COMBINED DESALINATION AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS DRIVEN BY LOW-GRADE HEAT

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "COMBINED DESALINATION AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS DRIVEN BY LOW-GRADE HEAT"

Transcription

1 Proceedings of IMECE8 8 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition November -6, 8, Boston, Proceedings Massachusetts, of IMECE8 USA 8 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition October 3-November 6, 8, Boston, Massachusetts, USA IMECE8-679 COMBINED DESALINATION AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS DRIVEN BY LOW-GRADE HEAT Yongqing Wang College of Mechanical Engineering, Jimei University, Xiamen, 36, P. R. China Tel: ; Fax: ; Noam Lior Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA , USA Tel: ; Fax: ; ABSTRACT There is often a need for both water desalination and cooling (refrigeration/air-conditioning). The cooling can be used to significantly raise system efficiency by compressor inlet cooling in a dual-purpose power-generation and desalination system using gas turbines, or simply to supply refrigeration or air conditioning beside fresh water. Motivated by the good synergetic potential of energy/exergy utilization through the combination of the LiBr-H O refrigeration unit, LiBr-H O heat pump, and low-temperature multi-effect evaporation desalter, two combined refrigeration and water systems, ARHP-MEE (Absorption Refrigeration Heat Pump and Multi-Effect Evaporation desalter) system and ARHP-AHP-MEE (Absorption Refrigeration Heat Pump + Absorption Heat Pump + Multi-Effect Evaporation desalter) system, driven by lowgrade heat were configured, modeled and analyzed in detail in the paper. Typically, driving steam with saturation pressure of MPa and correspondingly saturation temperature of is applicable to run the systems. The main results are: () the combined systems have good synergy, with an energy saving rate of 4% in a case study of ARHP-MEE; () the refrigeration-heat cogenerated ARHP subsystem is the main reason for the synergy, where the coefficient of performance is around.6 and exergy efficiency above 6% when driven by.5 MPa saturated steam; (3) at the cost of a more complex configuration, the ARHP-AHP-MEE system has the ability of varying its outputs in very wide range, offering good flexibility on design and operation; (4) the ARHP-MEE system is predicted to have good economics, and its outputs can be varied in a wide range but not independently because their ratio remains almost constant. A parametric analysis was also performed for the ARHP-MEE, further improving the understanding of the system performance. Keywords: Integrated refrigeration and desalination system; Combined cycles; Refrigeration; Absorption refrigeration/heat pump; Multi-effect evaporation water desalination NOMENCLATURE BPE Boiling point elevation [ ] COP Coefficient of performance E Exergy [kw] h Specific enthalpy [kj/kg] m Mass flow rate [kg/s] p Pressure [kpa] [MPa] Q Energy [kw] ESR Energy saving rate of combined system to separate single-product systems [%] RWR Refrigeration-water ratio [kj/kg] s Specific entropy [kj/kg K] T Temperature [ ] [K] W max Maximum work produced in an ideal mixing process [kw] X Mass concentration of LiBr solution [%] x v Mass fraction of vapor ε Exergy efficiency [%] ξ Dimensionless exergy loss [%] Subscripts A Absorber D Desalination G Generator in Input Copyright 8 by ASME

2 L Loss R Refrigeration SH Solution heat exchanger T Thermal W Water Base case, ambient,, States on the system flow sheet. INTRODUCTION Driven mainly by low-grade extraction and/or exhaust heat from power generation plants, thermal desalination units have been widely used as their bottoming system (sometimes called dual-purpose plants). This synergy between power and water production, well-understood from second-law (exergy) considerations, resulted in lower specific fuel demand and overall cost of the produced water and electricity []. Most of the power-water systems operating in the world are the combination of steam turbines with thermal desalination units, but in recent years, there has been an obvious interest in moving to gas turbines based systems [,3] because of the higher overall energy/exergy efficiency of these systems. One of the main disadvantages of gas turbines is that their generated power and efficiency decrease significantly with the increase of ambient temperature. For every ºC of increase in ambient temperature, the power output decreases by 6% to more than %, depending on the type of the gas turbine, and at the same time, the thermal efficiency decreases by.5% to more than 4% [4]. For a gas-turbine-based power-water system, both the power output and water production are consequently the lowest in the hot season when the need for them is the highest. Compressor intake-air cooling is an effective way for maintaining the performance of gas turbines in hot weather [4, 5]. Among the various methods, pre-cooling inlet air by exhaust-heat absorption refrigeration has several advantages: ability of keeping a nearly constant temperature of compressor intake air, consuming negligible power, and saving fuel by using low-grade heat [4, 5]. In a combined power and thermal desalination system, some of the power plant output low-grade heat is used to produce the fresh water. If part of it is used to produce refrigeration for inlet air cooling, the water production will decrease because of decreased amount of heat for driving the desalination plant. It is thus necessary to investigate ways of producing the refrigeration while minimizing the negative impact on water production for given heat source conditions, which is the main purpose of this paper. This study also points to efficient ways of producing fresh water and refrigeration simultaneously when both of them are needed and low-grade heat is available. Two desalination and refrigeration cogeneration systems driven by low-grade heat are configured and modeled, and the thermal performance analyzed in detail in this paper. LiBr-H O absorption refrigeration and heat pump systems are used to pursue good performance, and a low-temperature multi-effect evaporation (MEE) desalination unit is employed because of its advantages of low corrosion rate, power consumption and capital cost over the other commonly used thermal desalination system, the multi-stage flash desalination plant [6].. SYSTEM CONFIGURATIONS FOR THE ANALYSIS The fact that absorption refrigeration, absorption heat pump and thermal desalination are all run by thermal energy with overlapping operating temperature regions can be used in a synergistic way. Driven by low-grade heat, LiBr-H O absorption refrigeration unit produces refrigeration by evaporating refrigerant water at around 5, and releases waste heat to the ambient. Also driven by low-grade heat, LiBr-H O absorption heat pumps (AHP) absorbs heat from the ambient (air or water), and produce heat with temperatures between the driving heat source and the ambient. At the same time, the top brine temperature of MEE typical desalters is limited to 7 to reduce scaling and corrosion, and the driving steam top condensation temperature is thus about 7, just within the temperature range of AHP output. High-efficiency cogeneration system can therefore be configured by combining the three systems by cascade utilization of energy sources and sinks according to their temperature level, as proposed and analyzed below. An example of such cascading use for combined power and refrigeration system is shown in [7]. The proposed two combined refrigeration and water systems, ARHP-MEE (Absorption Refrigeration Heat Pump and Multi-Effect Evaporation desalter) and ARHP-AHP-MEE (Absorption Refrigeration Heat Pump + Absorption Heat Pump + Multi-Effect Evaporation desalter) system, are schematically shown in Figs. and, respectively. The ARHP-MEE system is composed of two subsystems: a single-effect LiBr-H O absorption refrigeration/heat pump (ARHP), and an MEE desalter. The driving steam () heats the LiBr-H O mixture in the generator G and boils off the water in it. This steam (9) generated in G is routed into the evaporator, ED, of the first effect of MEE, providing energy for seawater evaporation by releasing its sensible and latent heat. Its condensate () is subcooled by the ambient seawater, throttled and then introduced into the ARHP evaporator ER to produce refrigeration. The refrigerant vapor (3) from ER enters the absorber A, and the absorption heat is taken away by the cooling seawater (4). It is clear that the two subsystems are linked by ED, which is both the condenser of the ARHP and the evaporator of the MEE. In a typical absorption refrigeration unit, the condensation temperature (at ) is usually around 4 ºC, while in this paper, it is raised to above 6 ºC by regulating the operating parameters of the absorber A and the generator G, to produce the temperature required for MEE desalination. Producing refrigeration (in ER) and heat (in ED ) simultaneously, the ARHP unit works as both a refrigeration unit and a heat pump. Detailed description of the working process of MEE can be found in [8]. Copyright 8 by ASME

3 Motive steam 4 G 5 6 SH A ER Heating steam H H H n- Feed seawater ED ED ED n- ED n C SC V Cooling seawater F F n- F n Brine Cooling seawater Fresh water Seawater Saline water Steam Distillate LiBr-H O solution A Absorber C Condenser ED Evaporator for desalination ER Evaporator for refrigeration F Flashing box G Generator H Seawater preheater SC Subcooler SH Solution heat exchanger V Throttling valve Motive steam G SH SH V A A 3 ER Fig. Schematic diagram of the ARHP-MEE combined system. 7 Heating steam V SC 5 H H H n- Cooling seawater Feed seawater ED ED ED n- ED n C F Entrained steam F F n- F n Brine Cooling seawater Fresh water Seawater Saline water Steam Distillate LiBr-H O solution A Absorber C Condenser ED Evaporator for desalination ER Evaporator for refrigeration F Flashing box G Generator H Seawater preheater SC Subcooler SH Solution heat exchanger V Throttling valve Fig. Schematic diagram of the ARHP-AHP-MEE combined system The ARHP-AHP-MEE system is the integration of an ARHP, an AHP, and an MEE desalter. The ARHP and AHP use the common generator G and the common condenser ED. The flow process of ARHP and its interconnection with MEE are the same with that in the ARHP-MEE system. In the AHP subsystem, part of the vapor (5) produced in the last effect of MEE is entrained by the absorber A and the absorption heat is used to heat and vaporize part of the condensate (7) from ED. The vapor (6) formed in the generator together with that (8) from A serves as the heat source for the MEE. Obviously, the ARHP-AHP-MEE system is the coupling of the ARHP-MEE cogeneration system and the AHP-MEE water-only system. Similar configurations of AHP-MEE water-only systems have been studied by a few researchers [9-], and the results indicate a competitive thermal performance (the economics were not addressed). For instance, Mandani et al. [] performed a thermal analysis of a single-effect evaporation desalination process combined with a single-effect LiBr-H O AHP, and claimed performance ratios of.4-.8, 5%-7% higher than the single-effect thermal vapor compression (TVC) systems driven by the same heat source. Su et al. [] studied a water-production-only system composed of a double-effect LiBr-H O AHP and a 9-effect MEE, obtaining a performance ratio of 7.5, much higher than the.5 of a TVC-MEE 3 Copyright 8 by ASME

