УДК 528 Nguyen Thanh Le APPLYING MULTIBEAM ECHO-SOUNDER SYSTEM IN MAKING MULTISCALE SEABED TOPOGRAPHY MAP IN VIETNAM

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1 Новый университет (21-22). ISSN УДК 528 Nguyen Thanh Le APPLYING MULTIBEAM ECHO-SOUNDER SYSTEM IN MAKING MULTISCALE SEABED TOPOGRAPHY MAP IN VIETNAM Making multiscale seabed topography with the manual sounding method and single-beam echo-sounding method will base on sounding point density. Maping data according to the design is only used for making a topographic map with the equal or smaller scale, the maping out will be reperformed for a bigger scale topographic map. Applying multibeam echo-sounder system will help to resolve the said problems. The making seabed topography map with any scale will be more convenient and easier when measuring range covers 100% of a maping area. map. Keywords: Vietnam, multibeam echo-sounder system, seabed topography 1. Background. In order to ensure the delimitation of territorial sea, management of territorial sea, construction of marine works, exploitation and conservation of marine natural resources, it is essential to make multiscale seabed maps for each use purpose and demand. The sounding mainly used to be performed by a plump and a sounding rod with the former traditional sounding technique. Due to the limited length of a sounding rod, sounding result was used to make seabed topography map for inshore areas. The bringing of single-beam echo-sounder into the world facilitates to make a seabed topography map. Single-beam echo-sounder is used to make seabed topography maps only for inshore areas but also for offshore areas. Nevertheless, it is necessary to design a sounding point density basing on distance among sounding travels and number of points in each travel when using single-beam echo-sounder for seabed topographic surveying. Consequently, a surveyor should design a distance among sounding travels and select appropriate sounding measures depending on the use purpose in each surveying area and scale of seabed topography map. With the using the single-beam echo-sounder, sounding data in one area is only used ti make one designed scale or smaller scale seabed topography map. The maping out will be reperformed for a bigger scale topographic map, thus sounding and surveying expenses will be more costly. The bringing of multibeam echo-sounder into the world significantly resolves the disadvantages of making seabed topography map with single-beam echo-sounding method. 2. Theoretical basis of multibeam echo-sounder system in making seabed topography map 2.1 Features of multibeam echo-sounder. Using multibeam echo-sounders and sounding data processing softwares makes a lastest break through in making seabed topography maps. A multibeam echo-sounder is the combination of equipment such as motion sensor, compass, DGPS and sound velocity measuring decives. A multibeam echo-sounder system is developed on the basic of a echosounder. With the multibeam echo-sounder system, surveyer will perform only one sounding time that gives result on the depth of hundreds of points vertically (Figure 1). Therefore, the multibeam echosounder system is equipped the outstanding feature of big sounding point density, short sounding time and high accuracy. Especially, using the multibeam echo-sounder attached with using satellite positioning system, wireless positioning system, automatic control system, etc facilitates surveying and making seabed topography map. In Vietnam, multibeam echo-sounder attached with its parts has been imported and used recently and the using of the multibeam echo-sounder becomes more and more popular with many entities in making seabed topography map. Currently, there are many kinds of multibeam echosounders from various brands such as ELAC-Nautik SeaBeam SB1180 and SeaBeam SB3030, ATLAS Fansweep and ATLAS Fansweep (made in Germany); SyQwest Bathy Nguyen Thanh Le,

2 ISSN Технические науки 2010PC (made in U.S), etc. Echo-sounders are classified according to the depth of sounding area, including multibeam echo-sounders in the hollow-water area ( m); multibeam echo-sounders in the medium-water area (up to 2000m) and multibeam echo-sounders in the deep-water area (6-7000m). Fig. 1. Width of a sounding range and Coverage between two neighbor sounding range Different multibeam echo-sounders have different angular aperture of the sounding range; different number of beams, longitudinal angular aperture and horizontal angular aperture in each sounding time ( medium number of beams in a sounding range: 256 beams, longitudinal angular aperture: 1-3 0, horizontal angular aperture: ). 2.2 Determinating the depth of sounding points in multibeam echo-sounder system. During the operation of the multibeam echo-sounder system, with each sounding signalling time, depth of each ray in the beam of rays is defined as following: H i 1 2 Ci. ti 2 l.cos i (1.1) 2 Of which: l is the length of base line, distance from the signal generator to sound signal reception set. In equipment equipped signal generator and signal reception set in one equipment, the depth is defined as following: H i 1 Ci. ti.cos i (1.2) 2 47

3 Новый университет (21-22). ISSN Fig. 2. Beams and depth of the beam i in one signalling time Of which: ti is the signalling tume of the beam i i is combination angle between the vertical i beam; C i velocity of sound wave in seawater of the i beam; Propagation of sound velocity propagates in seawater is effected by sound intensity, temperature, salinity, pressure and sound velocity is defined as following [1]: C (Z, T, S) = 1449,05 + T[4,57 - T(0,0521-0,00023T)] + [1,333 - T(0, T)](S - 35) + 16,3 Z + 0,18 Z 2 (1.3) Of which: T: Temperature( o C); S: salinity( o oo ); Z: depth (km); Sound velocity in sea water depends on frequence, the bigger depth, the more signalling frequency. Therefore, frequency, sounding width, depth range for each sounder will be different from other sounders. SB1180 series sounders made by ELAC Nautik is presented in the Picture 3. Fig. 3: Width of beam, width of sounding range and sounding depth 48

