Print. Recall, notice and impact The art of engagement

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1 Print Recall, notice and impact The art of engagement

2 Media Engagement Summary The differential effects of position, ad and reader characteristics on readers' processing of newspaper ads EFFECTS OF KEY FACTORS Conclusion and discussion Some ads in newspapers are processed better than others, and some readers are better ad processors than others. What explains differences in ad processing between ads and between readers? To answer this question, we studied how position in the newspaper, ad characteristics and reader characteristics influence ad processing at different levels: exposure, noticing, brand awareness and ad read. Our study provides the following answers. First, exposure to newspaper ads was largely determined by the ad s position in the newspaper: ads in the first part of the newspaper, ads on the front page and ads in the news section had a higher chance of being seen. Second, mechanical ad characteristics determined ad noticing and brand awareness, in particular. Bigger ads and ads with colours were noticed better, and readers were more aware of the advertised brand. Third, ad read the highest ad processing level considered in our study was especially influenced by how attractive the ad was for the reader: the relevance of the message content (brand users scored higher, action ads scored higher than theme ads) and the ad s execution (liked ads scored higher). Fourth, reading intensity affected all ad processing variables: readers who read the newspaper more intensively were more exposed to ads, noticed more ads, were more aware of the advertised brand and read the ads more than less intensive newspaper readers. Source: The differential effects of position, ad and reader characteristics on readers' processing of newspaper ads Edith G. Smit, Peter C. Neijens and Robert Heath International Journal of Advertising Vol. 32, No. 1, 2013

3 Media Engagement Summary What did the studies find? First, with respect to position in the newspaper: significant effects were found for news sections (versus other sections), ads on right-hand pages (versus left), ads on the front page (versus other pages), single ads on a page (versus cluttered ads), ads published on Thursdays and Fridays (versus Mondays and Tuesdays), and ads in tabloids (versus broadsheets). Second, for ad characteristics, it was found that bigger ads, coloured ads, particular product types (ads for women s clothing and ads for electric appliances) were noted more. Third, for reader characteristics, brand use, medium use, attitudes towards the ad (ad liking, interestingness, felt involvement), sex (women more) and age were found to influence ad processing. Source: The differential effects of position, ad and reader characteristics on readers' processing of newspaper ads Edith G. Smit, Peter C. Neijens and Robert Heath International Journal of Advertising Vol. 32, No. 1, 2013

4 Media Engagement Summary Source: The differential effects of position, ad and reader characteristics on readers' processing of newspaper ads Edith G. Smit, Peter C. Neijens and Robert Heath International Journal of Advertising Vol. 32, No. 1, 2013

5 Advertising Engagement Where newspapers and their websites stood out most was in the efficacy of advertising. On a scale of different metrics of advertising effectiveness including usually notice ads, likely to purchase, and best place for Black Friday shopping -- the average score among American consumers 18+ for all media across all measures was 35%. This percentage represents those who much agree to strongly agree with that statement, i.e., the percentage of consumers rating from 7 to 10 on a 10-point scale. Newspapers (in print) were nearly 20% higher than that average, at 41%, also higher than average with their websites (39%). Radio scored 34%, television averaged 32%, and online-only sites 33%. Aggregate Advertising Scores Print Newspapers 41% Newspapers Print/Web 39% Radio 34% Internet 33% TV/TV Web 32% Total 35% Percent rating 7-10 on a 10 point scale Source: 2013 Nielsen National Cross-Media Engagement Study

6 Average Ad Engagement Index Newspaper-generated content in newspapers and newspaper websites generated ad engagement scores that exceeded those of other media. The following table expresses those scores on indices where 100 equals the norm: Newspaper Generated Content 112 Local newspaper 119 National newspaper 117 Newspaper websites 106 Social Media 100 Microblogging website (e.g. Twitter) 110 A social network website (e.g., Facebook, Google+, Foursquare) 89 Other Media 95 Radio 100 Local TV news websites 96 Cable TV 94 Local TV news websites 93 National news website 89 Source: 2013 Nielsen National Cross-Media Engagement Study

7 Average Ad Engagement Index Newspaper-generated content in newspapers and newspaper websites generated ad engagement scores that exceeded those of other media. The following table expresses those scores on indices where 100 equals the norm: Newspaper Generated Content 112 Local newspaper 119 National newspaper 117 Newspaper websites 106 Social Media 100 Microblogging website (e.g. Twitter) 110 A social network website (e.g., Facebook, Google+, Foursquare) 89 Other Media 95 Radio 100 Local TV news websites 96 Cable TV 94 Local TV news websites 93 National news website 89 These relationships remain in place when media are aggregated by the source of content across platform (i.e. TV stations and their websites). Average Ad Engagement Index Newspapers and newspaper websites 112 Radio and their webcasts 100 Social Media 96 Television and their websites 94 Source: 2013 Nielsen National Cross-Media Engagement Study