4 system. Our study shows that ARHP-AHP-MEE system, configured by combining the ARHP-MEE and AHP-MEE systems, has a much wider control range of the refrigeration and water outputs than the ARHP-MEE system, as discusses in more detail in Section 5 below. 3. CALCULATION CONDITIONS AND PERFORMANCE CRITERIA The main assumptions for the base-case calculation of the two systems are summarized in Table. After referring to the operating conditions of an existing MEE unit [3], a six-effect MEE was chosen and the performance simulated. The vapor produced in each effect of MEE and the generator was considered to be salt-free, and, in accordance with industrial practice, each evaporator of the MEE had the same heat transfer area [8]. The analyzed systems have two useful outputs: fresh water and refrigeration, and performance criteria definition is not straightforward because the products, fresh water and refrigeration, do not have the same physical units. Water is not energy, so the commonly defined energy efficiency is not suitable here. The exergy efficiency, ε, typically defined as Wmax + ER mw wmax + m[ h h3 T ( s s3 )] ε = = () E m [ h h T ( s s )] in where m W is the water production rate and E in are the exergy of produced refrigeration and of the heat input into the entire system, respectively, and W max is the maximal work that could be obtained by mixing the produced fresh water and the rejected concentrated seawater in an ideal way, which is also the minimum work consumed in an ideal separation process of the saline feedwater. Examining the meaning of such an ε, we note the exergy efficiency of a thermal desalination unit is very low, say, about 4% for a common MSF plant run by 99 saturated steam [5], while the exergy efficiency of a single-effect absorption refrigeration system is much higher, about 3% in a case study reported in [6]. This means that, about 3.3 kw of driving thermal exergy is needed to produce kw cold exergy by absorption refrigeration, while about 5 kw thermal exergy is needed to produce kw power capacity by thermal desalination. It is thus clear that the exergy efficiency defined in Eq. () unreasonably weights water production as a very trivial contribution, and cannot reflect the performance of the waterrefrigeration cogeneration systems suitably. Although the energy and exergy efficiencies are thus not applicable to the refrigeration-water combined system, they are applicable to the ARHP and ARHP-AHP subsystems, because the two are refrigeration and heat cogenerators. It is interesting to analyze the performance of ARHP and ARHP-AHP, which determine the performance of the whole system when the performance of the MEE unit is specified. The coefficient of performance and the exergy efficiency of the refrigeration-heat ARHP and ARHP-AHP subsystems are defined as Table Main assumptions for the base-case calculation Ambient conditions Temperature 3 Pressure atm Salinity of seawater 35, ppm Generator Pressure of motive steam (saturated), p.5 MPa Generator approach temperature, T -6, T -6 Mass concentration difference between strong and weak solutions, X 5% Absorber Absorber approach temperature in ARHP subsystem 3 Absorber approach temperature in AHP subsystem 5 Absorbed vapor pressure minus absorber operation pressure 4 Pa Solution heat exchanger Temperature difference at the cold side Minimum temperature difference between outlet strong solution and crystallization point 5 Evaporator for refrigeration Evaporation temperature of the refrigerant 6 MEE unit Number of effects 6 Salinity of the discharge brine 7, ppm Temperature rise of seawater in preheater 4 Condensation temperature of heating steam in the st effect, T 65 Temperature difference at the hot side of end condenser C 4 Operation temperature in the last effect 43 Mechanical work consumption per kg produced fresh water 7. kj [4] 4 Copyright 8 by ASME

5 QR + QT m ( h h3 ) + m9 ( h9 h ) COPRT = = Qin m ( h h ) ( ) ER ET ε RT = ε R + εt = + E E m[ h = h 3 in T ( s s3 )] + m9[ h9 h m [ h h T ( s s )] in T ( s 9 s where is the produced refrigeration, Q in is the thermal energy input to the system, Q T and E T are the thermal energy and thermal exergy provided for MEE, and ε R and ε T are the exergy efficiency of producing E R and E T, respectively. A dimensionless exergy loss parameter, ξ, is used to evaluate the process irreversibility of each component: EL ξ = (4) Ein where E L represents the process exergy loss. For system performance evaluation we define the Energy Saving Ratio of the water-refrigeration system, which is the ratio of the amount of the defined-property steam used to produce the same amount of water and refrigeration by using two separate single-product units, one of them a conventional )] (3) single-effect LiBr-H O refrigeration unit with seawater as cooling water that produces just refrigeration, and the other an AHP-MEE unit producing just fresh water, and the amount of steam used by the combined system: mr + md ESR = (5) m where m R and m D are the motive steam mass flows consumed by the single-purpose refrigeration and desalination systems, respectively, and m is the flow rate of the motive steam, with the same thermodynamic properties for m R and m D, used by the combined system producing the same amount of refrigeration and water. We also use the Refrigeration-Water Ratio (RWR), defined as QR RWR = [ kj/kg] (6) m W 4. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF THE ARHP-MEE COMBINED SYSTEM 4. Base-case performance of the ARHP-MEE combined system Table The main parameters of the base-case of the ARHP-MEE system ARHP subsystem T ( ) p (kpa) m (kg/s) X(% LiBr) x v Motive steam Strong solution from generator G Strong solution from solution heat exchanger SH Weak solution from absorber A Weak solution from solution heat exchanger SH Steam produced in generator G Refrigerant before throttling valve V Refrigerant entering evaporator ER MEE subsystem Effect number Feed seawater T ( ) m (kg/s) Brine T ( ) m (kg/s) BPE ( ) Produced vapor T ( ) p (kpa) m (kg/s) Condensate T ( ) m (kg/s) System production Produced refrigeration, Produced fresh water, m W Refrigeration-water ratio, RWR 65 kw 4.6 kg/s 4.4 kj/kg 5 Copyright 8 by ASME

6 The simulation was carried out using the Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software [7]. The properties of LiBr- H O solution were taken from [8]; the properties of seawater and brine, the boiling point elevation of brine, as well as the non-equilibrium allowance of flashing evaporation in the flashing box were taken from [8] and []. The computerized models were validated by () checking the relative errors of mass and energy balance of each component and the entire system where they were found to be < -8, () making sure that the calculation results satisfy the system exergetic equation, that is, the sum of the exergy output of the system and that lost or destructed in the system equals to that input into the system, which is not included in the equation systems solved by EES, and (3) comparing the simulation results of the absorption refrigeration unit and the MEE unit separately with those in [9] and [] under the same conditions where they show good agreement (for example, the relative error of the coefficient of performance of the refrigeration unit is around %, and that of the performance ratio of MEE, defined as the mass ratio of the produced water and the heating steam for MEE, is within 3%). The calculations are performed for a flow of kg/s motive steam for the combined system. The main parameters of the base case of ARHP-MEE are shown in Table. The performance comparison between the refrigeration-water combined system and the separate single-product systems are shown in Table 3. The energy saving of the combined system (compared with the single-product systems) is significant, about 4% for the base case. It is the ARHP subsystem that contributes to this substantial improvement. Tables 4 and 5 show the energy and exergy utilization of the ARHP. The output cold and thermal energy account for 75.7% and 78% of the input thermal energy for ARHP, respectively, resulting in a total COP RT of.54, which is considerably higher than the COP of.77 of the refrigeration-only unit running under the same conditions. The refrigeration exergy and the thermal exergy produced are 6.8% and 33.9% of the total input exergy, leading to a total exergy efficiency of 6.7%, much higher than of the 7.% exergy efficiency of the refrigeration-only unit. So, raising the condensation temperature of the generator produced vapor at 65 ºC in this case (higher than the 4 ºC in a conventional Table 3 Comparison between the combined system and the separate refrigeration and water systems ARHP-MEE combined system AHP-MEE water-only system Operation pressure of generator, kpa Operation pressure of absorber, kpa Condensation temperature of generator-produced steam, Temperature of absorber outlet weak solution, Mass concentration of weak solution, % LiBr Mass concentration of strong solution, % LiBr Cooling capacity, kw Produced fresh water, kg/s Mass flow of motive steam, kg/s Total mass flow of motive steam, kg/s.4 Absorption refrigeration system Table 4 Energy utilization of the ARHP subsystem for the base-case Components Generator G 8 Absorber A 45 Condenser ED 7 Evaporator ER 65 Solution heat exchanger SH 56 Subcooler SC 87.7 Heat load (kw) Unit: kw Percentage Thermal energy input to ARHP, Q in 8 Cold energy produced, Thermal energy output for MEE, Q T COP RT.54 Table 5 Exergy utilization of the ARHP subsystem for the base-case Components or streams Exergy loss (kw) Generator G Absorber A Solution heat exchanger SH Subcooler SC 5.3. Cooling seawater Others Dimensionless exergy loss (%) Unit: kw Percentage Thermal exergy input to ARHP, E in 53.5 Exergy of produced refrigeration Thermal exergy output for MEE, E T Exergy efficiency, ε RT 6.7 % 6 Copyright 8 by ASME

