Measuring the effectiveness of Environmental Management Systems Phase 1: Desktop Report, June 2009

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1 Measuring the effectiveness of Environmental Management Systems Phase 1: Desktop Report, June 2009

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3 Measuring the Effectiveness of Environmental Management Systems: Phase 1 Measuring the effectiveness of Environmental Management Systems Phase 1: Desktop Report, June 2009 Background to the Project 1

4 Measuring the Effectiveness of Environmental Management Systems: Phase 1 Background to the Project DoE Environment and Heritage Service (now Northern Ireland Environment Agency, NIEA) commissioned An Evaluation into the Effectiveness of Environmental Management Systems as part of the Better Regulation agenda, which includes assessing aspects of a risk based approach to regulation, a more integrated approach to enforcement and improving awareness of obligations and best practice (EHS Tender Brief). The main aims of the study are to measure the effectiveness of EMS and analogous systems implemented by NI businesses in: 1. Having a demonstrable impact on the level of legislative compliance, 2. Improving an organisations environmental performance / reducing its environmental impacts. This study has been undertaken on behalf of NIEA by White Young Green in two distinct phases. The first is the completion of research and a desk top study into the types of management system, certification process and uptake from an international, national and local perspective. The desk top review has also collated research information relating to the effectiveness of Environmental Management Systems (EMS) undertaken within the last decade. The second phase is data analysis and interpretation from 1000 Northern Ireland organisations in June 2008 (subject to a separate report). Background to Environmental Management Systems Environmental Management Systems are a systematic, planned approach to the management of environmental issues at an organisation and should be adopted as part of the overall company management structure. They are based on a Plan-Do-Check-Act methodology that aspires to continual improvement. There are a number of differing types of EMS. These can be summarised as : Management Review Continual improvement Environmental Policy Planning EMAS (Eco-Management and Audit Scheme) BS EN ISO (International standard) BS8555 : 2003 & the Acorn Scheme (Phased approach) Green Dragon (Arena Network) (phased approach) Checking Implementation and operation EMS is a risk management tool and all EMS standards have a similar framework and can be applied to any public or private sector organisations. EMAS is often viewed as the most stringent management system, as there is an explicit requirement for legal compliance and reporting of this status to the Regulator. All other systems require identification of legislation relevant to an organisations activities, products and services and a commitment to assess the level of compliance against the identified legislation. Whilst blatant non-compliance with legislation will result in a company incurring penalties with respect to any management systems certification body audit (e.g. a category 1 noncompliance), refusal or removal of certification is rare. Generally, companies reporting non-compliances with legislation, within their EMS, are encouraged to develop a detailed Action Plan to address the noncompliant issues. Certification bodies provide recognition of the EMS against the standards noted above (e.g. EMAS, ISO etc). In addition, all EMS standards require organisations to commit to continual improvement 2

5 Measuring the Effectiveness of Environmental Management Systems: Phase 1 and evidence of this commitment is usually found in the setting of environmental objectives, targets, management plans or environmental performance indicators. Certification bodies are regulated by a strict code administered by the United Kingdom Accreditation Service (UKAS) in the UK, BS EN ISO/IEC 17021:2006. This code ensures consistency of the assessment process. There has been an amount of bad press associated with EMS and legal compliance in recent years and UKAS and the accreditation bodies have been working hard to provide some clarification on the issue of the association between EMS and legal compliance (paper EA 7/04 seeks to add clarification to the certification bodies as regards auditing legal compliance as part of ISO 14001:2004). The Drivers & Uptake There are a number of drivers for organisations wishing to develop and implement EMS, above and beyond legislative compliance or performance improvements. A key driver for organisations operating in England and Wales are the Opra requirements relating to risk screening of activities and the relative proportion of effort applied to regulating organisations. In regulating through Opra Environment Agency (England & Wales) demonstrates a policy commitment that for those organisations regulated under the Environmental Permitting Regulations an effective EMS is important in managing the risks associated with and delivering permit requirements. ISO is the most favoured type of management system to be implemented within organisations in the UK, with over 6000 registrations (at the end of 2006). EMS drivers Legal compliance Improved environmental performance Cost savings Customer / client pressure Supply chain management Enhanced PR Environmental Risk Management EMS in Northern Ireland Northern Ireland business and industry has been served by a range of EMS support mechanisms over the last 15 years. These have been : IRTU (now Invest NI) Environmental Audit Support Scheme grant IRTU Environmental Management Support Scheme grant Invest NI Building Blocks to a Better Business pilot programme for 11 no. manufacturing companies The STEM Programme cross border programme involving implementation of BS8555 for up to 240 businesses and 11 no. district councils Easy Access (BS8555 for construction companies) BiTES - Belfast City Council (Green Dragon through Arena Network) for 9 organisations in the Belfast CC area Coleraine BC (Green Dragon through Arena Network) 3

