Clitic positions and Restructuring in Italian. Anna Cardinaletti & Ur Shlonsky

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Clitic positions and Restructuring in Italian. Anna Cardinaletti & Ur Shlonsky"

Transcription

1 Clitic positions and Restructuring in Italian Anna Cardinaletti & Ur Shlonsky University of Venice University of Geneva Abstract Verbs can be introduced (merged) either in a lexical VP or in a functional head, the latter giving rise to restructuring contexts. This paper argues that there are two clitic positions in Italian restructured clauses. One position is associated with the (restructured) lexical verb and the other position is a clausal clitic position located in the functional domain. While restructuring can be recursive, clitics appear either on the restructured infinitive (no clitic climbing) or in the functional domain of the highest verb (full clitic climbing). There is no clitic climbing to an intermediate restructuring verb. We argue that only the lowest restructured verb makes a position for clitics available. We then discuss the distribution of the infinitive-final [e] and argue that its position should be identified with the lexical clitic position. Finally, it is shown that the functional ~ lexical dichotomy is too sharp and that a variety of verb classes must be admitted, including one which we call quasi-functional (causative, perception, and motion verbs.) The properties exhibited by each class of verbs correlates with the point in the structure in which they are merged. Keywords: restructuring, clitic, lexical verb, functional verb, Italian, clitic climbing

2 Introduction The major goal of this paper * is to provide a descriptively-adequate account of Italian restructuring. In particular, we are interested in the relationship between clitic climbing and the distribution of the word-final [e] of Italian infinitival verbs. We argue that restructuring takes place within a single CP and that restructuring verbs are functional verbs, namely verbs that fill positions in the functional hierarchy of a clause. In this, we follow Cinque 2004, 2001, 2003 (see also Wurmbrand 2004, 2001.) Verbs in a clause are hierarchically arrayed according to their lexical or functional status. Lexical verbs appear in the lowest part of the tree, while functional verbs pile up above the lexical verb. Despite their being verbs morphologically, functional verbs should be taken to be the realization of functional heads, expressing such semantic features as modality, aspect, etc. Our investigation of restructuring leads us to believe that the split between lexical and functional verbs is not a binary one. Between the lexical verb and the functional domain, one finds a group of what we call quasi-functional verbs. These include causative, motion, and perception verbs. We show that lexical verbs are associated with a position for clitic pronouns and a head realized by an infinitive-final [e] in Italian, as in, e.g., leggere. At the opposite end of the spectrum, functional verbs are devoid of the infinitival [e] and cannot host clitics. Pronouns which appear as (pro)clitics on a modal verb, e.g., lo in lo voglio leggere (I) it want to read, occupy a designated position for clitics in what might be called the high region of IP. There are thus two types of position for clitics in the clause: The first is a high position, 2

3 licensed independently of the choice of verb, and forming part of the essential skeleton of IP. The second type of clitic position is lower in the structure since it is contributed by a lexical or by a quasi-functional verb. The phenomenon known as clitic climbing boils down to the appearance of the clitic pronoun in the clausal clitic position (as opposed to the position associated with the lexical or quasi-functional verb.) The empirical generalization explained by our approach is that clitics can appear either on a lexical / quasi-functional verb or on the highest restructuring predicate and nowhere else. Whenever it seems that a clitic is manifested on an intermediate verb in a series, this is an illusion: The intermediate verb is in reality the highest functional verb in CP; the verb appearing on its left is in a higher clause. In our view, the optionality of restructuring is to be understood as follows: one and the same verb can be used either as a lexical or as a functional verb. In the former case, we have restructuring, namely a monoclausal structure; in the latter, we have a biclausal structure with no transparency effects. It can be shown, we believe, that lexical verbs are endowed with more structure (enabling the projection of arguments, the association with a clitic position, and the realization of the infinitive-final [e]) than verbs merged in functional heads. Finally, we show that the difference between lexical and functional verbs is reflected in the clausal architecture. 1. The Problem The following sentences are representative of a typical restructuring pattern, Rizzi 1976, 3

4 1982. The pronoun ci (there) can appear as a clitic either on the infinitival lexical verb andare (go) by which it is selected, as in (1a), or on the inflected matrix verb volere (want), as in (1b). The latter sentence illustrates the phenomenon of clitic climbing. 1 (1) a. Vorrei andarci con Maria. (I) would-want (to) go.there with Maria. b. Ci vorrei andare con Maria. Clitic climbing is possible only with restructuring verbs and impossible, therefore, in (2b), which contains the non-restructuring verb detestare. (2) a. Detesterei andarci con Maria. (I) would-detest (to) go.there with Maria. b. *Ci detesterei andare con Maria. Another well-known property of restructuring is the auxiliary switch illustrated in (3a). Although a modal verb such as volere want is associated with auxiliary avere have and not with essere be as shown in (4) with nominal complements and gapping (Rizzi 1976:23), it can inherit the auxiliary of an embedded unaccusative verb if it restructures with it. ((3a) with essere is somewhat degraded as compared to the same example with avere. (3b) with essere is uniformly excluded.) 2 (3) a. Avrei /?Sarei voluto andarci con Maria. (I) would-have /(I) would-be wanted (to) go.there with Maria. b. Avrei / *Sarei detestato andarci con Maria. 4

5 (I) would-have / (I) would-be hated (to) go.there with Maria. (4) a. Ho / *Sono voluto questo. (I) have / (I) am wanted this I wanted this. b. Non ho / *sono voluto! Not (I) have / (I) am wanted I didn t want (to)! The possibility of the auxiliary essere showing up in (3a) is due to the restructuring that has taken place between the volitional verb and the motion verb, the latter transmitting upwards, in some sense, its own auxiliary, namely essere. This is not possible in (3b), which contains a non-restructuring verb. Only the auxiliary avere is possible here, since it is required by the matrix verb detestare. (3a) shows that auxiliary switch and clitic climbing are partially independent in that the former can take place without the latter, although there is a preference for clitic climbing when essere is selected (viz. the marginal status of (3a) with sarei). Compare the following with (3a) with sarei. (5)Ci sarei voluto andare con Maria. (I) there would-be wanted (to) go with Maria I would have wanted to go there with Maria. 5

6 As Rizzi (1976:48, note 18), (1982:44, note 26), Longobardi (1978:200, note 5), and Cinque 2004 point out, restructuring is a necessary condition for clitic climbing, but not a sufficient one. In other words, the occurrence of restructuring, as manifested by auxiliary switch, merely gives rise to the formal configuration permitting clitic climbing. Whether clitic climbing applies or not depends on other factors, which we do not treat in this paper (see note 1). If clitic climbing has applied, however, we know that restructuring has taken place. In this case, auxiliary switch is obligatory. Compare (5) with *Ci avrei voluto andare con Maria (I) there would-have wanted (to) go with Maria. Examples such as (3a) lead one to expect optionality in Italian clitic climbing. This is indeed the case in relatively simple configurations containing two verbs, e.g., in (1). A more complex case is illustrated by the pattern in (6). When there is more than one restructuring verb in the clause, the clitic pronoun can appear on the infinitival lexical verb andare go as in (6a), on the infinitival modal verb potere can in (6b) or on the inflected modal verb volere want, (6c). 3 (6) a. (?)Vorrei poter andarci con Maria. (I) would want (to) be able (to) go.there with Maria b. Vorrei poterci andare con Maria. c. Ci vorrei poter andare con Maria. The pattern illustrated in (6) suggests that clitic climbing is not only optional, but that modulo note 3, there are as many options of clitic climbing as there are restructuring predicates. 6