7 refrigeration-only unit), a temperature high enough to makes the condensation heat suitable for desalination, leading to an additional gain of 33.9% of thermal exergy or 78% of thermal energy, at the cost of only.4% decrease of produced cold exergy or.3% decrease of cold energy. 4. Parametric analysis of the ARHP-MEE combined system Under the specified ambient conditions, the main factors influencing the performance of the ARHP-MEE system are: generator approach temperature T -6, LiBr-H O strong-andweak solution concentration difference X, motive steam pressure p, and the heating steam condensation temperature T in ED (or the generator operation pressure). The performance of the MEE unit certainly has great influence on the whole system, with the discussions not included in this paper. Detailed information on MEE unit can be found in many publications (cf.[8, ]). 4.. Influence of the generator approach temperature T -6 Figure 3 shows the influence of T -6, with the other conditions kept constant at the base-case values shown in Table. To exhibit more clearly the sensitivity of water and refrigeration production in the combined system, m W, and E R are normalized by their base-case values shown in Table. / /E R, m W /m W...99 / / E R m W / m W RWR T -6 ( o C) Fig. 3 Effect of the generator approach temperature T -6 The m W and (E R ) of ARHP-MEE increase with T -6 (Fig. 3), and reach the highest value under the maximum T -6 allowed. Increasing T -6 from 5 to.5 produces about % more refrigeration and water. The increase of T -6, causes the operation temperature of the generator and then that of the absorber to decrease. The temperature of the cooling medium used in the absorber determines the lowest absorber outlet temperature, and then the maximum T -6. We thus draw a conclusion that improvement of thermal performance can be achieved by raising T -6 as highly as allowed by the cooling medium used in the absorber. RWR (kj / kg) Figure 3 also reveals that water and refrigeration production in the ARHP-MEE system have the same trend with the variation of T -6, and that the refrigeration-water ratio RWR remains almost constant. The reason is that it is the same stream of working fluid, i.e. the vapor produced in the generator, that produces both the desalination heat (in ED ) and the refrigeration (in ER), so when the mass flow of the vapor, m 9, increases with T -6, both (or E R ) and Q T (or E T ) increase at almost the same rate with m 9, resulting in an almost constant RWR. 4.. Influence of LiBr-H O strong-and-weak solution concentration difference X Figure 4 shows the influence of the concentration difference, X, between the strong and weak LiBr-H O solutions. The lines 3, 4 and 5 are for T -6 =, and lines, and 6 for the maximum T -6 allowed as discussed above. It is revealed that increasing X leads to distinct improvements of water and refrigeration production. When X is increased from 3% to 6%, the two outputs both increase by over 6% for T -6 =. The reason is the same as in a conventional absorption refrigeration system [9]. The increase of X is limited by the point at which crystallization of the strong solution at the SH outlet commences. Fig. 4 also shows that RWR depends only slightly on X, and has almost the same value as that shown in Fig. 3, for the same reasons given in Section 4... / / E R, m W / m W : / / E R ( T -6 = T -6, max ) : m W / m W ( T -6 = T -6, max ) 3: / / E R ( T -6 = o C) 4: m W / m W ( T -6 = o C) 3 4 5: RWR ( T -6 = o C) 6: RWR ( T -6 = T -6, max ) X (%) Fig. 4 Effect of the strong-and-weak solution concentration difference X 4..3 Influence of the condensation temperature T of the heating steam in ED Since ED is both the condenser of ARHP and the evaporator of MEE, i.e. the interface between the refrigeration and water production subsystems, the condensation temperature, T, of the heating steam in ED has a great RWR (kj / kg) 7 Copyright 8 by ASME

8 influence on the performance of each of these two subsystems and thus on the performance of the ARHP-MEE combined system. Figure 5 shows the refrigeration and heat production, and Fig. 6 shows the exergy utilization, of the ARHP unit, for different T. With the increase of T, the outputs and E R as well as Q T drop slightly, while the thermal exergy E T for MEE rises significantly. The strong increase of E T is mainly contributed to the decreased exergy loss in the generator (Fig. 6) where the heat-transfer temperature difference has a distinct decrease with increasing T (Fig. 7). Higher T broadens the operation temperate range of the MEE unit, implying the possibility of running an MEE with more effects than the six chosen for this study. More effects lead to a much higher performance ratio [8]. It is thus clear that for the specified motive heat source, raising T would cause a minor decrease of refrigeration production but a great potential for producing more fresh water. For instance, increasing T from 65 to 68.4 would decrease the cooling capacity by.%, but increase the water production by 5% when the number of effects of the MEE is changed from 6 to 7, without almost any change of the specific heat-transfer area (per kg/s produced fresh water) of the MEE for the two situations Q / Q, E / E....9 T -6 = T -6, max X = 6% E T / E T / E R / E R Q T / Q T T ( o C) Fig. 5 Effect of the condensation temperature of the MEE heating steam, Τ 5 ε, ξ (%) T = 57 T = 6 T = 65 ε R ε T ξ G ξ A ξ SH ξ others Fig. 6 Exergy utilization of ARHP subsystem for different Τ T ( o C) Motive heat source Solution (T = 65 o C) Solution (T = 57 o C) X = 6%, T -6 = T -6, max Q / Q G (%) Fig. 7 The generator T-Q diagram for different T 4..4 Influence of the motive steam pressure p The motive steam is assumed to be saturated, and Figure 8 shows the influence of its pressure p. Increasing p was found to reduce both water and refrigeration production. Typically the refrigeration capacity of real absorption refrigeration units increases with p, primarily because the motive steam mass flow m increases with p too. For instance, increasing p from.4 MPa to.6 MPa causes an increase of m from 575 kg/h to 795 kg/h in one example [9] that also gives further explanation. Different from real units, m is kept constant at kg/s in our analysis. From thermodynamics, based on kg/s motive steam, the thermal energy input to the ARHP-MEE system decreases when p is increased because of the decreased condensation latent heat of the motive steam, while the input thermal exergy increases, with the increase of p. The exergy loss in the generator has a significant rise with p (Fig. 9) because of the consequent enlarged heat-transfer temperature difference in the generator (Fig. ), resulting in decreased E R and E T, and a decreased E T leads to a decreased m W (Figs. 8). The above discussions on p are performed based on a constant T. A higher p can allow the raising of the heating steam (9) pressure and correspondingly a higher T. This, in turn, can allow a higher m W by adding effects to the MEE as discussed in Section For instance, with the maximum T -6 allowed and the other conditions kept constant at the basecase values (Table ), saturated motive steam of.5 MPa can produce heating steam with T = 58 C at the highest, which is suitable to run a four-effect MEE unit, while motive steam of.5 MPa has the ability to produce heating steam with T =7.9, suitable to run a seven-effect MEE unit. Different calculation conditions lead to different T. Generally, for the typical range of T from 58 to 7, the ARHP-MEE system proposed in this paper, which is based on a single-effect absorption refrigeration/heat pump, is applicable to be run by motive steam with p from.5 MPa to.35 MPa (saturation temperature T from.4 to 38.9 ). Further study is 8 Copyright 8 by ASME