8 Media Rating: Usually Noticed Advertising In percentage terms, these aggregated scores show that newspapers and newspaper websites together rated 12% higher on how engaged audiences were with advertising than the media overall on average and 16% larger than that of social media together. There are different components of advertising engagement. It begins with whether audiences notice advertising. When asked whether people usually notice advertisements, local newspapers scored 48%, followed by national newspapers (46%). Local talk radio came next, with blogs/twitter (42%), then local radio news (41%). Media Rating: Usually Noticed Advertising Local newspaper 48% National newspaper 46% National newspaper website 43% Local talk radio 42% Twitter/Blogs 42% Local news radio 41% Local newspaper website 40% Cable TV 39% Local TV (avg.) 39% Local music radio 38% Local TV news website 38% Social network 37% National news website 36% Percent rating 7-10 on a 10 point scale Source: 2013 Nielsen National Cross-Media Engagement Study

9 Media Rating: Likely to Purchase One critical question, particularly in a crowded media market place, is whether advertising makes consumers more likely to purchase. On this metric, 35% said yes to local newspapers and national papers, as well as blogs. Next came the websites of both newspaper types (33% national and 32% local) followed by local talk radio. Media Rating: Likely to Purchase Local newspaper 35% National newspaper 35% Twitter/Blogs 35% National newspaper website 33% Local talk radio 32% Local newspaper website 32% Local news radio 29% Local TV news website 28% Cable TV 26% Local TV (avg.) 26% National news website 26% Local music radio 25% Social network 25% Percent rating 7-10 on a 10 point scale Source: 2013 Nielsen National Cross-Media Engagement Study

10 Media Rating: Advertising Annoyance Another factor in a crowded user controlled media environment is whether people find advertising irritating. The survey asked if people found the advertising in a given media very annoying. Here the goal for a media form is to score low. Local newspapers scored lowest (31%). Social media here scored highest 45%, followed by blogs and twitter (45%).. Media Rating: Advertising Annoyance Social network 46% Twitter/Blogs 45% Local music radio 41% Cable TV 40% Local news/talk radio 39% Local TV news website 39% Local TV (avg.) 39% National news website 39% National newspaper 38% National newspaper website 38% Local newspaper website 37% Local newspaper 31% Percent rating 7-10 on a 10 point scale Source: 2013 Nielsen National Cross-Media Engagement Study

11 Newspaper Advertising Reading Style Newspaper Advertising Reading Style Past 7-Day Newspaper Readers Look at advertising (net) 84% I usually glance at or read ads when I page through the newspaper 64 I look at newspaper advertising only when I am planning to shop 20 I only look at the stories and never look at the advertising 16 Source: How America Shops and Spends, Frank Magid & Associates

12 Actions by Consumers in Past 30 Days from Print Newspaper Advertising Actions by Consumers in Past 30 Days From Print Newspaper Advertising Total adults Net any 81% Net purchased 53 Net online actions (purchase, search, visit sites) 40 Became aware of a sale 61 Clipped a coupon 52 Bought something advertised 50 Visited a retail store or showroom 44 Discussed or mentioned the product advertised with a friend or family member 43 Picked up shopping ideas 39 Visited a website to learn more about an advertised product or service 33 Used the search function online for more information about an ad in the paper 29 Tried something for the first time 25 Called for more information 14 Bought something at an Internet website 13 Source: How America Shops and Spends, Frank Magid & Associates

13 Media Engagement Studies Engagement There is no standard definition of engagement, but media measurement surely is an important part of it (Woodard, 2006). A look back at the published literature shows that various attributes of the newspaper and magazine media that may play a role in engagement have received attention from the industry and academic researchers since at least the 1960s. In fact, over the past 50 years, understanding the way that a medium may have impact on the advertising placed in that medium frequently has been listed as an important industry research priority The impact of editorial environment on advertising remained a top research priority of industry professionals in the 1980s (Chook, 1985). A more recent article in Forbes magazine describes a study conducted by Starcom USA that explores consumers feelings as they read their favorite publications (Burkitt, 2010). The research identified 17 reader emotions that can motivate buying decisions. This argues for further research to provide emotional measurement of newspaper and magazine audiences and speaks to matching publication audiences to ads inserted in print publications.

14 Media Engagement Summary A UK Study Engagement EFFECTS OF KEY FACTORS For the ad noting indices, we created a ten-by-ten matrix of objective factors, for which we had cell scores enabling us to look at any combination. So, for example, we could combine factors to give us a score for a full-page ad, front third, colour, righthand page, in a mid-market title. This breakdown resulted in a giant spreadsheet and a simple model, enabling us to compare any combination of factors against rates in the market. Modelling was used to fill gaps in the matrix left by inadequate sample sizes for complex factor combinations. The pure scores, as will be shown later, require a degree of processing to unravel the influence of one factor from another. First, here are some broad conclusions drawn from the raw factor scores. Diminishing returns as size increases Measured by column centimetres (ccm), the level of ad noting increases with size. However, the increase is not proportional, as there are very strong diminishing returns taking hold at quite small space sizes. Based purely on ad noting point per ccm, optimal sizes are 40 ccm for tabloids and 50 ccm for broadsheets (see Exhibit 1 and Exhibit 2). If we compare scores and market rates, however, we find that a 25cm x 4-column space scores optimally. Benefits of colour are less above a certain size To unravel the effect of colour, a non-linear model is needed to explain the size/colour interaction. The volume of additional noting from colour increases until it reaches 300 ccm, where the level of recall is 27%, compared with 18% in mono. After this point, the gain in ad noting decreases as the volume of colour rises. Importantly, it still beats the market premium in all cases except full-page ads in broadsheets, where there is negligible difference between a mono and a colour full-page ad ( ccm). See Exhibit 3. Note: Weighted by number of ads Source: JWT, Advanced Techniques Group Worldwide as published in Newspaper advertising: Does Size Matter (or position, or colour, or context)? Daniele Cardillo and James Walker January 1998

