameworks: This is abou analyzing he main aspecs and feaures of he socio-economic conex of he counry in so far as hey 4 For hose who are ineresed in having more deailed informaion on hese diagnosic aspecs, please refer o Annex 1. 11

17 A resul-based planning handbook can have impac on educaion developmen. The general characerisics of a counry can be sudied mainly by carrying ou, bu no limied o, analyses of demographic (general and school-relaed) daa, he macro-economic and budgeary conex, he socio-culural environmen and he poliical and insiuional srucures and frameworks. a) Demography and manpower This involves analyzing he demographic aspecs of a leas he las wo years (preferably 5 o 10 years) and he probable changes in he coming years (noably he period of programming of he plan), no only in he oal populaion of he counry, bu especially in he school-age populaion. b) Macro-economic and budgeary framework This is abou analyzing he pas rends and he possible developmens of naional produciviy, domesic revenues, and he prospecive share of educaion in oal public expendiure. On he basis of macro-economic daa and informaion provided by agencies dealing wih cenral planning and finance, educaion minisries will analyse some of he following macro-economic and budgeary indicaors: 4 Public expendiure on educaion as percenage of gross naional produc 4 Public expendiure on educaion as percenage of oal governmen expendiure 4 Percenage disribuion of public curren expendiure on educaion by level 4 Public curren expendiure per pupil (suden) as % of GNP per capia 4 Public curren expendiure on educaion as percenage of oal public expendiure on educaion 4 Privae (or communiy) funding, if any 4 Exernal funding, if any c) Socio-culural analysis This secion concerns in paricular: he demographic composiion, he socio-culural and someimes religious srucure, he counry s culural radiions which can have an impac on he social demand for educaion, he schooling and he school performance of minoriies, and of girls/boys, ec. d) Poliico-insiuional analysis The aspecs of insiuional, poliical and erriorial organizaion are likely o have an impac on he educaion services of a counry. I involves he 12

18 II. Secor analysis analysis of he funcioning mode of he Sae and local/public auhoriies (cenralized or decenralized sysems, ec.), bu also he reforms in view and heir likely consequences for he educaion sysem. The role and responsibiliies of he differen planning and managemen auhoriies should be analyzed in order o show heir srenghs and weaknesses and idenify he pahs o follow o remedy possible managemen problems in he educaion secor. Access o and paricipaion in educaion: This par mainly concerns analysing he access and paricipaion a each level of educaion; he inernal efficiency, and he dispariies in educaion. a) Access and paricipaion This secion of he educaion secor diagnosis analyses educaion coverage by level and ype of educaion according o he srucure of he educaion sysem (a all levels and across all ypes of educaion), including he provision of educaion by public, semi-public, privae or communiy schools, ec. Analysis is carried ou of presen rends building on an examinaion of pas endencies. Some main indicaors ha are used o measure access o and paricipaion in educaion are: Access o educaion can be defined as he exen o which he schoolage populaion is able o access he firs grade of a paricular level or cycle of educaion. The mos commonly used indicaors o measure his aspec of he educaion secor are: 4he apparen inake rae; 4he ne inake rae; 4he ransiion rae; and 4he regisraion rae. Paricipaion in educaion can be defined as he coverage of he schoolage populaion in educaion services, ideally o he compleion of he level concerned. The mos commonly used indicaors o measure his aspec of he educaion secor are: 4gross enrolmen raio; 4ne enrolmen raio; 4age-specific enrolmen raio. b) Inernal efficiency The inernal efficiency of an educaion sysem basically measures he number of years i akes a child o complee a paricular cycle or level of educaion, e.g. primary, secondary, ec. The basic indicaors required o measure he inernal efficiency of an educaion sysem are calculaed on he basis of he flow raes: 13

19 A resul-based planning handbook 4promoion rae; 4repeiion rae; and 4dropou rae. The indicaors of he survival, reenion, compleion raes, ec. are calculaed building on hese flow raes. Cohor analysis using flow diagrams is useful o calculae hese indicaors of inernal efficiency. A school cohor is a group of pupils who join he firs grade of a given cycle or level of educaion in he same year and subsequenly experience he evens of promoion, repeiion or dropou. Cohor analysis races he flow of a group of pupils who ener he firs grade in he same year and progress hrough an enire cycle or level of educaion. In paricular, i can help calculae wasages due o dropou or repeiion, survival raes and he coefficien of efficiency. For more deails, please refer o Annex 4. Examples of indicaors are: 4Years-inpu per graduae 4Average duraion of sudies per graduae 4Average duraion of sudies per dropou 4Average duraion of sudies for he cohor 4Proporion of oal wasage spen on dropou 4Proporion of oal wasage spen on repeiion 4Survival raes by grade 4Coefficien of efficiency c) Dispariies. This means analyzing he educaional coverage and services by gender (girls/boys), by adminisraive area (region, disrics, ec.), by populaion densiy (urban/rural) or by socio-culural groupings (social sraa, ehnic or linguisic minoriy groups, ec.). Qualiy of educaion: In principle, qualiy should deal no only wih educaional inpus, bu also wih oupus, oucomes (e.g. learning achievemen, he acquisiion of basic life skills, ciizenship, ec.), and processes. However, because such educaional oucomes are ofen difficul o measure, planners and managers have ended o rely on he quaniy and he qualiy of educaional inpus (resources) and o a limied exen, processes, o assess educaional qualiy. Inernal efficiency indicaors (for example, promoion, repeiion and dropou raes) are ofen used as proxies o measure he qualiy of educaion. Three broad caegories of educaional inpus are: (i) educaion personnel; (ii) insrucional mehods and maerials; and (iii) educaional faciliies. a) Educaion personnel Teachers are he principal facor in educaional provision. On he oher hand, salaries represen he mos imporan par of recurren educaion 14

20 II. Secor analysis expendiure. This implies ha eachers aribues need o be analysed carefully. One ough o examine, for example, he number of eachers available, he requiremen of eachers in he ligh of he naional or subnaional norms and sandards, pupils/eacher raios, he level of eachers qualificaion and heir raining needs, and he saus of pedagogical and adminisraive supervision. Teacher salaries by caegory or by level of qualificaion need o be analysed in consulaion wih oher minisries or insiuions concerned. Some eacher-relaed indicaors ha can be analysed include: 4 The number of eachers available in he sysem and new eachers o be recruied 4Pupil-eacher raio 4 Teachers emolumens as a percenage of public curren expendiure on educaion b) Educaional faciliies This is abou school space and equipmen. In counries ha have reached high levels of educaion, physical consrucion can represen marginal invesmen. However, in counries ha have significanly low enrolmen raios, his is one of he mos imporan budgeary caegories. This implies he need for a horough and careful analysis of he coss and sandards of consrucion, mainenance coss, he condiions of educaional faciliies (blackboards, desks, larines, waer, ec.), as well as he space-ime use of classrooms according o levels and ypes of educaion. Some indicaors ha can help measure he space-ime use of educaional faciliies are: 4Pupil-classroom raio 4Classroom space uilisaion rae 4Classroom ime uilisaion rae 4Classroom uilizaion rae 4Classroom requiremens c) Insrucional mehods, processes and oupus This is abou evaluaing he saus (or he availabiliy) and he relevance of school programmes, pedagogical mehods (as for example, he ypes of pupil groupings in muligrade classes, double shifs, ec., and also he class sizes), and of insrucional maerial (exbooks, eacher s guides and equipmen). Depending on he resources available o his end, specific research sudies should be carried ou in order o: 4 Assess he acual learning achievemen of sudens, aking ino accoun heir individual characerisics and he various educaional inpus (lear- 15

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