9 needed to find more favorable ways of using higher pressure steam / / E R, m W / m W / E R / E R m W / m W T -6 = T -6, max X = 6% p (MPa) ε, ξ (%) Fig. 8 Effect of the motive steam pressure p Fig. 9 Exergy utilization of the ARHP unit for different motive steam pressures p 5 p =.5 MPa p =.3 MPa p =.35 MPa ε R ε T ξ G ξ A ξ SH ξ others 5. PERFORMANCE OF THE ARHP-AHP-MEE COMBINED SYSTEM AND DISCUSSIONS From the discussions in Section 4, we can draw a conclusion that, for a specified ARHP-MEE plant (T and the MEE number of effects are fixed), water and refrigeration production can be regulated in a wide range by changing the operating parameters, but the ratio between the two, RWR, keeps almost constant, which means that it is almost impossible to regulate RWR, indicating a relatively narrow working condition of a real ARHP-MEE plant. To meet the requirement of the situations where RWR needs to change, we proposed the ARHP-AHP-MEE system. We focus only on the main performance characteristics of the ARHP-AHP-MEE system, and do not perform its parametric analysis. Compared with ARHP-MEE, the main advantage of the ARHP-AHP-MEE system is that the water and refrigeration production as well as the refrigeration-water ratio can be changed in a wide range, as shown in Fig. which illustrates the variation of m W,, RWR and ESR under base-case calculation conditions. When all the motive steam is used to run the AHP unit, the ARHP-AHP-MEE system works as a wateronly AHP-MEE system, and 9.4 kg/s of fresh water can be produced with RWR and ESR both having the value of zero (Point A in Fig. ). When all the motive steam is used to run the ARHP unit, the ARHP-AHP-MEE works as an ARHP-MEE system, and 4.6 kg/s of fresh water and 65 kw of refrigeration can be obtained, with RWR = 4 kj/kg and ESR = 4% (intersection points between Line B-B and the lines showing ESR, and RWR in Fig. ). It is clear that, the ARHP-AHP-MEE system should have a performance that is between ARHP-MEE and AHP-MEE. Theoretically, RWR can be changed from to 4 kj/kg. By regulating the mass flow of the refrigerant entering ER (m in Fig. ) which determines the proportion of the motive steam allocated to ARHP and AHP in ARHP-AHP-MEE, m W and can be varied in a very wide range, indicating greater flexibility for design and operation. 4 Motive heat source ( p =.35 MPa) 8 B 4 T ( o C) 3 Motive heat source ( p =.5 MPa) Solution (p =.35 MPa, p =.5 MPa) T -6 = T -6, max X = 6 % Q / Q G (%) Fig. The generator T-Q diagram for different motive steam pressures p (kw), RWR (kj / kg) B ESR RWR A m W (kg / s) Fig. m W,, RWR and ESR of the ARHP-AHP-MEE combined system ESR (%) 9 Copyright 8 by ASME

10 Comparing the two combined systems, the ARHP-AHP- MEE is more favorable for higher m W and lower RWR, and has wider products variation range, but its configuration is more complex; the ARHP-MEE is simpler, more efficient, but with a narrow products variation range. While a detailed economic analysis was not performed, some basic important observations can be made. The two combined systems, especially ARHP-MEE, have much fewer components than those needed for the sum of the separate single-purpose systems. For instance, the ARHP subsystem works as a refrigeration unit and a heat pump, and all the components, including the generator, absorber, solution heat exchanger, evaporator, condenser, pumps and valves, are common parts for both refrigeration and heat production and thus do not need to be duplicated as in the separate systems. Obviously, it is not just the number of the components but also their size that determines the capital cost of the ARHP, indicating the necessity for a detailed study of the heat-transfer processes in the components. Another economic advantage is that the higher energy utilization rate of the ARHP-MEE system means that the energy/operating cost is lower too. 6. CONCLUSIONS There is often a need for both water desalination and refrigeration. The latter can be used to significantly raise system efficiency by compressor inlet cooling in a dual-purpose powergeneration and desalination system using gas turbines, or simply to supply refrigeration or air conditioning beside fresh water. Motivated by the good synergetic potential of energy/exergy utilization through the combination of the LiBr-H O refrigeration unit, LiBr-H O heat pump, and low-temperature MEE, two combined refrigeration and water systems, the ARHP-MEE system and ARHP-AHP-MEE system, driven by low-grade heat were configured, modeled and analyzed in detail in this paper. Good synergy, reflected by energy saving, is accomplished by combining an absorption refrigeration/heat pump with lowtemperature thermal desalination. In a case study of the ARHP- MEE system, the Energy Saving Rate is 4%, compared with the individual refrigeration-only and water-only systems. Driven by.5 MPa saturated steam, the coefficient of performance of the ARHP is around.6 and the exergy efficiency above 6%. A parametric sensitivity analysis of the ARHP-MEE system shows that a higher generator approach temperature and a higher concentration difference between the strong and weak solution raise water and refrigeration production simultaneously. Using driving steam of higher pressure allows increasing the number of effects of the MEE unit and thus produces more water. Comparing the two combined refrigeration-water systems, the ARHP-AHP-MEE is more suitable for higher water production rate and a lower refrigeration-water ratio, and has a much wider products variation range, indicating greater flexibility of design and operation, while the configuration is more complex. The ARHP-MEE is simpler, more efficient and economic, but with a relatively narrow products variation range. The proposed systems are expected to have better economics than individual refrigeration-only and water-only systems that produce the same amounts of refrigeration and fresh water, because they have fewer components and much lower energy use. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Project No ) and the Science Foundation of Jimei University, China. REFERENCES [] A. Husain, Integrated Power and Desalination Plants, The Encyclopedia of Life Suppport Systems (EOLSS), Oxford, UK, 3 [] M.A.Darwish and N. Al Najem, Co-generation power desalting plants: a new outlook with gas turbines, Desalination, 6(4) - [3] T. Szacsvay and M. Posnansky, Distillation desalination systems powered by waste heat from combined cycle power generation units, Desalination, 36() 33-4 [4] E. Kakaras, A. Doukelis and S. Karellas, Compressor intake-air cooling in gas turbine plants, Energy, 9 (4) [5] E. Kakaras and A. Doukelis, Inlet air cooling methods for gas turbine based power plants, ASME Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbine and Power, 8 (6) 3-37 [6] G. Kronenberg and F. Kokiec, Low-temperature distillation processes in single- and dual-purpose plants, Desalination, 36() [7] N. Zhang and N. Lior, Methodology for thermal design of novel combined refrigeration/power binary fluid systems, Int. J. Refrigeration, 3 (7) 7-85 [8] H. El-Dessouky and H. Ettouney, Fundamentals of Salt Water Desalination, Elsevier, Amsterdam, [9] S. E. Aly, A study of a new thermal vapor compression/multi-effect stack (TVC/MES) low temperature distillation system, Desalination, 3(995) [] D. Alarcon-Padilla, L. Garcia-Rodriguez and J. Blanco- Galvez, Assessment of an absorption heat pump coupled to a multi-effect distillation unit within AQUASOL project, Desalination, (7) 33-3 [] F. Mandani, H. Ettouney and H. El-Dessouky, LiBr-H O absorption heat pump for single-effect evaporation desalination process, Desalination, 8 () 6-76 [] J. Su, W. Han and H. Jin, A new seawater desalination system combined with double-effect absorption heat pump, Copyright 8 by ASME

11 Journal of Engineering Thermophysics, 9 (8) (In Chinese) [3] M. A. Darwish and A. Alsairafi, Technical comparison between TVC/MEB and MSF, Desalination, 7 (4) 3-9 [4] M.A.Darwish, F. Al Asfour and N. Al-Najem, Energy consumption in equivalent work by different desalting methods: case study for Kuwait, Desalination 5() 83-9 [5] N. Kahraman AND Y. A. Cengel, Exergy analysis of a MSF distillation plant, Energy Conversion and Management, 46 (5) [6] M. Kilic and O. Kaynakli, Second law-based thermodynamic analysis of water-lithium absorption refrigeration system, Energy, 3 (7) 55-5 [7] F-chart Software, [8] Y. Kaita. Thermodynamic properties of lithium bromidewater solution at high temperatures. International Journal of Refrigeration, 4() [9] Y. Dai, Technology and Application of Lithium Bromide Absorption Refrigeration, Mechanical Industry, Beijing, China, (in Chinese) [] F. N. Alasfour, M. A. Darwish and A. O. Bin Amer, Thermal analysis of ME-TVC+MEE desalination systems, Desalination, 74(5) 39-6 Copyright 8 by ASME

UNIT 2 REFRIGERATION CYCLE

UNIT 2 REFRIGERATION CYCLE UNIT 2 REFRIGERATION CYCLE Refrigeration Cycle Structure 2. Introduction Objectives 2.2 Vapour Compression Cycle 2.2. Simple Vapour Compression Refrigeration Cycle 2.2.2 Theoretical Vapour Compression

More information

DE-TOP User s Manual. Version 2.0 Beta

DE-TOP User s Manual. Version 2.0 Beta DE-TOP User s Manual Version 2.0 Beta CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION... 1 1.1. DE-TOP Overview... 1 1.2. Background information... 2 2. DE-TOP OPERATION... 3 2.1. Graphical interface... 3 2.2. Power plant model...