7 Suppose, now, that an auxiliary is added to (6) and that auxiliary switch applies. If climbing were possible to every restructuring verb in a chain of restructuring predicates, we would expect all three options in (6) to yield acceptable results when embedded under an auxiliary. This is not the case, however. What we find is that the non-climbing and the full climbing options are substantially better than the partial climbing one (with full climbing perhaps better than non-climbing). This contrast is illustrated in (7) and (8) in which partial climbing to potere yields an ungrammatical result. (7) a.?sarei voluto poter andarci con Maria. (I) would be wanted (to) be able (to) go.there with Maria b. *Sarei voluto poterci andare con Maria. c. Ci sarei voluto poter andare con Maria. (8) a.?sarei dovuto poter uscirne prima. (I) would-be had (to) be able (to) exit.from-there sooner b. *Sarei dovuto poterne uscire prima. c. Ne sarei dovuto poter uscire prima. I should have exited from there sooner. One cannot argue that potere does not allow clitic climbing, since it clearly does attract the clitic in (6b). The paradox displayed by the combination of (6b) and (7b)/(8b) is an illustration of the following descriptive generalization. 7

8 (9) Clitic pronouns can appear attached either to the lexical verb or to the highest verb that has restructured and nowhere else. In (6b), restructuring does not go as high as volere, but stops with potere. Given the occurrence of essere in (7b), as opposed to avere, we know that auxiliary switch has applied. Hence in (7b), restructuring goes up to volere. This difference is schematized in (10). (The square brackets here and henceforth indicate the restructured material). (10) a. Vorrei [poterci andare con Maria]. (= (6b)) (I) would-want (to) be-able (to) go.there with Maria b. *[Sarei voluto poterci andare con Maria]. (= (7b)) In (6c) and trivially in (7c), restructuring has occured all the way up, whence the high position of the clitic. Sentence (7a) reaffirms the optionality of clitic climbing, as does (6a), which is potentially ambiguous between the partial restructuring structure underlying (6b) - viz note 3 - and the full restructuring configuration underlying (6c). In order to better explain and develop the generalization in (9), we need to present our view of restructuring and clitic placement, placing them in the context of previous work on the subject. 2. Restructuring The process by which the scope of operations associated with a lower predicate (cliticization, auxiliary selection) is extended to the domain of a higher predicate, namely restructuring, has 8

9 received substantial treatment in the literature. In what follows, we present the skeleton of two influential accounts of restructuring and show that they do not satisfactorily explain the generalization in (9). We then present our own view, which draws on Cinque 2001, Previous approaches One approach to restructuring holds that this process creates a complex predicate and a monoclausal structure out of a biclausal sentence (see Rizzi (1976, 1982).) Under the second approach to restructuring, there is no clausal conflation but rather, properties of the inflectional system render the CP boundary transparent to clitics, so that these can literally climb out of one clause into a superordinate one (see in particular Kayne 1989a, 1991, Roberts 1998 and Rouveret 1997.) Neither one of the two approaches to restructuring provides an immediate explanation for the central observation made in the previous section, concerning the unacceptability of intermediate clitic positions or of partial climbing. In Rizzi s account, restructuring is a cyclic operation, so that the clitic pronoun appears on the second or intermediate verb when restructuring has taken place on the second cycle (Rizzi 1982:42, note 11). If restructuring then takes place on the third cycle, the clitic is placed on the highest verb. However, since clitic climbing is optional, third cycle application of restructuring cannot force the clitic to climb from the intermediate position to the high position. Thus, the cyclic nature of restructuring combined with the optional character of clitic climbing incorrectly predicts that (7b) should be grammatical. Kayne s and Roberts analyses of clitic climbing in terms of long distance movement are also 9

10 incapable of expressing (9). This is so because - as in Rizzi s approach - intermediate climbing is a derivational stage in long climbing. In other words, (7b) is an intermediate step in the derivation of (7c). Our account of clitic climbing, developed below, gets around the problem faced by previous approaches by questioning the view that restructuring is a cyclic syntactic rule. 2.2 Restructuring: A modified view Assuming a rather uncontroversial clause structure like the following, where a VP is associated with functional heads projecting FPs, (11) [ FP3 [ FP2 [ FP1 [ VP ]]]]. verbs can be inserted either in V or in one of the Fs. The verbs inserted in V are lexical, and those inserted under F are functional. To characterize a verb as a restructuring verb is to suppose that it is inserted in F. From this perspective, which we share with Cinque 2004, 2001, 2003, there is no restructuring rule, pace Rizzi (1976, 1982). The often observed optionality of restructuring is expressed, in Rizzi s system, by a property of the restructuring rule itself. On the present account, it is handled in terms of a choice of the position in which a verb is merged. When a verb is inserted in F, a restructuring context is obtained. The very same verb can be inserted in V, in which case it takes a full clausal or CP complement and gives rise to a non-restructuring configuration. Assuming a monoclausal structure like (11), the generalization in (9) can be captured as 10

11 follows. One and the same clause contains two clitic positions. In addition to the clausal clitic position situated in the high portion of the IP (adjoined to I, as in Kayne (1989b), or heading a unique clitic projection, as in Kayne (1994) and Sportiche (1996), among others), a lexical clitic position must be assumed. This clitic position is associated with the lexical verb as part of the lexical or VP domain. Being part of the lexical domain means being either a feature on V or an independent maximal projection above V but related to it in much the same way as vp is related to VP. Incorporating the latter option, (12) schematizes the two clitic positions. 4 (12) [ FP [ FP clitic [ FP [ FP [ FP clitic [ vp [ VP ]]]]]. functional domain lexical domain The clausal clitic position differs from the lexical clitic position in that it interacts with functional elements, such as negation (cf. Zanuttini 1997 and Poletto 2000). 5 Given (12), clitic climbing means that the clitic pronoun appears in the clausal clitic position. When the clitic pronoun appears in the lexical clitic position, we obtain a restructuring context without clitic climbing. Partial climbing, as in (7b), is not an available option because there simply is no third clitic position in the clause. 6 The approach developed here entails that there is no clitic climbing in the sense of stepwise head-to-head movement of the clitic. We can, however, remain neutral as to how clitic climbing should be derived: whether via actual movement of the clitic pronoun (A-movement of a maximal projection followed by local head-to-head movement, as proposed in e.g., Belletti 1999 or Sportiche 1996), or via merging of the clitic pronoun in either the lexical or the clausal clitic position. 11

12 Our analysis eliminates the need for a restructuring rule and a clitic climbing rule. It also permits us to construe auxiliary switch in a way that obviates the need for an avere essere rule (of the sort proposed in Rizzi (1976), (1982).) Notice that the avere essere rule is at odds with the hypothesis that essere is the basic auxiliary and that avere is derived from essere (perhaps by the incorporation of a preposition, as per Kayne 1993.) Rizzi s view of auxiliary switch requires a rule shifting avere back to essere. However, if there is no switch in auxiliaries, as we suggest, this problem simply does not arise. The clausal auxiliary is the auxiliary associated with the lexical verb, the choice between avere and essere being determined by properties of the lexical verb itself such as its argument structure and/or by properties of its related functional field (agreement and tense). The important point is that the choice of the auxiliary is independent of the presence of modal, volitional, or other functional verbs. With these assumptions in mind, consider (6b) once again and take the square brackets in its associated structure (10a) to indicate that the embedded constituent is a CP selected by the main verb volere. Note that the bracketed CP complement in (10a) consists of a restructured clause. The possibility of auxiliary switch in (13) is evidence that potere is a functional verb combining with the lexical verb andare. 7 (13) Vorrei [esserci potuto andare con Maria.] (I) would-want (to) be.there been-able (to) go with Maria Another test for the presence of a full CP complement to a verb like volere, which we adapt from Rizzi (1976:12-13) and Kayne 1989b:243, 253, concerns the licit occurrence of clausal negation. Non can appear in an embedded CP in (14), (15a,b) and (16a), but not in the restructuring contexts in (15c) and (16b). 12