4 ISSN Технические науки Coordinates of each sounding point (x i, y i, h i ) in one signalling time will be defined by using DGPS positioning device. During the sounding, the sounding ship unbalances, it is affected by rolling, pitch, roration degree and heading, it is needed to adjust coordinates of sounding points by motion sensor to define the rolling, the pitch, the roration degree and the heading. Fig. 4. Rolling, pitch, roration degree and heading affects on sounding result 2.3 Technical Design of sounding line. According to regulations on design and the Circular No.: 24/ 2010/ TT-BTNMT [2], during measuring the distance between two lines: - Overlapping between two neighbor lines is minumum 5% and maximum 10% of scanning depending on complexity of a topography. This rate is possible to adjust according to execution acturality. If the sounding is perfomed in complex topography, it is necessary to increase the overlapping; - Scanning Coverage: 100% surface of the topography. - Width of a scanning line: according to the medium depth, information of base substance in the sounding area, technical documentation of the sounder, choose the biggest angular aperture. Therefore, with the applying the multibeam echo-beam sounders and multibeam echo-sounder system in making seabed topography map, number of sounding points in a cross-section and in a sounding orientation will be great and the coverage in the sounding range is nearly ensured 100%. 3.Establishment of multi-rate type of topography map of seafloor based on bathymetric replying data 3.1 Processing multi-beam bathymetric replying data, mapping the seafloor topography. Mapping the seafloor topography by multi-beam bathymetric replying system is a comprehensive system including multi-beam bathymetric machine; Positioning System satellite differencing DGPS; surface direct sound velocity machine; water column sound velocity machine; sensors measure the pitching vertical oscillation; horizontal oscillation, rotation and wave infarction; electronic compass and surveys tidal devices in the measurement period. Synthesizing bathymetry data sources will be processed simultaneously on the specific software, HYPACK popularly. This is data processing software sounder with outstanding features, editing following standards of international waterway measurement organizations IHO. This is license software of America, using hard lock attached to port LPT1. HYPACK software is full of features such as design measurement route, directly process measurement data in real field, process internal data Data process from multi-beam bathymetric machine are performed on HYPACK, bathymetric data will be processed and adjusted along with sound velocity data, fluctuation data of board from censors, dimensional observation data and data of fluctuated generate calculation of depth (Figure 5). After bathymetric data is calibrated, each beam will be displayed on the screen. Based on the seafloor surface topography, it will generally conduct to remove the deviated beam. 49

5 Новый университет (21-22). ISSN a). Adjust the horizontal shake, shake down, and rotate the wave of attacks b). Adjust tide and the depth of fluctuated generation Fig. 5. The adjusting data and result of bathymetric measurement Fig. 6. The beam of bathymetric data file After adjusting and removing the deviated beam, the next step is exported the depth points according to the percentage of map that should be established. There are a lot of beams in one generation (average of 250 beams) and the coverage level between two measurement routes requires from 5% to 10%, as a result, the depth points are very huge. Therefore, it must depend on map ratio to conduct to filter the depth points in suitable density. According to establishing regulations of topographic map, the average distance between points in detail printed on paper map is 1 cm, corresponding to the required rate to make the distance between points on the depth of field is 0.01 (m) *M (sample rate of map). To clarify the issue, getting illustration of two measured routes in adjacent areas, after removal of deviated beam, the next step is density depth points will be exported at the rate of 1:50.000; 1: and 1:2000 (Figure 6). 50

6 X c tµu ¾m X c tµu ¾m Phao luång ISSN Технические науки a. Rate of 1/ b. Rate of 1/ c. Rate of 1/2.000 Fig. 7. Distance, density of depth points corresponding to each seafloor topographic map Bathymetric data after being filtered by the map ratio can be exported to popular graphics software such as AutoCad, MicroStation... to carry out the original map editor. Fig. 8. Bathymetric data exported to AutoCad Fig. 9. The mapping results edited to seafloor topographic map 51

7 Новый университет (21-22). ISSN The process of establishing multi-rate of seafloor topography map by multibeam bathymetric echo replying system. The process of establishing multi-rate of seafloor topography map by multi-beam bathymetric replying system: Fig. 10. The process of establishing multi-rate of seafloor topography map Conclusion. Thus, in a survey area of seafloor topography, if the measurement and drawing are performed by multi-beam bathymetric replying system, and the coverage reached 100%, we could establish seafloor topography map under any proportion without repeating the survey work. This is the basis of applying the multi-beam bathymetric echo replying system to survey the Vietnamese seafloor topography in order to build a complete database system of seafloor topography, manage the exploitation, build models for seafloor surface and depending on the needs and purposes used to 52

8 ISSN Технические науки export measured points database for seafloor topography map to serve the management of resource extraction, defense and scientific purposes as well as for the establishment of major sea maps. References 1. Kinsler L., A. Frey, A. Coppens, and J.Sanders (1982), Fundamentals of Acoustics, Wiley and Sons, Toronto. 2. Ministry of Natural Resource and Environment (2010), Circular No 24/10/TT-BTNMT on measuring and establishing seafloor topography map by multi-beam bathymetric replying system. 3. HYPACK (2013), Hydrographic survey software user manual. 4. IHO, International Hydrographic Organization. 5. IHO (2008), IHO standard for hydrographic surveys. 6. Pham Vong Thanh (2010), Lecture for master level on seafloor topography mapping. 7. URL: Статья поступила в редакцию НГУЕН ТХАНЬ ЛЕ магистр, Технический институт им. Ле Куи Дон, Ханой, Вьетнам. 53

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