More information

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF VAPOUR COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM WITH R404A, R407C AND R410A

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF VAPOUR COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM WITH R404A, R407C AND R410A Int. J. Mech. Eng. & Rob. Res. 213 Jyoti Soni and R C Gupta, 213 Research Paper ISSN 2278 149 www.ijmerr.com Vol. 2, No. 1, January 213 213 IJMERR. All Rights Reserved PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF VAPOUR COMPRESSION

More information

APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS TUTORIAL 1 REVISION OF ISENTROPIC EFFICIENCY ADVANCED STEAM CYCLES

APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS TUTORIAL 1 REVISION OF ISENTROPIC EFFICIENCY ADVANCED STEAM CYCLES APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS TUTORIAL 1 REVISION OF ISENTROPIC EFFICIENCY ADVANCED STEAM CYCLES INTRODUCTION This tutorial is designed for students wishing to extend their knowledge of thermodynamics to a more

More information

The Second Law of Thermodynamics

The Second Law of Thermodynamics The Second aw of Thermodynamics The second law of thermodynamics asserts that processes occur in a certain direction and that the energy has quality as well as quantity. The first law places no restriction

More information

Analysis of Ammonia Water (NH3-H2O) Vapor Absorption Refrigeration System based on First Law of Thermodynamics

Analysis of Ammonia Water (NH3-H2O) Vapor Absorption Refrigeration System based on First Law of Thermodynamics International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 2, Issue 8, August-2011 1 Analysis of Ammonia Water (NH3-H2O) Vapor Absorption Refrigeration System based on First Law of Thermodynamics

More information

CHAPTER 7 THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS. Blank

CHAPTER 7 THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS. Blank CHAPTER 7 THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS Blank SONNTAG/BORGNAKKE STUDY PROBLEM 7-1 7.1 A car engine and its fuel consumption A car engine produces 136 hp on the output shaft with a thermal efficiency

More information

Research on the Air Conditioning Water Heater System

Research on the Air Conditioning Water Heater System Purdue University Purdue e-pubs International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference School of Mechanical Engineering 28 Research on the Air Conditioning Water Heater System Fei Liu Gree Electric

More information

Chapter 3.4: HVAC & Refrigeration System

Chapter 3.4: HVAC & Refrigeration System Chapter 3.4: HVAC & Refrigeration System Part I: Objective type questions and answers 1. One ton of refrigeration (TR) is equal to. a) Kcal/h b) 3.51 kw c) 120oo BTU/h d) all 2. The driving force for refrigeration

More information

Thermodynamics - Example Problems Problems and Solutions

Thermodynamics - Example Problems Problems and Solutions Thermodynamics - Example Problems Problems and Solutions 1 Examining a Power Plant Consider a power plant. At point 1 the working gas has a temperature of T = 25 C. The pressure is 1bar and the mass flow

More information

GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANT CYCLES AND MAIN COMPONENTS

GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANT CYCLES AND MAIN COMPONENTS Presented at Short Course on Geothermal Drilling, Resource Development and Power Plants, organized by UNU-GTP and LaGeo, in Santa Tecla, El Salvador, January -, 0. GEOTHERMAL TRAINING PROGRAMME LaGeo S.A.

More information

FEASIBILITY OF A BRAYTON CYCLE AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM

FEASIBILITY OF A BRAYTON CYCLE AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM FEASIBILITY OF A BRAYTON CYCLE AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM L. H. M. Beatrice a, and F. A. S. Fiorelli a a Universidade de São Paulo Escola Politécnica Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica Av. Prof.

More information

FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS

FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS System: Quantity of matter (constant mass) or region in space (constant volume) chosen for study. Closed system: Can exchange energy but not mass; mass is constant

More information

SIMULATION OF THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF CASCADE REFRIGERATION SYSTEM WITH ALTERNATIVE REFRIGERANTS

SIMULATION OF THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF CASCADE REFRIGERATION SYSTEM WITH ALTERNATIVE REFRIGERANTS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET) International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 6359

More information

Sheet 5:Chapter 5 5 1C Name four physical quantities that are conserved and two quantities that are not conserved during a process.

Sheet 5:Chapter 5 5 1C Name four physical quantities that are conserved and two quantities that are not conserved during a process. Thermo 1 (MEP 261) Thermodynamics An Engineering Approach Yunus A. Cengel & Michael A. Boles 7 th Edition, McGraw-Hill Companies, ISBN-978-0-07-352932-5, 2008 Sheet 5:Chapter 5 5 1C Name four physical

More information

PG Student (Heat Power Engg.), Mechanical Engineering Department Jabalpur Engineering College, India. Jabalpur Engineering College, India.

PG Student (Heat Power Engg.), Mechanical Engineering Department Jabalpur Engineering College, India. Jabalpur Engineering College, India. International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development Issue 3, Vol. (January 23) EFFECT OF SUB COOLING AND SUPERHEATING ON VAPOUR COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS USING 22 ALTERNATIVE

More information

Mohan Chandrasekharan #1

Mohan Chandrasekharan #1 International Journal of Students Research in Technology & Management Exergy Analysis of Vapor Compression Refrigeration System Using R12 and R134a as Refrigerants Mohan Chandrasekharan #1 # Department

More information

THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF AUTOMOBILE AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM USING R134A

THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF AUTOMOBILE AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM USING R134A THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF AUTOMOBILE AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM USING R134A Jignesh K. Vaghela Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department, SVMIT, Bharuch-392001, (India) ABSTRACT

More information

DESIGN CHALLENGES AND OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE OF A MEGA MED SEAWATER DESALINATION PLANT IN TIANJIN

DESIGN CHALLENGES AND OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE OF A MEGA MED SEAWATER DESALINATION PLANT IN TIANJIN DESIGN CHALLENGES AND OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE OF A MEGA MED SEAWATER DESALINATION PLANT IN TIANJIN Authors: Presenter: T. Efrat, Yu Haimiao Tomer Efrat Deputy Manager, Thermal Process Dept. IDE Technologies

More information

Yijun Gao, Wei Wu, Zongwei Han, Xianting Li *

Yijun Gao, Wei Wu, Zongwei Han, Xianting Li * Study on the performance of air conditioning system combining heat pipe and vapor compression based on ground source energy-bus for commercial buildings in north China Yijun Gao, Wei Wu, Zongwei Han, Xianting

More information

Theoretical Study on Separate Sensible and Latent Cooling Air-Conditioning System

Theoretical Study on Separate Sensible and Latent Cooling Air-Conditioning System Purdue University Purdue e-pubs International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference School of Mechanical Engineering 2008 Theoretical Study on Separate Sensible and Latent Cooling Air-Conditioning

More information

Boiler Calculations. Helsinki University of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering. Sebastian Teir, Antto Kulla

Boiler Calculations. Helsinki University of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering. Sebastian Teir, Antto Kulla Helsinki University of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering Energy Engineering and Environmental Protection Publications Steam Boiler Technology ebook Espoo 2002 Boiler Calculations Sebastian

More information

Thermal Coupling Of Cooling and Heating Systems

Thermal Coupling Of Cooling and Heating Systems This article was published in ASHRAE Journal, February 2011. Copyright 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. Posted at www.ashrae.org. This article may not

More information

ALONE. small scale solar cooling device Project No TREN FP7EN 218952. Project No TREN/FP7EN/218952 ALONE. small scale solar cooling device

ALONE. small scale solar cooling device Project No TREN FP7EN 218952. Project No TREN/FP7EN/218952 ALONE. small scale solar cooling device Project No TREN/FP7EN/218952 ALONE small scale solar cooling device Collaborative Project Small or Medium-scale Focused Research Project DELIVERABLE D5.2 Start date of the project: October 2008, Duration:

More information

AMMONIA AND CARBON DIOXIDE HEAT PUMPS FOR HEAT RECOVERY IN INDUSTRY

AMMONIA AND CARBON DIOXIDE HEAT PUMPS FOR HEAT RECOVERY IN INDUSTRY AMMONIA AND CARBON DIOXIDE HEAT PUMPS FOR HEAT RECOVERY IN INDUSTRY Wiebke Brix (a), Stefan W. Christensen (b), Michael M. Markussen (c), Lars Reinholdt (d) and Brian Elmegaard (a) (a) DTU Technical University

More information

The Second Law of Thermodynamics

The Second Law of Thermodynamics Objectives MAE 320 - Chapter 6 The Second Law of Thermodynamics The content and the pictures are from the text book: Çengel, Y. A. and Boles, M. A., Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, McGraw-Hill,

More information

Heat and mass transfer resistance analysis of membrane distillation

Heat and mass transfer resistance analysis of membrane distillation Journal of Membrane Science 282 (2006) 362 369 Heat and mass transfer resistance analysis of membrane distillation A.M. Alklaibi, Noam Lior University of Pennsylvania, Department of Mechanical Engineering

More information

6 18 A steam power plant receives heat from a furnace at a rate of 280 GJ/h. Heat losses to the surrounding air from the steam as it passes through

6 18 A steam power plant receives heat from a furnace at a rate of 280 GJ/h. Heat losses to the surrounding air from the steam as it passes through Thermo 1 (MEP 261) Thermodynamics An Engineering Approach Yunus A. Cengel & Michael A. Boles 7 th Edition, McGraw-Hill Companies, ISBN-978-0-07-352932-5, 2008 Sheet 6:Chapter 6 6 17 A 600-MW steam power

More information

Thermodynamical aspects of the passage to hybrid nuclear power plants

Thermodynamical aspects of the passage to hybrid nuclear power plants Energy Production and Management in the 21st Century, Vol. 1 273 Thermodynamical aspects of the passage to hybrid nuclear power plants A. Zaryankin, A. Rogalev & I. Komarov Moscow Power Engineering Institute,

More information

How To Calculate The Performance Of A Refrigerator And Heat Pump

How To Calculate The Performance Of A Refrigerator And Heat Pump THERMODYNAMICS TUTORIAL 5 HEAT PUMPS AND REFRIGERATION On completion of this tutorial you should be able to do the following. Discuss the merits of different refrigerants. Use thermodynamic tables for