13 (14) Vorrei [non doverci andare con Maria] (I) would-want not (to) have.there (to) go with Maria 'I would want to not to have to go with Maria.' (15) a. Vorrei [non dover mai farlo] (I) would-want not (to) have ever (to) do.it 'I would want to not to have to ever do.it b. Vorrei [non doverlo mai fare] (I) would-want not (to) have.it ever (to) do c. *[Lo vorrei non dover mai fare] (I) would-want not (to) have ever (to) do (16) a. Avrei voluto [non andare da nessuna parte] (I) would-have wanted not (to) go to any where 'I would have wanted not to go anywhere.' b. *[Sarei voluta non andare da nessuna parte] (I) would be wanted not (to) go to any where Kayne attributes to negation a blocking effect on clitic climbing, which is why lo cannot climb in (15c). The blocking-effect analysis, however, does not explain why auxiliary switch is blocked in (16b). We reinterpret the incompatibility of clitic climbing and auxiliary switch with negation in structural terms (cf. Rizzi (1976:13).) We propose that the presence of 13

14 clausal negation implies the projection of a full CP, which is incompatible with the phenomenology of restructuring (but see Cinque 2004 for a different view and a different appraisal of the data.) The presence of the negative adverb mai in (15) and the negative quantifier nessuna in (16) guarantees that non is the head of the (CP-dependent) clausal negation. This is so because negative adverbs and quantifiers must be licensed by association with a clausal NegP (Haegeman & Zanuttini 1991.) In the presence of negation, clitic climbing and auxiliary switch are acceptable without the negative quantifier, as shown in (17a,b). In these examples, however, non is an instance of lexical or lower negation with scope only over the lexical verb and unable to license a negative quantifier. (17) a. [Ci vorrei non andare] (I) there would-want not (to) go 'I would want not to go there.' b. [Sarei voluta non andare a Roma]. (I) would-be wanted not (to) go to Rome The distribution of negation in (18) shows that potere in (6a) can also take a CP complement. (18) Vorrei poter [non andarci con nessuno]. (I) would-want (to) be-able not (to) go.there with anybody 'I would want to be able to not to go there with anybody.' 14

15 Clitic climbing to the domain of potere or volere is blocked in the sentences in (19), when the negation appearing on andare signals the presence of a CP. This is the expected result since clitic 'climbing' takes place within a single CP. (19) a. *Vorrei poterci [non andare con nessuno]. (I) would-want (to) be-able.there not (to) go with anybody b. *Ci vorrei poter [non andare con nessuno]. (I) it.would-want (to) be-able not (to) go with anybody Note that the sentences in (20) are acceptable in the absence of a negative quantifier, which we interpret to imply the absence of clausal negation (see the discussion surrounding (17).) (20) a. Vorrei [poterci non andare]. (I) would-want (to) be-able.there not (to) go I would like to be able not to go there. b. [Ci vorrei poter non andare] (I) it.would-want (to) be-able not (to) go I would like to be able not to go there. Lexical or lower negation on the modal verb potere yields a much less acceptable output. (20b) contrasts with (21). (21) *[Ci vorrei non poter andare]. The question arises why non in (21) cannot be used as a lexical/lower negation and hence not interfere with clitic climbing. It appears that lexical/lower negation is systematically 15

16 unavailable to modal verbs such as potere, so that non in (21) can only be analysed as the high negative head in spite of the absence of a negative quantifier. 8 In conclusion, our approach to restructuring eliminates the need for a restructuring rule, a clitic climbing rule, and an avere essere rule. 9 3 The infinitival [e] and the two clitic positions In this section we study the distribution of the word-final [e] of Italian infinitives, arguing that its presence signals the availability of a lexical clitic position with which it is in complementary distribution. 10 The first observation to make is that when a pronoun appears as an enclitic to an infinitive, [e] is obligatorily absent. This extremely robust fact is illustrated in the contrast in (22). (22) a. Lo vorrei vedere. (I) it would-want (to) see b. Vorrei veder(*e)lo. The sentences in (23) illustrate another context in which [e] is absent, namely from modal and volitional predicates in their restructuring guise. 11 (23) a. Lo vorrei poter(*e) leggere. (I) it would-want (to) be-able (to) read b. Lo vorrei poter(*e) far leggere a Maria. 16

17 (I) it would-want (to) be-able (to) make read to Maria c. Ci vorrei poter(*e) andare con Maria. (I) there would-want (to) be-able (to) go with Maria d. Li potrei saper(*e) guidare. (I) them could-want (to) be-able (to) drive e. Lo devo poter(*e) fare in giornata. (adapted from Longobardi 1978:180) (I) it must be-able (to) do today f. Ne potrei saper(*e) guidare un paio di modelli fra qualche mese. (idem) (I) of-them could be-able (to) drive a couple of models in some months In conclusion, there are two contexts in which the infinitive-final [e] fails to appear: (i) (ii) when there is an enclitic pronoun on the verb when the verb is functional. Some further observations are prompted by (22) and (23): (i) the two contexts where [e] cannot occur seem to be totally unrelated; (ii) no phonological constraint can account for the ungrammaticality of vederelo in (22) and of the impossibility of [e] on the modal verbs in (23). After all, vederelo is a wellformed Italian word, and modal verbs can have the [e], e.g. in their citation form; (iii) the obligatory absence of [e] on functional verbs such as modals cannot be attributed to Longobardi s (1978) Double Inf filter, which excludes sequences of two infinitivals such 17

18 as desiderare studiare in (24a). Such sequences are excluded independently of the presence of [e], as the ungrammaticality of (24b) confirms (see Longobardi (1978:199, note 1), and thus contrast with the cases in (22) and (23). (24) a.?*gianni dice di desiderare studiare. Gianni says to desire (to) study b.?*gianni dice di desiderar studiare. In the following sections, we show that the distribution of [e] cannot be accounted for phononogically and we provide a unified syntactic account for (22) and (23). 3.1 Against a phonological account The absence of [e] with enclitic pronouns has been accounted for by the phonological rule of Troncamento (Truncation). This rule optionally deletes infinitival [e] in front of consonantinitial words, as in (25) (cf. Vogel, Drigo et al. 1983, Nespor 1990 and Peperkamp 1995, (25) a. Dice di partir(e) presto. (he) says to leave early b. Potrei partir(e) presto. (I) could leave early The absence of [e] with enclitic pronouns, however, is obligatory and never optional, as shown in (22) above. To account for the difference between (22) and (25), Nespor (1990) 18

19 suggests that the Troncamento rule has a different behaviour in the two cases because they involve different prosodic domains. In (22), the rule applies inside a clitic group, in (25) it applies inside an intonational phrase. On a par with other prosodic rules, Troncamento applies obligatorily in the smaller domain, while it applies optionally in the bigger domain. We consider this an unsatisfactory analysis since it seems to merely restate the facts and conclude that the absence of [e] with enclitic pronouns is simply not accounted for by the rule of Troncamento. As for the absence of [e] on functional infinitives, it has not been, to the best of our knowledge, treated in the phonological literature. (This is perhaps not an accident since the distinction between lexical and functional verbs is not a phonological one.) 12 Like the [e]- drop in the presence of enclitic pronouns, the absence of [e] on functional verbs is not covered by the rule of Troncamento. This is so for two reasons. First, while Troncamento applies optionally, [e] is ungrammatical on restructuring modals. Compare (25) with (23). Second, Troncamento applies within the domain of an intonational phrase and cannot apply across a parenthetical, which constitutes an intonational phrase break, as shown in (26a) (from Nespor 1990:386). The sentence in (26b) shows that a modal verb lacks the [e] even before a parenthetical so that intonational or prosodic bracketing seems to be irrelevant to the absence of [e] on modal verbs. (26) a. *Vorrebbe raccontar come ti ho detto solo stupidaggini. (he) would-want (to) tell as (I) to-you have told only nonsense b. senza dover nello stesso tempo accusare anche gli altri. 19