6 Measuring the Effectiveness of Environmental Management Systems: Phase 1 Whilst research and evaluation of the above programmes has been on an ad-hoc basis, there have been some positive outcomes in relation to specific projects accumulating environmental improvements and indicating compliance with environmental legislation. This compares to less than 400 registrations to the EMAS standard within the same period. There is evidence that levels of ISO uptake are stabilising in the UK, however significant growth in uptake in all standards have been seen in Spain and Italy. To conclude : Whilst desk top analysis of research would indicate strong evidence that EMS has a positive outcome in terms of improved environmental performance, the research is inconclusive in terms of legislative compliance. There is also not enough evidence to support the measurement of the effectiveness of the EMS in terms of its type (e.g. EMAS, ISO etc), particularly in relation to the collation of data in a local setting. The findings indicate the need for the detailed study into 1000 Northern Ireland organisations* and an evaluation of the data for organisations with accredited EMS, non accredited EMS and no systems in place. Validation of that data against regulator and certification body records would also be a valuable exercise. * This research has been carried out in conjunction with this desk top study. EMS Research The last decade has seen a plethora of research studies into EMS with a number considering their effectiveness in relation to compliance and improvements. These are summarised below: Survey EMAS Ever Indicative of legal compliance? Indicative of improved Environmental Performance? International Findings National Findings Northern Irish Findings Remas MEPI and follow up study ISO a National Study in Austria SME-enviroment Survey 2007 EMS and company Performance STEM BITES EASS Building Blocks 4

7 Measuring the Effectiveness of Environmental Management Systems: Phase 1 Contents 1 Introduction 8 2 What is an Environmental Management System History of EMS Types of EMS Accreditation Certification Management Systems and Legal Compliance 37 3 Drivers to Implementation of an EMS Overview of legislation and policy Formulation of Legislation NI Legislation Enforcement in Northern Ireland Procurement Policy and Promotion of EMS Central Procurement Directorate Other Local Procurement Drivers Compliance Drivers in England and Wales Other Drivers for Implementing an EMS 51 4 Uptake of EMS The International Scene Europe UK Wide Northern Ireland Invest NI Support Schemes Building Blocks STEM BITES Easy Access Green Dragon Coleraine Borough Council Arena Network Survey 69 5

8 Measuring the Effectiveness of Environmental Management Systems: Phase 1 5 Research Studies SME-nvironment Survey (NetRegs) Ever Evaluation of EMAS and Eco-label for their revision EMS and Company Performance REMAS MEPI ISO Experiences, Effects and Future Challenges: a National Study in Austria USA National Database Urban Government Review in Japan 82 6 Conclusion 83 7 Recommendations 87 References 88 Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Appendix 4 Appendix 5 Chapter 1 Key Targets Northern Ireland Sustainability Strategy Chapter 6 Key Targets Northern Ireland Sustainability Strategy Implementation of EMAS outside EU List of Figures NI PPC Permits NIEA Organisational Structure Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Key elements of legal compliance in an EMS Regulatory value of an EMS ISO14001:2004 EMS EMAS EMS BS8555:2003 EMS Green Dragon EMS EMAS Registration process ISO14001:2004 Assessment process Evolution of EMAS organisations 6

9 Measuring the Effectiveness of Environmental Management Systems: Phase 1 Measuring the effectiveness of Environmental Management Systems Phase 1: Desktop Report, June