15 Media Engagement Summary A UK Study Engagement EFFECTS OF KEY FACTORS Colour cont d As a general rule in tabloids, colour is best thought of as making a mono ad as effective as 'the next size up' - so adding colour to a mono 25 x 4 makes it as effective as a mono 38 x 6. And in broadsheets, the addition of colour makes a mono ad as effective as two sizes up - so a colour 33 x 5 is as effective as a mono page (see Exhibit 4). Right-hand pages are not always better Results for positions on a spread (ie left-hand versus right-hand ads) show that in the tabloids there is very little difference between the two, whereas in broadsheets, right-hand positions tend to outperform left-hand. For example, right-hand pages in broadsheets score about 40% higher than left-hand pages (and these scores are largely unaffected by the other factors). Significant gains from being in front third For both the broadsheets and tabloids, the pure scores for 'position in paper' are clear - front third positions outperform the back third, in broadsheets threefold and in tabloids more than double. See Exhibit 5. Note: Weighted by number of ads Source: JWT, Advanced Techniques Group Worldwide as published in Newspaper advertising: Does Size Matter (or position, or colour, or context)? Daniele Cardillo and James Walker January 1998

16 Hierarchy of Factors Affecting Newspaper Advertising (UK) This shows the factors for broadsheet and tabloid advertisements in a hierarchy of their effectiveness - a list of the individual factors by greatest influence with an index of effectiveness. The indices are based on ad averages (broadsheet 6.9%, tabloid 8.9%), where the 'true' average scores this is consistent with all charts in this article. Broadsheets Note: Weighted by number of ads Source: JWT, Advanced Techniques Group Worldwide as published in Newspaper advertising: Does Size Matter (or position, or colour, or context)? Daniele Cardillo and James Walker January 1998 Tabloids Factor Index* Factor Index* Page ad 262 Page ad 187 Colour 179 Colour 160 Front third 124 Solus 129 Solus 116 Front third 115 Right 110 Left 105 Middle third 89 Right 94 Left 84 Mono 86 Clutter 81 Middle third 67 Mono 72 Back third 49 Back third 41 Clutter 35

17 Color Increases Noting and In-Depth Reading Full color increased noting by 20% over black and white Color increases indepth reading by more than 60% But Size Also Matters Full page ads were noted 40% more often than quarter-page ads. A 6-inch was noted only 59% as often as a full page ad. Source: Newspaper Association of America Ad Elements Study, 1999

18 Visual Elements Effects Noting Ads with half illustration noted 30% more often than ads with little or no illustration. Ads with three-quarters illustration were noted 50% more often than ads with little or no illustration. Showing Product in Ads Showing the product attracts readers 13% more often than not showing the product. Product-in-use gives an identical edge over product-only shots. Source: Newspaper Association of America Ad Elements Study, 1999

19 Non-Factors in Noting Scores No significant difference was found in the noting due to: Position on page or within section Presence or absence of complementary editorial Ad clutter Source: Newspaper Association of America Ad Elements Study, 1999

20 The Strength of Color Newspaper readers prefer color ads and perceive them to be more effective. Find Color Ads More Effective 92% Prefer Color Over Black & White Ads 93% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Source: The Newspaper Society, 1995

21 COLOR: Your BEST Advertising Investment What s the proof? - In a split-run test of 12 black-and-white ads versus the same ads in color, color ads outsold black-and-white ads by an average of 42%. Outsold means actual in-store sales results, not just inquiries or ad recall. Color ads create psychological impact, too! - In a study by the Poynter Institute, readers rated pages with full color and spot color as more interesting and pleasant to read. Pages with color were perceived as more exciting, powerful and bold. Source: Long Beach Color Study

22 Facts about Newspaper Ad Size Page opening is the accepted measure of opportunity for advertising exposure. The measure of any specific ad s attention value varies with the kind of product advertised, the size of the ad, and the creative treatment. 54% usually read every page 46% read some pages or sections Source: Newspaper Association of America: 1993 Newspaper Association of America Report

23 More Facts about Newspaper Ad Size Less than 1/4 page 1/2 Page +47% over 1/4 Page 1/4 Page +42% over Less than 1/4 Page A full page ad is 76% more effective than an ad size 1/2 to less than full page A half page ad is 47% more effective than an ad size 1/4 to less than half page A quarter page ad is 42% more effective than an ad less than 1/4 page Source: Audits & Surveys, Inc. 1982

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