20 without having (to) at-the same time accuse also the others We see that neither (23) nor (26b) can be accounted for by the rule of Troncamento. There is another context where the lack of [e] cannot be accounted for phonologically, namely when functional verbs are raised in the Aux-to-Comp construction (the example in (27) is adapted from Rizzi 1982:112, note 10). 13 (27) Ritengo [dover(*e) tuo fratello tornare a casa]. (I) believe (to) have your brother (to) come-back to home 3.2 The syntactic analysis of the absence of [e] We contend that the two contexts in which [e] fails to appear are one and the same. In a sense that we make precise below, the infinitive-final [e] occupies the lexical clitic position we have posited in our discussion of (9) above. Thus, [e] is an independent morpheme and not part of the non-finite inflection, which is [r]. The syntactic generalization that we wish to explain is that [e] s distribution is a subset of the distribution of clitic pronouns. Just like enclitic pronouns, [e] is possible on all lexical verbs: cf. vedere in (22). Conversely, [e], just like enclitic pronouns, is impossible on modal/volitional verbs, when these are merged as intermediate functional verbs, see (7b) and (23). In these two contexts, [e] and enclitics are either in complementary distribution or excluded, a fact that we can express by saying that they compete for the same position, when such a position is available. There is one context, however, in which clitics are found but from which [e] is barred. This 20

21 context is exhibited when the modal verb is the highest in a series of functional verbs. In this configuration, the verb can host a clitic pronoun, but it cannot display the infinitival [e]. In (28a), for example, a clitic is possible on dovere because it is the highest functional verb in the CP complement to volere. (28b) shows that [e] is not possible in the same context (recall that [e] cannot co-occur with the clitic). (28) a. Vorrei [non doverlo mai fare]. (I) would-want (to) not have.it (to) ever do b. Vorrei [non dover(*e) mai farlo]. Put succinctly, (28) shows that clitics and [e] are not in complementary distribution when the clausal clitic position is utilized. In this position, [e] is simply impossible. The infinitival [e] is a phonetic realization of the lexical clitic position and not of the independently available clausal clitic position. 3.3 [e] and the phonology of Italian clitics Consider the hypothesis that the phonemic form of the infinitive-final vowel is /i/ and that [e] is derived by a phonological rule lowering /i/ to [e] when preceded by a coronal sonorant. In infinitives, the nonfinite morpheme [-r] is responsible for the lowering of /i/ to [e]. A similar lowering process is attested in the pronominal system. The final vowels of the clitics mi me, ti you-sg, si self, ci us; there, vi you-pl; there, gli to-him, le to-her and ne of-it/them, from-there are realized as [e] when preceded by the coronal sonorants /l/ and /n/ (cf. le and ne) and as [i] otherwise. Assume then that /i/ is the phonemic vowel and [e] 21

22 an allophonic realization of /i/ when preceded by a coronal sonorant. 14 It is tempting to consider the [e] of infinitives and the final vowels of the clitics mi, ti etc. as one and the same morpheme. This is tantamount to saying that this vowel is not part of the clitic form itself, just as it is not part of the infinitival morpheme. From this perspective it is not an accident that the clitics subject to the [i] ~ [e] alternation are precisely those whose feature content is exhaustively expressed by the consonant. Let us call this series (mi, ti, si, ci, vi, gli, le and ne) the consonantal series. This series is to be distinguished from accusative lo him, it, la her, it, li them-masc and le them-fem, the final vowels of which bear morphosyntactic features such as gender and number. The idea, then, is to treat a clitic such as ne of it/them as composed of two morphemes, /n/ and /i/, and an infinitival verb like parlare speak as composed of /parl+a+r/+/i/. In both cases, /i/ realizes one and the same functional head associated with the lexical verb. In the case of parlare, the infinitival stem parlar adjoins to the functional head /i/, which is lowered to [e] in the phonology. In the presence of clitic pronouns, the clitic first adjoins to /i/, following which the infinitival verb is either adjoined to the clitic itself or to a higher head as in Kayne 1994, giving rise to e.g. parlarne (whose phonemic form is thus: /parl+a+r/+/n/+/i/). It transpires from the above discussion that the complementary distribution of enclitics and [e] is only apparent: The vowel is always present and follows either the verb or the enclitic pronoun (stricto sensu, low enclisis is an instance of mesoclisis, i.e., of word-internal, as opposed to word-marginal cliticization.) 15 22

Appendix to Chapter 3 Clitics

Appendix to Chapter 3 Clitics Appendix to Chapter 3 Clitics 1 Clitics and the EPP The analysis of LOC as a clitic has two advantages: it makes it natural to assume that LOC bears a D-feature (clitics are Ds), and it provides an independent

More information

Movement and Binding

Movement and Binding Movement and Binding Gereon Müller Institut für Linguistik Universität Leipzig SoSe 2008 www.uni-leipzig.de/ muellerg Gereon Müller (Institut für Linguistik) Constraints in Syntax 4 SoSe 2008 1 / 35 Principles

More information

Against Optional and Null Clitics. Right Dislocation vs. Marginalization *

Against Optional and Null Clitics. Right Dislocation vs. Marginalization * to appear in Studia Linguistica Against Optional and Null Clitics. Right Dislocation vs. Marginalization * Anna Cardinaletti SSLMIT University of Bologna This paper contains a discussion of (Italian) Right

More information

Routledge Intensive Italian Course

Routledge Intensive Italian Course Routledge Intensive Italian Course Contents How to use this book Acknowledgements Glossary Unit 0 COMINCIAMO DA ZERO Introduction Alphabet Spelling Capital letters Pronunciation and stress Written accents

More information

Lesson 201: Use of il quale

Lesson 201: Use of il quale Lesson 201: Use of il quale by Keith A Preble, info@ilgur.com Il quale can be used as a relative pronoun when it is combined with the definite article, il, la, i, le or when it is articulated with a simple

More information

Semantics and Generative Grammar. Quantificational DPs, Part 3: Covert Movement vs. Type Shifting 1

Semantics and Generative Grammar. Quantificational DPs, Part 3: Covert Movement vs. Type Shifting 1 Quantificational DPs, Part 3: Covert Movement vs. Type Shifting 1 1. Introduction Thus far, we ve considered two competing analyses of sentences like those in (1). (1) Sentences Where a Quantificational

More information

Syntax: Phrases. 1. The phrase

Syntax: Phrases. 1. The phrase Syntax: Phrases Sentences can be divided into phrases. A phrase is a group of words forming a unit and united around a head, the most important part of the phrase. The head can be a noun NP, a verb VP,

More information

Chapter 13, Sections 13.1-13.2. Auxiliary Verbs. 2003 CSLI Publications

Chapter 13, Sections 13.1-13.2. Auxiliary Verbs. 2003 CSLI Publications Chapter 13, Sections 13.1-13.2 Auxiliary Verbs What Auxiliaries Are Sometimes called helping verbs, auxiliaries are little words that come before the main verb of a sentence, including forms of be, have,

More information

Structure of Clauses. March 9, 2004

Structure of Clauses. March 9, 2004 Structure of Clauses March 9, 2004 Preview Comments on HW 6 Schedule review session Finite and non-finite clauses Constituent structure of clauses Structure of Main Clauses Discuss HW #7 Course Evals Comments

More information

3.1 Grammatical Units

3.1 Grammatical Units Lengua Inglesa II 2009-2010 Topic 3: Grammatical Units Subtopic 1: Units and Boundaries Subtopic 2: The Noun Phrase Mick O Donnell VI-bis 302 michael.odonnell@uam.es 1. Units and rank scale Unit: any stretch