10 Measuring the Effectiveness of Environmental Management Systems: Phase 1 Introduction In March 2008, Environment and Heritage Service (now NIEA) published Better Regulation for a Better Environment. This position statement defines the principles of streamlining the regulation process for organisations. Many of the businesses in Northern Ireland are not subject to direct regulation by EHS [NIEA] but are nonetheless required to comply with environmental legislation. The differing scales and activities covered by our regulations demand that we adopt a smarter range of tools and approaches to suit the nature and risk of an organisation and this falls within the overall aim of working closely with those we regulate to raise awareness of obligations and good practice, to simplify compliance and engagement with our regulatory teams and to reward those organisations who actively identify and manage their risks to the environment. As part of this strategy, a commitment is made to assess effectiveness of Environmental Management Systems (EMS) as a measure of environmental performance and compliance. WYG successfully tendered to the EHS, now re-branded Northern Ireland Environment Agency (NIEA), to undertake this study on its behalf. The main aims of the study are: 1. To evaluate the effectiveness of an EMS in improving an organisations legal compliance and, 2. To evaluate the effectiveness of an EMS in improving an organisations environmental performance. The study is in two distinct phases, the first is desk based and concentrates on analysis of existing data and studies relating to the implementation of an Environmental Management System on a world wide scale. The results of this desk based research are presented in this report. The second element of the study involves a large scale survey of NI businesses and public sector organisations to capture evidence of legal compliance and environmental performance of organisations with, and without, EMS s. Full data analysis and verification is enclosed within Report 2. Running in parallel to this study, Scotland & Northern Ireland Forum for Environmental Research (SNIFFER) are currently conducting report and survey UKCC19 - entitled Better Regulation Rethinking the Approach for SMEs. SNIFFER has looked at how best regulatory bodies should target their resources in the future, and finds that SMEs are neglected at present, while resources currently go to firms with the most resources to self regulate. The findings are also likely to suggest that SMEs would be best suited by a supportive command and control framework of regulation, since their limited resources mean they are less able to meet the requirements of regulated selfregulation. Methodology of firm categorisation enables SMEs and large firms to be divided into four separate categories related to size, and capacity for, or efficacy of, self regulation. Since SNIFFER seem to be advocating a trend towards allowing larger companies to exercise a greater degree of selfregulation, and that a greater proportion of resources to be focused on SMEs, it could be seen as a logical step that these larger, more environmentally proactive companies should be encouraged to implement, and have certified, EMS in place to allow this shift of regulatory resources which has 8

11 Measuring the Effectiveness of Environmental Management Systems: Phase 1 been witnessed in terms of the encouragement on those firms appraised by the Environment Agency (England & Wales) under Opra to implement certified EMS. Since the Better Regulation programme is actively considering the shift towards a more risk based system of regulation and were this to be the case, then it is of great importance to know whether there is empirical evidence that an EMS can reduce the risk associated with a particular organisation. It is the aim of this project and report to establish statistically robust data to be able to support or discount the hypothesis that an EMS improves an organisations compliance with applicable environmental legislation, and / or its environmental performance. This is in line with the Environment Minister Sammy Wilson s vision of a new Agency that will help business implement improved environmental management systems (keynote speech 1st July 2008). In detail, this project has involved: 1) A desktop survey and review of existing data and literature relating to development and implementation of EMS internationally, regionally and locally. The aim of this is to develop an understanding of the trends seen by those companies that have developed formal EMS to the various different standards including, but not limited to: EMAS; ISO and BS ) Survey of 1,000 Northern organisations throughout Northern Ireland, including public and private, SMEs and large organisations. 3) Data Evaluation, statistical analysis and verification of information gathered through the survey and questionnaires 4) Preparation of an Interim and Final report and recommendations to the NIEA regarding the potential role of EMS within the Department of Environments programme for Better Regulation. EMS Evaluation Project Overview Desk Top Research Data Collection Interim Desk Top Report Data Analysis & Review Final Report with Recommendations 9