More information

OPTIMAL POLYGEN COOLING CONCEPT FOR ST. OLAVS HOSPITAL IN TRONDHEIM, NORWAY

OPTIMAL POLYGEN COOLING CONCEPT FOR ST. OLAVS HOSPITAL IN TRONDHEIM, NORWAY 1st European Conference on Polygeneration OPTIMAL POLYGEN COOLING CONCEPT FOR ST. OLAVS HOSPITAL IN TRONDHEIM, NORWAY G. Eggen 1, A. Utne 2 1) COWI A/S, PB 2564 Sentrum, NO-7414 Trondheim, Norway, e-mail:

More information

UNDERSTANDING REFRIGERANT TABLES

UNDERSTANDING REFRIGERANT TABLES Refrigeration Service Engineers Society 1666 Rand Road Des Plaines, Illinois 60016 UNDERSTANDING REFRIGERANT TABLES INTRODUCTION A Mollier diagram is a graphical representation of the properties of a refrigerant,

More information

DESIGN AND SETUP OF A HYBRID SOLAR SEAWATER DESALINATION SYSTEM: THE AQUASOL PROJECT

DESIGN AND SETUP OF A HYBRID SOLAR SEAWATER DESALINATION SYSTEM: THE AQUASOL PROJECT DESIGN AND SETUP OF A HYBRID SOLAR SEAWATER DESALINATION SYSTEM: THE AQUASOL PROJECT Diego Alarcón Julián Blanco Sixto Malato M. Ignacio Maldonado Pilar Fernández CIEMAT - Plataforma Solar de Almería Ctra.

More information

Transient Analysis of Integrated Shiraz Hybrid Solar Thermal Power Plant Iman Niknia 1, Mahmood Yaghoubi 1, 2

Transient Analysis of Integrated Shiraz Hybrid Solar Thermal Power Plant Iman Niknia 1, Mahmood Yaghoubi 1, 2 Transient Analysis of Integrated Shiraz Hybrid Solar Thermal Power Plant Iman Niknia 1, Mahmood Yaghoubi 1, 2 1 School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran 1, 2 Shiraz University,

More information

Author's personal copy

Author's personal copy Energy Conversion and Management 50 (2009) 2768 2781 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Energy Conversion and Management journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/enconman Thermoeconomic analysis

More information

Energy Analysis and Comparison of Advanced Vapour Compression Heat Pump Arrangements

Energy Analysis and Comparison of Advanced Vapour Compression Heat Pump Arrangements Energy Analysis and Comparison of Advanced Vapour Compression Heat Pump Arrangements Stuart Self 1, Marc Rosen 1, and Bale Reddy 1 1 University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, Ontario Abstract

More information

ARP Food Industry, Portugal

ARP Food Industry, Portugal Food Industry, Portugal In a Portuguese food company colibri will install a twostage ammonia-water-absorption refrigeration system. The 1st refrigeration stage provides the customer with liquid ammonia

More information

Evaluation Of Hybrid Air- Cooled Flash/Binary Power Cycle

Evaluation Of Hybrid Air- Cooled Flash/Binary Power Cycle INL/CON-05-00740 PREPRINT Evaluation Of Hybrid Air- Cooled Flash/Binary Power Cycle Geothermal Resources Council Annual Meeting Greg Mines October 2005 This is a preprint of a paper intended for publication

More information

How To Know If A Refrigeration System Is Efficient

How To Know If A Refrigeration System Is Efficient Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi ASSESSMENT OF E SUBCOOLING CAPABILITIES OF A ERMOELECTRIC DEVICE IN A VAPOR COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM R. ROŞCA 1, I. ŢENU 1, P. CÂRLESCU

More information

Exergy: the quality of energy N. Woudstra

Exergy: the quality of energy N. Woudstra Exergy: the quality of energy N. Woudstra Introduction Characteristic for our society is a massive consumption of goods and energy. Continuation of this way of life in the long term is only possible if

More information

An analysis of a thermal power plant working on a Rankine cycle: A theoretical investigation

An analysis of a thermal power plant working on a Rankine cycle: A theoretical investigation An analysis of a thermal power plant working on a Rankine cycle: A theoretical investigation R K Kapooria Department of Mechanical Engineering, BRCM College of Engineering & Technology, Bahal (Haryana)

More information

The final numerical answer given is correct but the math shown does not give that answer.

The final numerical answer given is correct but the math shown does not give that answer. Note added to Homework set 7: The solution to Problem 16 has an error in it. The specific heat of water is listed as c 1 J/g K but should be c 4.186 J/g K The final numerical answer given is correct but

More information

Ambient Energy Fraction of a Heat Pump

Ambient Energy Fraction of a Heat Pump Ambient Energy Fraction of a Heat Pump u Aye, R. J. Fuller and.. S. Charters International Technologies Centre (IDTC) Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering The University of Melbourne Vic 3010

More information

Waste Heat Recovery through Air Conditioning System

Waste Heat Recovery through Air Conditioning System International Journal of Engineering Research and Development e-issn: 2278-067X, p-issn : 2278-800X, www.ijerd.com Volume 5, Issue 3 (December 2012), PP. 87-92 Waste Heat Recovery through Air Conditioning

More information

Zhao et al. 2.2 Experimental Results in Winter Season The analysis given below was based on the data collected from Nov. 2003 to Mar. 15, 2004.

Zhao et al. 2.2 Experimental Results in Winter Season The analysis given below was based on the data collected from Nov. 2003 to Mar. 15, 2004. Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2005 Antalya, Turkey, 24-29 April 2005 A Case Study of Ground Source Heat Pump System in China Jun Zhao, Chuanshan Dai, Xinguo Li, Qiang Zhu and Lixin Li College of

More information

Efficiency of Hydrogen Liquefaction Plants

Efficiency of Hydrogen Liquefaction Plants Efficiency of Hydrogen Liquefaction Plants Takashi FUKANO**, Urs FITZI*, Karl LÖHLEIN*, Isabelle VINAGE* * Linde Kryotechnik AG, CH-8422 Pfungen, Switzerland ** Nippon Sanso Corporation, JP-210-0861 Kawasaki-City,

More information

Condensers & Evaporator Chapter 5

Condensers & Evaporator Chapter 5 Condensers & Evaporator Chapter 5 This raises the condenser temperature and the corresponding pressure thereby reducing the COP. Page 134 of 263 Condensers & Evaporator Chapter 5 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (GATE,

More information

Warm medium, T H T T H T L. s Cold medium, T L

Warm medium, T H T T H T L. s Cold medium, T L Refrigeration Cycle Heat flows in direction of decreasing temperature, i.e., from ig-temperature to low temperature regions. Te transfer of eat from a low-temperature to ig-temperature requires a refrigerator

More information

Energy Saving by ESCO (Energy Service Company) Project in Hospital

Energy Saving by ESCO (Energy Service Company) Project in Hospital 7th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference 2-5 August 2009, Denver, Colorado AIAA 2009-4568 Tracking Number: 171427 Energy Saving by ESCO (Energy Service Company) Project in Hospital Satoru

More information

OUTCOME 2 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE PERFORMANCE. TUTORIAL No. 5 PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS

OUTCOME 2 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE PERFORMANCE. TUTORIAL No. 5 PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS UNIT 61: ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS Unit code: D/601/1410 QCF level: 5 Credit value: 15 OUTCOME 2 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE PERFORMANCE TUTORIAL No. 5 PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS 2 Be able to evaluate

More information

Chapter 10: Refrigeration Cycles

Chapter 10: Refrigeration Cycles Capter 10: efrigeration Cycles Te vapor compression refrigeration cycle is a common metod for transferring eat from a low temperature to a ig temperature. Te above figure sows te objectives of refrigerators

More information

POSSIBILITY FOR MECHANICAL VAPOR RE-COMPRESSRION FOR STEAM BASED DRYING PROCESSES

POSSIBILITY FOR MECHANICAL VAPOR RE-COMPRESSRION FOR STEAM BASED DRYING PROCESSES POSSIBILITY FOR MECHANICAL VAPOR RE-COMPRESSRION FOR STEAM BASED DRYING PROCESSES M. Bantle 1, I. Tolstorebrov, T. M. Eikevik 2 1 Department of Energy Efficiency, SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim, Norway,

More information

Balance of Fuel Cell Power Plant (BOP)

Balance of Fuel Cell Power Plant (BOP) Balance of Fuel Cell Power Plant (BOP) Docent Jinliang Yuan December, 2008 Department of Energy Sciences Lund Institute of Technology (LTH), Sweden Balance of Fuel Cell Power Plant In addition to stack,

More information

Analytical Study of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System Using Diffuser and Subcooling

Analytical Study of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System Using Diffuser and Subcooling IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE) e-issn: 2278-1684,p-ISSN: 2320-334X, Volume 11, Issue 3 Ver. VII (May- Jun. 2014), PP 92-97 Analytical Study of Vapour Compression Refrigeration

More information

Development of a model for the simulation of Organic Rankine Cycles based on group contribution techniques

Development of a model for the simulation of Organic Rankine Cycles based on group contribution techniques ASME Turbo Expo Vancouver, June 6 10 2011 Development of a model for the simulation of Organic Rankine ycles based on group contribution techniques Enrico Saverio Barbieri Engineering Department University

More information

Vicot Solar Air Conditioning. V i c o t A i r C o n d i t i o n i n g C o., l t d Tel: 86-531-8235 5576 Fax: 86-531-82357911 Http://www.vicot.com.