More information

The compositional semantics of same

The compositional semantics of same The compositional semantics of same Mike Solomon Amherst College Abstract Barker (2007) proposes the first strictly compositional semantic analysis of internal same. I show that Barker s analysis fails

More information

Sounds Like Like. Peter Lasersohn. University of Rochester. Abstract: It is argued that the verb sound is ambiguous between

Sounds Like Like. Peter Lasersohn. University of Rochester. Abstract: It is argued that the verb sound is ambiguous between Sounds Like Like Peter Lasersohn University of Rochester Abstract: It is argued that the verb sound is ambiguous between one reading where it denotes a two-place relation between individuals and properties,

More information

Co.As.It. Italian Language Courses 2016

Co.As.It. Italian Language Courses 2016 Co.As.It. Italian Language Courses 2016 In the heart of every man, wherever he is born there is one small corner which is Italian. (Luigi Barzini) This is the Official Handbook 2016 Information is correct

More information

start italian speak Italian instantly no books no writing absolute confi dence

start italian speak Italian instantly no books no writing absolute confi dence start italian speak Italian instantly no books no writing absolute confi dence To find out more, please get in touch with us. For general enquiries and for information on Michel Thomas: Call: 020 7873

More information

Lifelong Learning Languages Scheme of Work. University of Southampton 2015

Lifelong Learning Languages Scheme of Work. University of Southampton 2015 Language: Italian Level: 2a, 2b & 2c Tutor: Bianca Belgiorno Course dates: 06.10.2015 June 2016 Course book title: Arrivederci 2 F.Colombo,C.Faraci,P.De Luca Edilingua ISBN: 978-960-693-082-9 2A Week Topic

More information

Points of Interference in Learning English as a Second Language

Points of Interference in Learning English as a Second Language Points of Interference in Learning English as a Second Language Tone Spanish: In both English and Spanish there are four tone levels, but Spanish speaker use only the three lower pitch tones, except when

More information

Ling 201 Syntax 1. Jirka Hana April 10, 2006

Ling 201 Syntax 1. Jirka Hana April 10, 2006 Overview of topics What is Syntax? Word Classes What to remember and understand: Ling 201 Syntax 1 Jirka Hana April 10, 2006 Syntax, difference between syntax and semantics, open/closed class words, all

More information

5th Week. Ways of making a phrase, clause, and sentence

5th Week. Ways of making a phrase, clause, and sentence 5th Week Ways of making a phrase, clause, and sentence 1. Ways of making Phrase Before explaining the way of making phrase, we need to understand the basic concepts in advance. Words are the most basic

More information

An Innocent Investigation

An Innocent Investigation An Innocent Investigation D. Joyce, Clark University January 2006 The beginning. Have you ever wondered why every number is either even or odd? I don t mean to ask if you ever wondered whether every number

More information

CHARTES D'ANGLAIS SOMMAIRE. CHARTE NIVEAU A1 Pages 2-4. CHARTE NIVEAU A2 Pages 5-7. CHARTE NIVEAU B1 Pages 8-10. CHARTE NIVEAU B2 Pages 11-14

CHARTES D'ANGLAIS SOMMAIRE. CHARTE NIVEAU A1 Pages 2-4. CHARTE NIVEAU A2 Pages 5-7. CHARTE NIVEAU B1 Pages 8-10. CHARTE NIVEAU B2 Pages 11-14 CHARTES D'ANGLAIS SOMMAIRE CHARTE NIVEAU A1 Pages 2-4 CHARTE NIVEAU A2 Pages 5-7 CHARTE NIVEAU B1 Pages 8-10 CHARTE NIVEAU B2 Pages 11-14 CHARTE NIVEAU C1 Pages 15-17 MAJ, le 11 juin 2014 A1 Skills-based

More information

[Refer Slide Time: 05:10]

[Refer Slide Time: 05:10] Principles of Programming Languages Prof: S. Arun Kumar Department of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Delhi Lecture no 7 Lecture Title: Syntactic Classes Welcome to lecture

More information

Syntactic and Semantic Differences between Nominal Relative Clauses and Dependent wh-interrogative Clauses

Syntactic and Semantic Differences between Nominal Relative Clauses and Dependent wh-interrogative Clauses Theory and Practice in English Studies 3 (2005): Proceedings from the Eighth Conference of British, American and Canadian Studies. Brno: Masarykova univerzita Syntactic and Semantic Differences between

More information

Constraints in Phrase Structure Grammar

Constraints in Phrase Structure Grammar Constraints in Phrase Structure Grammar Phrase Structure Grammar no movement, no transformations, context-free rules X/Y = X is a category which dominates a missing category Y Let G be the set of basic

More information

Stricture and Nasal Place Assimilation. Jaye Padgett

Stricture and Nasal Place Assimilation. Jaye Padgett Stricture and Nasal Place Assimilation Jaye Padgett Stricture Stricture features determine the degree of constriction in the vocal tract; [son], [ cons], [cont] [-cont]: Verschluss im mediosagittalen Bereich

More information

Varieties of INFL: TENSE, LOCATION, and PERSON

Varieties of INFL: TENSE, LOCATION, and PERSON Varieties of INFL: TENSE, LOCATION, and PERSON Elizabeth Ritter and Martina Wiltschko 1. Introduction The languages of the world differ in many obvious ways. But at the same time, they are also strikingly

More information

How the Computer Translates. Svetlana Sokolova President and CEO of PROMT, PhD.

How the Computer Translates. Svetlana Sokolova President and CEO of PROMT, PhD. Svetlana Sokolova President and CEO of PROMT, PhD. How the Computer Translates Machine translation is a special field of computer application where almost everyone believes that he/she is a specialist.

More information

PTE Academic Preparation Course Outline

PTE Academic Preparation Course Outline PTE Academic Preparation Course Outline August 2011 V2 Pearson Education Ltd 2011. No part of this publication may be reproduced without the prior permission of Pearson Education Ltd. Introduction The

More information

Structurally ambiguous sentences

Structurally ambiguous sentences Language and Mind HONR 218L Recap: entences have structure In speaking and writing we string words together linearly (we have no choice) But in our minds, we represent sentences as hierarchical structures

More information

Non-nominal Which-Relatives

Non-nominal Which-Relatives Non-nominal Which-Relatives Doug Arnold, Robert D. Borsley University of Essex The properties of non-restrictive relatives All non-restrictive relative clauses include a wh-word. There are no that or zero

More information

One Ring to rule them all, One Ring to find them One Ring to bring them all, and in the darkness bind them In the Land of Mordor where shadows lie

One Ring to rule them all, One Ring to find them One Ring to bring them all, and in the darkness bind them In the Land of Mordor where shadows lie One Ring to rule them all, One Ring to find them One Ring to bring them all, and in the darkness bind them In the Land of Mordor where shadows lie OR, THE RING POEM IN OLD CHURCH SLAVIC by Jussi Halla-aho

More information

Syntax & Morphology: A Summary (or: Everything in 12 pages) 1

Syntax & Morphology: A Summary (or: Everything in 12 pages) 1 Syntax & Morphology: A Summary (or: Everything in 12 pages) 1 Ken Ramshøj Christensen Dept. of English, Inst. for Language, Literature & Culture, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Århus http://www.hum.au.dk/engelsk/engkrc/

More information

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE LONDON EXAMINATION FOR INTERNAL STUDENTS

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE LONDON EXAMINATION FOR INTERNAL STUDENTS UNIVERSITY COLLEGE LONDON University of London EXAMINATION FOR INTERNAL STUDENTS For the following qualifications :- B.A. Italian X255: Issues in Italian Syntax COURSE CODE : ITALX255 UNIT VALUE : 0.50

More information

THE ENGLISH SENTENCE

THE ENGLISH SENTENCE THE ENGLISH SENTENCE (Materials based on: Huddleston, R. & Pullum, G.K. (Eds.)., 2002. The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. London: CUP and Greenbaum, S., & Quirk, R. 1990. A Student's Grammar

More information

COMPUTATIONAL DATA ANALYSIS FOR SYNTAX

COMPUTATIONAL DATA ANALYSIS FOR SYNTAX COLING 82, J. Horeck~ (ed.j North-Holland Publishing Compa~y Academia, 1982 COMPUTATIONAL DATA ANALYSIS FOR SYNTAX Ludmila UhliFova - Zva Nebeska - Jan Kralik Czech Language Institute Czechoslovak Academy

More information

The syntax of focus negation

The syntax of focus negation The syntax of focus negation Cecilia Poletto University of Venice 1. Introduction The aim of this article is to provide a unified analysis of all uses of the negative item NO (corresponding to pro-sentence

More information

19. Morphosyntax in L2A

19. Morphosyntax in L2A Spring 2012, April 5 Missing morphology Variability in acquisition Morphology and functional structure Morphosyntax in acquisition In L1A, we observe that kids don t always provide all the morphology that

More information

MARY. V NP NP Subject Formation WANT BILL S

MARY. V NP NP Subject Formation WANT BILL S In the Logic tudy Guide, we ended with a logical tree diagram for WANT (BILL, LEAVE (MARY)), in both unlabelled: tudy Guide WANT BILL and labelled versions: P LEAVE MARY WANT BILL P LEAVE MARY We remarked

More information

IP PATTERNS OF MOVEMENTS IN VSO TYPOLOGY: THE CASE OF ARABIC

IP PATTERNS OF MOVEMENTS IN VSO TYPOLOGY: THE CASE OF ARABIC The Buckingham Journal of Language and Linguistics 2013 Volume 6 pp 15-25 ABSTRACT IP PATTERNS OF MOVEMENTS IN VSO TYPOLOGY: THE CASE OF ARABIC C. Belkacemi Manchester Metropolitan University The aim of

More information

Linear Compression as a Trigger for Movement 1

Linear Compression as a Trigger for Movement 1 Linear Compression as a Trigger for Movement 1 Andrea Carlo Moro 1. Beyond Explanatory Adequacy : How the World Shapes Grammar A new challenge has been addressed in generative grammar in a recent paper

More information

3. Mathematical Induction

3. Mathematical Induction 3. MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION 83 3. Mathematical Induction 3.1. First Principle of Mathematical Induction. Let P (n) be a predicate with domain of discourse (over) the natural numbers N = {0, 1,,...}. If (1)

More information

Foundation CD 1. Track 2. like that / that way. it is not possible for me that way. Mi dispiace, ma non è possibile per me così

Foundation CD 1. Track 2. like that / that way. it is not possible for me that way. Mi dispiace, ma non è possibile per me così Italian Michel Thomas Foundation CD 1 Track 2 It is not possible for me for you for her it is for you it is not for me it is possible for you is it not possible for you? why? because why isn't it possible

More information

Estudios de Asia y Africa Idiomas Modernas I What you should have learnt from Face2Face

Estudios de Asia y Africa Idiomas Modernas I What you should have learnt from Face2Face Estudios de Asia y Africa Idiomas Modernas I What you should have learnt from Face2Face 1A Question Forms 1.1 Yes-No Questions 1. If the first verb is an auxiliary verb, just move it in front of the Subject:

More information

OBJECT CLITIC CLIMBING IN ADULT L2 ITALIAN: SOME EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FROM L1 ENGLISH AND L1 SPANISH NEAR-NATIVES. Elisa Bennati University of Siena

OBJECT CLITIC CLIMBING IN ADULT L2 ITALIAN: SOME EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FROM L1 ENGLISH AND L1 SPANISH NEAR-NATIVES. Elisa Bennati University of Siena OBJECT CLITIC CLIMBING IN ADULT L2 ITALIAN: SOME EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FROM L1 ENGLISH AND L1 SPANISH NEAR-NATIVES Elisa Bennati University of Siena 1. Introduction The following study explores the mastery

More information

Mathematical Induction

Mathematical Induction Mathematical Induction In logic, we often want to prove that every member of an infinite set has some feature. E.g., we would like to show: N 1 : is a number 1 : has the feature Φ ( x)(n 1 x! 1 x) How

More information

The Role of Gestalt in Language Processing

The Role of Gestalt in Language Processing 378 Abstracts HILKE ELSEN The Role of Gestalt in Language Processing This article discusses gestalt phenomena in language processing, compiling data from three empirical studies that analyze language acquisition,

More information

Cross-linguistic differences in the interpretation of sentences with more than one QP: German (Frey 1993) and Hungarian (É Kiss 1991)

Cross-linguistic differences in the interpretation of sentences with more than one QP: German (Frey 1993) and Hungarian (É Kiss 1991) Cross-linguistic differences in the interpretation of sentences with more than one QP: German (Frey 1993) and Hungarian (É Kiss 1991) 1. Quantifier Scope in English (May 1977, 1985) Predictions of May

More information

REQUIRED TEXTS: Julia Cozzarelli, Sentieri. Attraverso l Italia Contemporanea (Vista Higher Learning) Textbook and workbook

REQUIRED TEXTS: Julia Cozzarelli, Sentieri. Attraverso l Italia Contemporanea (Vista Higher Learning) Textbook and workbook SYLLABUS FOR ITA. 101- Spring 2015 COURSE: ITA 101 Spring 2015 MWF Room: 242 Marano Campus Center Joseph Alessia: Tel. - 2465; email: alessia@oswego.edu Office Hours: W & F(3:00pm 3:30pm) and by appointment

More information

Where Does Binding Theory Apply?

Where Does Binding Theory Apply? Where Does Binding Theory Apply? David Lebeaux The MIT Press Cambridge, Massachusetts London, England 6 2009 Massachusetts Institute of Technology All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced

More information

University of London. For The Following Qualification:-

University of London. For The Following Qualification:- ., UNIVERSITY COLLEGE LONDON University of London EXAMINATION FOR INTERNAL STUDENTS For The Following Qualification:- B.A. Italian X255: Issues in Italian Syntax COURSE CODE : ITALX255 UNIT VALUE : 0.50

More information

Noam Chomsky: Aspects of the Theory of Syntax notes

Noam Chomsky: Aspects of the Theory of Syntax notes Noam Chomsky: Aspects of the Theory of Syntax notes Julia Krysztofiak May 16, 2006 1 Methodological preliminaries 1.1 Generative grammars as theories of linguistic competence The study is concerned with

More information

Static IP Routing and Aggregation Exercises

Static IP Routing and Aggregation Exercises Politecnico di Torino Static IP Routing and Aggregation xercises Fulvio Risso August 0, 0 Contents I. Methodology 4. Static routing and routes aggregation 5.. Main concepts........................................