Vicot Solar Air Conditioning. V i c o t A i r C o n d i t i o n i n g C o., l t d Tel: 86-531-8235 5576 Fax: 86-531-82357911 Http://www.vicot.com. Vicot Solar Air Conditioning V i c o t A i r C o n d i t i o n i n g C o., l t d Tel: 86-531-8235 5576 Fax: 86-531-82357911 Http://www.vicot.com.cn Cooling, heating, and domestic hot water. Return on investment

More information

How To Power A Power Plant With Waste Heat

How To Power A Power Plant With Waste Heat Power Generation Siemens Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery with ORC Answers for energy. Table of Contents Requirements of the Future Power Supply without extra Fuel Siemens ORC-Module Typical Applications

More information

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF NGCC AND COAL-FIRED STEAM POWER PLANTS WITH INTEGRATED CCS AND ORC SYSTEMS

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF NGCC AND COAL-FIRED STEAM POWER PLANTS WITH INTEGRATED CCS AND ORC SYSTEMS ASME ORC 2015 3rd International Seminar on ORC Power Systems 12-14 October 2015, Brussels, Belgium PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF NGCC AND COAL-FIRED STEAM POWER PLANTS WITH INTEGRATED CCS AND ORC SYSTEMS Vittorio

More information

Air-sourced 90 Hot Water Supplying Heat Pump "HEM-90A"

Air-sourced 90 Hot Water Supplying Heat Pump HEM-90A Air-sourced 90 Hot Water Supplying Heat Pump "HEM-90A" Takahiro OUE *1, Kazuto OKADA *1 *1 Refrigeration System & Energy Dept., Compressor Div., Machinery Business Kobe Steel has developed an air-sourced

More information

MICRO-COGENERATION AND DESALINATION USING ROTARY STEAM ENGINE (RSE) TECHNOLOGY

MICRO-COGENERATION AND DESALINATION USING ROTARY STEAM ENGINE (RSE) TECHNOLOGY MICRO-COGENERATION AND DESALINATION USING ROTARY STEAM ENGINE (RSE) TECHNOLOGY Kari Alanne, Kari Saari, Maunu Kuosa, Md. Mizanur Rahman* Andrew Martin** Heikki Pohjola*** *Aalto University, Espoo, Finland

More information

Scroll Compressor Development for Air-Source Heat Pump Water Heater Applications

Scroll Compressor Development for Air-Source Heat Pump Water Heater Applications Purdue University Purdue e-pubs International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference School of Mechanical Engineering 2008 Scroll Compressor Development for Air-Source Heat Pump Water Heater Applications

More information

Optimal operation of simple refrigeration cycles Part I: Degrees of freedom and optimality of sub-cooling

Optimal operation of simple refrigeration cycles Part I: Degrees of freedom and optimality of sub-cooling Computers and Chemical Engineering 31 (2007) 712 721 Optimal operation of simple refrigeration cycles Part I: Degrees of freedom and optimality of sub-cooling Jørgen Bauck Jensen, Sigurd Skogestad Department

More information

C H A P T E R T W O. Fundamentals of Steam Power

C H A P T E R T W O. Fundamentals of Steam Power 35 C H A P T E R T W O Fundamentals of Steam Power 2.1 Introduction Much of the electricity used in the United States is produced in steam power plants. Despite efforts to develop alternative energy converters,

More information

Energy Procedia Energy 00 Procedia (2011) 000 000 14 (2012) 56 65

Energy Procedia Energy 00 Procedia (2011) 000 000 14 (2012) 56 65 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Energy Procedia Energy 00 Procedia (2011) 000 000 14 (2012) 56 65 Energy Procedia www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia ICAEE

More information

Low GWP Replacements for R404A in Commercial Refrigeration Applications

Low GWP Replacements for R404A in Commercial Refrigeration Applications Low GWP Replacements for R404A in Commercial Refrigeration Applications Samuel YANA MOTTA, Mark SPATZ Honeywell International, 20 Peabody Street, Buffalo, NY 14210, Samuel.YanaMotta@honeywell.com Abstract

More information

Energy Recovery Systems for the Efficient Cooling of Data Centers using Absorption Chillers and Renewable Energy Resources

Energy Recovery Systems for the Efficient Cooling of Data Centers using Absorption Chillers and Renewable Energy Resources Energy Recovery Systems for the Efficient Cooling of Data Centers using Absorption Chillers and Renewable Energy Resources ALEXANDRU SERBAN, VICTOR CHIRIAC, FLOREA CHIRIAC, GABRIEL NASTASE Building Services

More information

HIGH-EFFICIENCY CO 2 HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER SYSTEMS FOR RESIDENTIAL AND NON-RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

HIGH-EFFICIENCY CO 2 HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER SYSTEMS FOR RESIDENTIAL AND NON-RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS 1 HIGH-EFFICIENCY CO 2 HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER SYSTEMS FOR RESIDENTIAL AND NON-RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Jørn Stene SINTEF Energy Research, 7465 Trondheim, Norway Jorn.Stene@sintef.no In hotels, hospitals,

More information

LG Electronics AE Company, Commercial Air Conditioning

LG Electronics AE Company, Commercial Air Conditioning www.lgeaircon.com New concept Ecofriendly Highefficiency Heating solution Total heating & Hot water Solution for MULTI V LG Electronics AE Company, Commercial Air Conditioning 2 Yeouidodong, Yeongdeungpogu,

More information

Exergy Analysis of a Water Heat Storage Tank

Exergy Analysis of a Water Heat Storage Tank Exergy Analysis of a Water Heat Storage Tank F. Dammel *1, J. Winterling 1, K.-J. Langeheinecke 3, and P. Stephan 1,2 1 Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 2 Center

More information

Heat Recovery In Retail Refrigeration

Heat Recovery In Retail Refrigeration This article was published in ASHRAE Journal, February 2010. Copyright 2010 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. Posted at www.ashrae.org. This article may not

More information

ME 201 Thermodynamics

ME 201 Thermodynamics ME 0 Thermodynamics Second Law Practice Problems. Ideally, which fluid can do more work: air at 600 psia and 600 F or steam at 600 psia and 600 F The maximum work a substance can do is given by its availablity.

More information

REFRIGERATION (& HEAT PUMPS)

REFRIGERATION (& HEAT PUMPS) REFRIGERATION (& HEAT PUMPS) Refrigeration is the 'artificial' extraction of heat from a substance in order to lower its temperature to below that of its surroundings Primarily, heat is extracted from

More information

How does solar air conditioning work?

How does solar air conditioning work? How does solar air conditioning work? In a conventional air conditioning system; The working fluid arrives at the compressor as a cool, low-pressure gas. The compressor is powered by electricity to squeeze

More information

THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF THE PERFORMANCE OF DUAL PRESSURE CONDENSER IN A THERMAL POWER PLANT

THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF THE PERFORMANCE OF DUAL PRESSURE CONDENSER IN A THERMAL POWER PLANT INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET) International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 6359

More information

ECONOMICAL OPTIONS FOR RECOVERING NGL / LPG AT LNG RECEIVING TERMINALS

ECONOMICAL OPTIONS FOR RECOVERING NGL / LPG AT LNG RECEIVING TERMINALS ECONOMICAL OPTIONS FOR RECOVERING NGL / LPG AT RECEIVING TERMINALS Presented at the 86 th Annual Convention of the Gas Processors Association March 13, 2007 San Antonio, Texas Kyle T. Cuellar Ortloff Engineers,

More information

DRAFT. Appendix C.2 - Air Conditioning Thermodynamics 1

DRAFT. Appendix C.2 - Air Conditioning Thermodynamics 1 Appendix C.2 - Air Conditioning Thermodynamics 1 To aid in discussing the alternative technologies, it is helpful to have a basic description of how air conditioning systems work. Heat normally flows from

More information

Advanced Process Integration for Low Grade Heat Recovery

Advanced Process Integration for Low Grade Heat Recovery Advanced Process Integration for Low Grade Heat Recovery Anur Kapil, Igor Bulatov, Robin Smith, Jin-Ku Kim Centre for Process Integration School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science The University

More information

Thermal Mass Availability for Cooling Data Centers during Power Shutdown

Thermal Mass Availability for Cooling Data Centers during Power Shutdown 2010 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). Published in ASHRAE Transactions (2010, vol 116, part 2). For personal use only. Additional reproduction,

More information

2B.1 Chilled-Water Return (and Supply) Temperature...119. 2B.3 Cooling-Water Supply Temperature / Flow... 124

2B.1 Chilled-Water Return (and Supply) Temperature...119. 2B.3 Cooling-Water Supply Temperature / Flow... 124 Appendix 2B: Chiller Test Results...119 2B.1 Chilled-Water Return (and Supply) Temperature...119 2B.2 Chilled-Water Flow... 122 2B.3 Cooling-Water Supply Temperature / Flow... 124 2B.4 Pressure/Temperature...