More information

total italian speak Italian instantly no books no writing absolute confi dence

total italian speak Italian instantly no books no writing absolute confi dence total italian speak Italian instantly no books no writing absolute confi dence To find out more, please get in touch with us. For general enquiries and for information on Michel Thomas: Call: 020 7873

More information

A Survey of ASL Tenses

A Survey of ASL Tenses A Survey of ASL Tenses Karen Alkoby DePaul University School of Computer Science Chicago, IL kalkoby@shrike.depaul.edu Abstract This paper examines tenses in American Sign Language (ASL), which will be

More information

Language and Literacy

Language and Literacy Language and Literacy In the sections below is a summary of the alignment of the preschool learning foundations with (a) the infant/toddler learning and development foundations, (b) the common core state

More information

Unraveling versus Unraveling: A Memo on Competitive Equilibriums and Trade in Insurance Markets

Unraveling versus Unraveling: A Memo on Competitive Equilibriums and Trade in Insurance Markets Unraveling versus Unraveling: A Memo on Competitive Equilibriums and Trade in Insurance Markets Nathaniel Hendren January, 2014 Abstract Both Akerlof (1970) and Rothschild and Stiglitz (1976) show that

More information

Do we need Structured Question Meanings? Two Approaches to Questions

Do we need Structured Question Meanings? Two Approaches to Questions Do we need Structured Question Meanings? Manfred Krifka Humboldt-Universität & Zentrum für Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft (ZAS) Berlin http://amor.rz.hu-berlin.de/~h2816i3x Two Approaches to Questions The

More information

THE EVOLVING ROLE OF DATABASE IN OBJECT SYSTEMS

THE EVOLVING ROLE OF DATABASE IN OBJECT SYSTEMS THE EVOLVING ROLE OF DATABASE IN OBJECT SYSTEMS William Kent Database Technology Department Hewlett-Packard Laboratories Palo Alto, California kent@hpl.hp.com 1990 CONTENTS: ABSTRACT 1 INTRODUCTION...

More information

Comments on \Do We Really Know that Oil Caused the Great Stag ation? A Monetary Alternative", by Robert Barsky and Lutz Kilian

Comments on \Do We Really Know that Oil Caused the Great Stag ation? A Monetary Alternative, by Robert Barsky and Lutz Kilian Comments on \Do We Really Know that Oil Caused the Great Stag ation? A Monetary Alternative", by Robert Barsky and Lutz Kilian Olivier Blanchard July 2001 Revisionist history is always fun. But it is not

More information

WHAT ARE MATHEMATICAL PROOFS AND WHY THEY ARE IMPORTANT?

WHAT ARE MATHEMATICAL PROOFS AND WHY THEY ARE IMPORTANT? WHAT ARE MATHEMATICAL PROOFS AND WHY THEY ARE IMPORTANT? introduction Many students seem to have trouble with the notion of a mathematical proof. People that come to a course like Math 216, who certainly

More information

1/10. Descartes 2: The Cogito and the Mind

1/10. Descartes 2: The Cogito and the Mind 1/10 Descartes 2: The Cogito and the Mind Recap: last week we undertook to follow Descartes path of radical doubt in order to attempt to discover what, if anything, can be known for certain. This path

More information

A Syntactic Way to Subjunctive

A Syntactic Way to Subjunctive A Syntactic Way to Subjunctive University of Venice 1. Introduction In this paper I ll discuss the syntactic properties of the Italian subjunctive and their relevance at the syntax/semantics interface.

More information

Dispelling the Cloud of Unknowing

Dispelling the Cloud of Unknowing Dispelling the Cloud of Unknowing Chris Collins Paul M. Postal New York University June 2015 Abstract: Collins and Postal (2014) present an argument for a syntactic analysis of Classical NEG Raising based

More information

The Meta-Problem of Change

The Meta-Problem of Change NOÛS 43:2 (2009) 286 314 The Meta-Problem of Change THOMAS HOFWEBER University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 1. Introduction One of the central problems in metaphysics over the last so many centuries

More information

Likewise, we have contradictions: formulas that can only be false, e.g. (p p).

Likewise, we have contradictions: formulas that can only be false, e.g. (p p). CHAPTER 4. STATEMENT LOGIC 59 The rightmost column of this truth table contains instances of T and instances of F. Notice that there are no degrees of contingency. If both values are possible, the formula

More information

Glossary of key terms and guide to methods of language analysis AS and A-level English Language (7701 and 7702)

Glossary of key terms and guide to methods of language analysis AS and A-level English Language (7701 and 7702) Glossary of key terms and guide to methods of language analysis AS and A-level English Language (7701 and 7702) Introduction This document offers guidance on content that students might typically explore

More information

Linguistic Universals

Linguistic Universals Armin W. Buch 1 2012/11/28 1 Relying heavily on material by Gerhard Jäger and David Erschler Linguistic Properties shared by all languages Trivial: all languages have consonants and vowels More interesting:

More information

The syntactic positions of adverbs and the Second Language Acquisition

The syntactic positions of adverbs and the Second Language Acquisition September 2010, Volume 7, No.9 (Serial No.81) Sino-US English Teaching, ISSN 1539-8072, USA The syntactic positions of adverbs and the Second Language Acquisition ZHANG Zi-hong (Department of Foreign Language

More information

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. At the completion of this study there are many people that I need to thank. Foremost of

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. At the completion of this study there are many people that I need to thank. Foremost of ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS At the completion of this study there are many people that I need to thank. Foremost of these are John McCarthy. He has been a wonderful mentor and advisor. I also owe much to the other

More information

Indiana Department of Education

Indiana Department of Education GRADE 1 READING Guiding Principle: Students read a wide range of fiction, nonfiction, classic, and contemporary works, to build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United

More information

A Programming Language for Mechanical Translation Victor H. Yngve, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts

A Programming Language for Mechanical Translation Victor H. Yngve, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts [Mechanical Translation, vol.5, no.1, July 1958; pp. 25-41] A Programming Language for Mechanical Translation Victor H. Yngve, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts A notational

More information

Introduction. I. Proof of the Minor Premise ( All reality is completely intelligible )

Introduction. I. Proof of the Minor Premise ( All reality is completely intelligible ) Philosophical Proof of God: Derived from Principles in Bernard Lonergan s Insight May 2014 Robert J. Spitzer, S.J., Ph.D. Magis Center of Reason and Faith Lonergan s proof may be stated as follows: Introduction

More information

Completeness, Versatility, and Practicality in Role Based Administration

Completeness, Versatility, and Practicality in Role Based Administration Completeness, Versatility, and Practicality in Role Based Administration Slobodan Vukanović svuk002@ec.auckland.ac.nz Abstract Applying role based administration to role based access control systems has

More information

TD 271 Rev.1 (PLEN/15)

TD 271 Rev.1 (PLEN/15) INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION STUDY GROUP 15 TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDIZATION SECTOR STUDY PERIOD 2009-2012 English only Original: English Question(s): 12/15 Geneva, 31 May - 11 June 2010 Source:

More information

Basic Set Theory. 1. Motivation. Fido Sue. Fred Aristotle Bob. LX 502 - Semantics I September 11, 2008

Basic Set Theory. 1. Motivation. Fido Sue. Fred Aristotle Bob. LX 502 - Semantics I September 11, 2008 Basic Set Theory LX 502 - Semantics I September 11, 2008 1. Motivation When you start reading these notes, the first thing you should be asking yourselves is What is Set Theory and why is it relevant?

More information

Dante Alighieri Society of Massachusetts Progetto Lingua Italiana Dante Alighieri - PLIDA 101

Dante Alighieri Society of Massachusetts Progetto Lingua Italiana Dante Alighieri - PLIDA 101 Dante Alighieri Society of Massachusetts Progetto Lingua Italiana Dante Alighieri - PLIDA 101 The PLIDA program PLIDA stands for Progetto Lingua Italiana Dante Alighieri (Dante Alighieri Project for Italian

More information

Argument Structure in the Verb Phrase (VP)

Argument Structure in the Verb Phrase (VP) Argument Structure in the Verb Phrase (VP) The verb is the head of the VP, that is to say that the verb is the most important part that determines the presence of any other element in the VP. There are

More information

Time and Causation in Gödel s Universe.

Time and Causation in Gödel s Universe. Time and Causation in Gödel s Universe. John L. Bell In 1949 the great logician Kurt Gödel constructed the first mathematical models of the universe in which travel into the past is, in theory at least,

More information

Methodological Issues for Interdisciplinary Research

Methodological Issues for Interdisciplinary Research J. T. M. Miller, Department of Philosophy, University of Durham 1 Methodological Issues for Interdisciplinary Research Much of the apparent difficulty of interdisciplinary research stems from the nature

More information

Phrase Structure Rules, Tree Rewriting, and other sources of Recursion Structure within the NP

Phrase Structure Rules, Tree Rewriting, and other sources of Recursion Structure within the NP Introduction to Transformational Grammar, LINGUIST 601 September 14, 2006 Phrase Structure Rules, Tree Rewriting, and other sources of Recursion Structure within the 1 Trees (1) a tree for the brown fox

More information

LESSON THIRTEEN STRUCTURAL AMBIGUITY. Structural ambiguity is also referred to as syntactic ambiguity or grammatical ambiguity.

LESSON THIRTEEN STRUCTURAL AMBIGUITY. Structural ambiguity is also referred to as syntactic ambiguity or grammatical ambiguity. LESSON THIRTEEN STRUCTURAL AMBIGUITY Structural ambiguity is also referred to as syntactic ambiguity or grammatical ambiguity. Structural or syntactic ambiguity, occurs when a phrase, clause or sentence

More information

Chapter 7 Application Protocol Reference Architecture

Chapter 7 Application Protocol Reference Architecture Application Protocol Reference Architecture Chapter 7 Application Protocol Reference Architecture This chapter proposes an alternative reference architecture for application protocols. The proposed reference

More information

ON EXTERNAL OBJECTS By Immanuel Kant From Critique of Pure Reason (1781)

ON EXTERNAL OBJECTS By Immanuel Kant From Critique of Pure Reason (1781) ON EXTERNAL OBJECTS By Immanuel Kant From Critique of Pure Reason (1781) General Observations on The Transcendental Aesthetic To avoid all misapprehension, it is necessary to explain, as clearly as possible,

More information

CHAPTER 7 GENERAL PROOF SYSTEMS

CHAPTER 7 GENERAL PROOF SYSTEMS CHAPTER 7 GENERAL PROOF SYSTEMS 1 Introduction Proof systems are built to prove statements. They can be thought as an inference machine with special statements, called provable statements, or sometimes

More information

Linguistics, Psychology, and the Ontology of Language. Noam Chomsky s well-known claim that linguistics is a branch of cognitive

Linguistics, Psychology, and the Ontology of Language. Noam Chomsky s well-known claim that linguistics is a branch of cognitive Linguistics, Psychology, and the Ontology of Language Noam Chomsky s well-known claim that linguistics is a branch of cognitive psychology (Chomsky 1972, 1) has generated a great deal of dissent not from

More information

A System for Labeling Self-Repairs in Speech 1

A System for Labeling Self-Repairs in Speech 1 A System for Labeling Self-Repairs in Speech 1 John Bear, John Dowding, Elizabeth Shriberg, Patti Price 1. Introduction This document outlines a system for labeling self-repairs in spontaneous speech.

More information

The Root Infinitive Stage in Afrikaans: Evidence for Phonologically Neutralized Rich

The Root Infinitive Stage in Afrikaans: Evidence for Phonologically Neutralized Rich Title: The Root Infinitive Stage in Afrikaans: Evidence for Phonologically Neutralized Rich Agreement Running Head: The RI-Stage in Afrikaans: Evidence for Null AGR 1 Abstract: Corpus data available on

More information

Historical Linguistics. Diachronic Analysis. Two Approaches to the Study of Language. Kinds of Language Change. What is Historical Linguistics?

Historical Linguistics. Diachronic Analysis. Two Approaches to the Study of Language. Kinds of Language Change. What is Historical Linguistics? Historical Linguistics Diachronic Analysis What is Historical Linguistics? Historical linguistics is the study of how languages change over time and of their relationships with other languages. All languages

More information

Morphology. Morphology is the study of word formation, of the structure of words. 1. some words can be divided into parts which still have meaning

Morphology. Morphology is the study of word formation, of the structure of words. 1. some words can be divided into parts which still have meaning Morphology Morphology is the study of word formation, of the structure of words. Some observations about words and their structure: 1. some words can be divided into parts which still have meaning 2. many

More information

FSD Kindergarten READING

FSD Kindergarten READING College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Reading Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or

More information

Response to Critiques of Mortgage Discrimination and FHA Loan Performance

Response to Critiques of Mortgage Discrimination and FHA Loan Performance A Response to Comments Response to Critiques of Mortgage Discrimination and FHA Loan Performance James A. Berkovec Glenn B. Canner Stuart A. Gabriel Timothy H. Hannan Abstract This response discusses the

More information

Perfect being theology and modal truth

Perfect being theology and modal truth Perfect being theology and modal truth Jeff Speaks February 9, 2016 Perfect being theology is the attempt to use the principle that God is the greatest possible being to derive claims about the divine

More information

Kindergarten Common Core State Standards: English Language Arts

Kindergarten Common Core State Standards: English Language Arts Kindergarten Common Core State Standards: English Language Arts Reading: Foundational Print Concepts RF.K.1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. o Follow words from

More information

Integrating Quotations for the MLA Format

Integrating Quotations for the MLA Format Integrating Quotations for the MLA Format In research paper writing, it is important to allow your own thinking to control the paper. Your thesis should be supported by evidence you have gathered from

More information

Conversational Italian for Travelers

Conversational Italian for Travelers Conversational Italian for Travelers Audio Dialogue Practice Book Volume 1 By Kathryn Occhipinti with Arnaldo Mariani Conversational Italian for Travelers Audio Dialogue Practice Book Volume I By Kathryn

More information

The Michigan State University - Certificate of English Language Proficiency (MSU-CELP)

The Michigan State University - Certificate of English Language Proficiency (MSU-CELP) The Michigan State University - Certificate of English Language Proficiency (MSU-CELP) The Certificate of English Language Proficiency Examination from Michigan State University is a four-section test

More information

Italian Continuers Speaking Skills Examination Training Package. Samples

Italian Continuers Speaking Skills Examination Training Package. Samples Italian Continuers Speaking Skills Examination Training Package Samples Published by Board of Studies NSW GPO Box 5300 Sydney 2001 Australia Tel: (02) 9367 8111 Fax: (02) 9367 8484 Internet: http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au

More information

clauses are restricted to passive and progressive inflections. This puzzle is explained by claiming

clauses are restricted to passive and progressive inflections. This puzzle is explained by claiming Reduced Relatives and Extended Phases: a phase-based analysis of the inflectional restrictions on English reduced relative clauses Abstract This article aims to provide an analysis for a curious fact about

More information

Case 1:06-cr-00271-PLF Document 24 Filed 03/14/2007 Page 1 of 10 IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA : : : : : : : : :

Case 1:06-cr-00271-PLF Document 24 Filed 03/14/2007 Page 1 of 10 IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA : : : : : : : : : Case 106-cr-00271-PLF Document 24 Filed 03/14/2007 Page 1 of 10 IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA UNITED STATES OF AMERICA v. GUSTAVO VILLANUEVO-SOTELO, Defendant. CRIMINAL

More information

Grading Benchmarks FIRST GRADE. Trimester 4 3 2 1 1 st Student has achieved reading success at. Trimester 4 3 2 1 1st In above grade-level books, the

Grading Benchmarks FIRST GRADE. Trimester 4 3 2 1 1 st Student has achieved reading success at. Trimester 4 3 2 1 1st In above grade-level books, the READING 1.) Reads at grade level. 1 st Student has achieved reading success at Level 14-H or above. Student has achieved reading success at Level 10-F or 12-G. Student has achieved reading success at Level

More information

Grammaticalization and Infinitival Complements in Dutch

Grammaticalization and Infinitival Complements in Dutch Grammaticalization and Infinitival Complements in Dutch Published by LOT phone: +31 30 253 6006 Trans 10 fax: +31 30 253 6000 3512 JK Utrecht e-mail: lot@let.uu.nl The Netherlands http://wwwlot.let.uu.nl/

More information