More information

OPTIMAL DESIGN AND OPERATION OF HELIUM REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS *

OPTIMAL DESIGN AND OPERATION OF HELIUM REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS * OPTIMAL DESIGN AND OPERATION OF HELIUM REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS * Abstract Helium refrigerators are of keen interest to present and future particle physics programs utilizing superconducting magnet or radio

More information

An Overview of Solar Assisted Air-Conditioning System Application in Small Office Buildings in Malaysia

An Overview of Solar Assisted Air-Conditioning System Application in Small Office Buildings in Malaysia An Overview of Solar Assisted Air-Conditioning System Application in Small Office Buildings in Malaysia LIM CHIN HAW 1 *, KAMARUZZAMAN SOPIAN 2, YUSOF SULAIMAN 3 Solar Energy Research Institute, University

More information

AIR CONDITIONING TECHNOLOGY

AIR CONDITIONING TECHNOLOGY AIR CONDITIONING TECHNOLOGY PART 9 Water Cooled Condensers & Cooling Towers IN LAST month s article we looked at how Air Cooled Condensers are used to transfer the total heat of rejection from the air

More information

A car air-conditioning system based on an absorption refrigeration cycle using energy from exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine

A car air-conditioning system based on an absorption refrigeration cycle using energy from exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine A car air-conditioning system based on an absorption refrigeration cycle using energy from exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine G Vicatos J Gryzagoridis S Wang Department of Mechanical Engineering,

More information

DETERMINATION OF THE HEAT STORAGE CAPACITY OF PCM AND PCM-OBJECTS AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE. E. Günther, S. Hiebler, H. Mehling

DETERMINATION OF THE HEAT STORAGE CAPACITY OF PCM AND PCM-OBJECTS AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE. E. Günther, S. Hiebler, H. Mehling DETERMINATION OF THE HEAT STORAGE CAPACITY OF PCM AND PCM-OBJECTS AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE E. Günther, S. Hiebler, H. Mehling Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research (ZAE Bayern) Walther-Meißner-Str.

More information

Research Article Performance Evaluation of a Small Scale Modular Solar Trigeneration System

Research Article Performance Evaluation of a Small Scale Modular Solar Trigeneration System Photoenergy, Article ID 964021, 9 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/964021 Research Article Performance Evaluation of a Small Scale Modular Solar Trigeneration System Handong Wang M. & E. School of

More information

9. ENERGY PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF HVAC SYSTEMS

9. ENERGY PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF HVAC SYSTEMS 9. ENERGY PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF HVAC SYSTEMS 9.1 Introduction Air conditioning and refrigeration consume significant amount of energy in buildings and in process industries. The energy consumed in

More information

Open Cycle Refrigeration System

Open Cycle Refrigeration System Chapter 9 Open Cycle Refrigeration System Copy Right By: Thomas T.S. Wan 温 到 祥 著 Sept. 3, 2008 All rights reserved An open cycle refrigeration system is that the system is without a traditional evaporator.

More information

Module 5: Combustion Technology. Lecture 34: Calculation of calorific value of fuels

Module 5: Combustion Technology. Lecture 34: Calculation of calorific value of fuels 1 P age Module 5: Combustion Technology Lecture 34: Calculation of calorific value of fuels 2 P age Keywords : Gross calorific value, Net calorific value, enthalpy change, bomb calorimeter 5.3 Calculation

More information

International Telecommunication Union SERIES L: CONSTRUCTION, INSTALLATION AND PROTECTION OF TELECOMMUNICATION CABLES IN PUBLIC NETWORKS

International Telecommunication Union SERIES L: CONSTRUCTION, INSTALLATION AND PROTECTION OF TELECOMMUNICATION CABLES IN PUBLIC NETWORKS International Telecommunication Union ITU-T TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDIZATION SECTOR OF ITU Technical Paper (13 December 2013) SERIES L: CONSTRUCTION, INSTALLATION AND PROTECTION OF TELECOMMUNICATION CABLES

More information

HVAC Efficiency Definitions

HVAC Efficiency Definitions HVAC Efficiency Definitions Term page EER - 2 SEER - 3 COP - 4 HSPF - 5 IPLV - 6 John Mix May 2006 Carrier Corporation 1 Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) The energy efficiency ratio is used to evaluate the

More information

A heat pump system with a latent heat storage utilizing seawater installed in an aquarium

A heat pump system with a latent heat storage utilizing seawater installed in an aquarium Energy and Buildings xxx (2005) xxx xxx www.elsevier.com/locate/enbuild A heat pump system with a latent heat storage utilizing seawater installed in an aquarium Satoru Okamoto * Department of Mathematics

More information

Energy savings in commercial refrigeration. Low pressure control

Energy savings in commercial refrigeration. Low pressure control Energy savings in commercial refrigeration equipment : Low pressure control August 2011/White paper by Christophe Borlein AFF and l IIF-IIR member Make the most of your energy Summary Executive summary

More information

Condensing Economizers Workshop Enbridge Gas, Toronto. MENEX Boiler Plant Heat Recovery Technologies. Prepared by: Jozo Martinovic, M A Sc, P Eng

Condensing Economizers Workshop Enbridge Gas, Toronto. MENEX Boiler Plant Heat Recovery Technologies. Prepared by: Jozo Martinovic, M A Sc, P Eng Condensing Economizers Workshop Enbridge Gas, Toronto MENEX Boiler Plant Heat Recovery Technologies Prepared by: Jozo Martinovic, M A Sc, P Eng MENEX Innovative Solutions May 15, 2008 MENEX INC. 683 Louis

More information

Experimental Analysis of a Variable Capacity Heat Pump System Focusing on the Compressor and Inverter Loss Behavior

Experimental Analysis of a Variable Capacity Heat Pump System Focusing on the Compressor and Inverter Loss Behavior Purdue University Purdue e-pubs International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference School of Mechanical Engineering 21 Experimental Analysis of a Variable Capacity Heat Pump System Focusing on

More information

Commercial refrigeration has been in the environmental. Refrigerant. as a. Basics Considerations PART 1:

Commercial refrigeration has been in the environmental. Refrigerant. as a. Basics Considerations PART 1: PART 1: CO 2 Commercial refrigeration has been in the environmental spotlight for more than a decade, especially as leakage studies have revealed the true effects of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) emissions.

More information

COGENERATION. This section briefly describes the main features of the cogeneration system or a Combined Heat & Power (CHP) system. 36 Units.

COGENERATION. This section briefly describes the main features of the cogeneration system or a Combined Heat & Power (CHP) system. 36 Units. COGENERATION 1. INTRODUCTION... 1 2. TYPES OF COGENERATION SYSTEMS... 2 3. ASSESSMENT OF COGENERATION SYSTEMS... 10 4. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES... 14 5. OPTION CHECKLIST... 16 6. WORKSHEETS... 17

More information

Study of a Supercritical CO2 Power Cycle Application in a Cogeneration Power Plant

Study of a Supercritical CO2 Power Cycle Application in a Cogeneration Power Plant Supercritical CO2 Power Cycle Symposium September 9-10, 2014 Pittsburg, Pennsylvania USA Study of a Supercritical CO2 Power Cycle Application in a Cogeneration Power Plant Dr. Leonid Moroz, Dr. Maksym

More information

COMBUSTION. In order to operate a heat engine we need a hot source together with a cold sink

COMBUSTION. In order to operate a heat engine we need a hot source together with a cold sink COMBUSTION In order to operate a heat engine we need a hot source together with a cold sink Occasionally these occur together in nature eg:- geothermal sites or solar powered engines, but usually the heat

More information

EVALUATION OF UNDERGROUND RAILWAY NETWORKS OPERATING SUSTAINABLE COOLING SYSTEMS. J.A. Thompson*, G.G. Maidment, J.F. Missenden and F.

EVALUATION OF UNDERGROUND RAILWAY NETWORKS OPERATING SUSTAINABLE COOLING SYSTEMS. J.A. Thompson*, G.G. Maidment, J.F. Missenden and F. EVALUATION OF UNDERGROUND RAILWAY NETWORKS OPERATING SUSTAINABLE COOLING SYSTEMS J.A. Thompson*, G.G. Maidment, J.F. Missenden and F. Ampofo Faculty of Engineering, Science and the Built Environment London

More information

A CASE STUDY: PERFORMANCE AND ACCEPTANCE TEST OF A POWER AND DESALINATION PLANT. Keywords : Power Plant, Boiler Capacity, Electrical Power

A CASE STUDY: PERFORMANCE AND ACCEPTANCE TEST OF A POWER AND DESALINATION PLANT. Keywords : Power Plant, Boiler Capacity, Electrical Power A CASE STUDY: PERFORMANCE AND ACCEPTANCE TEST OF A POWER AND DESALINATION PLANT Atef M Al Baghdadi Water and Electricity Authority Abu Dhabi, U.A.E Keywords : Power Plant, Boiler Capacity, Electrical Power

More information