12 Measuring the Effectiveness of Environmental Management Systems: Phase What is an Environmental Management System? The British Standards Institute have defined an EMS as part of the overall management system that includes organisational structure, planning activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes and resources for developing, implementing, achieving, reviewing and maintaining the environmental policy (BS8555; 2003). It can be seen as a risk management tool also since the standards to which organisations are assessed are not prescriptive, they provide the framework within which an organisation must identify it s own potential impacts upon the environment, and seek to control these as well as to identify opportunities to reduce the associated risks. An EMS can be considered to follow the Deming cycle of Plan Do Check Act Plan The role of an EMS is in delivering the commitments within an environmental policy. The policy should commit an organisation to legal compliance and continual improvement (BS8555 phase 1, Stage 3; ISO 14001:2004 clause 4.2). The organisation should then identify all applicable environmental aspects that may create an environmental impact and also all relevant environmental legislation. Compliance with legislation must also be demonstrated in order to meet the requirements of BS8555 Phase 2 Stage 1-5; ISO 14001;2004 clause and While in relation to Environmental performance, the organisation will have made a commitment to continually improve, and should set out Objectives and Targets and a programme to achieve these (BS8555 Phase 3 Stage 3-7; ISO 14001:2004 clause 4.3.3). The objectives and targets provide the organisation with an improvement plan specifically tailored to ensure improvements in environmental performance related to it s environmental aspects (BS8555 Phase 3 Stage 1; ISO 14001: ) associated with the range of activities it carries out, the product(s) manufactured or the service(s) provided. Do Control measures and procedures are intrinsic to the successful implementation and maintenance of an EMS, whether this is related to Training (BS8555 Phase 1 Stage 6 and Phase 4 Stage 2; ISO 14001: ), Operational Control (BS8555 Phase 3 Stage 6; ISO 14001: ), or Emergency Preparedness and response (BS8555 Phase 4 Stage 5; ISO 14001: ). Most organisations will have a clearly defined, written set of procedures that will outline what needs to be done to ensure compliance with the EMS. Check The success of implementation should be reviewed within the management system through a programme of Internal Audits (BS8555 Phase 5 Stage 1; ISO 14001: ) and identification of corrective and preventive actions to deal with identified non-conformances (BS8555 Phase 5 Stage 2: ISO 14001: ). Conformance of an organisation against the procedures will be evaluated during the audit process. Compliance with legislation will also be checked during auditing as a number of Operational 10

13 Measuring the Effectiveness of Environmental Management Systems: Phase 1 Procedures are drafted to ensure legal compliance of the activity as a minimum. Act The results of the checking stage of the process should be used to inform Management of areas of progress, or problems within the system as part of Management Review (BS8555 Phase 5 Stage 3: ISO 14001: ). This management review process should, in turn, then be used to re-address the issues of Environmental Policy, the organisations environmental aspects & impacts, legal compliance and objectives and targets. The continually improving organisation will then be able to adjust to any changes that may have occurred and set objectives and targets for forthcoming years. According to a study conducted by Business in the Community (Environmental Index Report 2006) an EMS helps an organisation to improve its environmental performance. Common requirements of an EMS (such as a policy, objectives, targets, training and reporting) demonstrate a commitment to incorporating environmental issues into key practices with the resultant benefits of: improved risk management reduced liability costs increased competitive advantage more employee involvement and improved public image (www.bitc.org.uk) These benefits are further support by findings from a NetRegs survey conducted in 2007 of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) across the UK (including Northern Ireland) to reveal their attitudes and behaviours. In relation to benefits in addressing environmental issues, the three main business benefits of addressing environmental issues were: Reduced risk of prosecution (81% strongly agree / agree); Creates good relations with customers (67% strongly agree / agree); and Reduces operating costs (66% strongly agree / agree) 2.1 History of Environmental Management Systems The World s first formal EMS developed by the British Standards Institute (BSI) was BS7750, first published in March The standard was based on a two year pilot implementation programme with 230 implementing organisations and was then modified on the basis of feedback, with the publication of this modified standard in January 1994 (Starkey, 1998). At the same time as the development of BS7750, the European Commission was setting out it s proposal for an eco-audit scheme, after some initial proposals and changes the Commission published what has become known as the Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS), this was adopted by the Council of Ministers on June 29th 1993, and became open to company participation in April 1995 (Starkey, 1998). The development of ISO14001 came about because of the need for improved environmental performance expressed at the United Nations Conference 11

14 Measuring the Effectiveness of Environmental Management Systems: Phase 1 on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro in The International Organisation for Standardization (ISO) was charged with creating an internationally recognised environmental management system (Bansal and Bogner, 2002). ISO14001 was developed in under three years, much quicker than it usually takes to develop an international standard mainly because it relied heavily on the content of BS7750 as a framework (Schaltegger et al., 2003). The Comité Europé de Normalisation (CEN) realised that some companies would prefer to meet the EMS requirements of an equivalent standard to EMAS meaning that it had to adopt ISO14001 as a European standard, which meant that equivalent national standards had to be withdrawn, and as a result BS7750, that had influenced ISO14001 so much, was withdrawn by March 1997 (Starkey, 1998). This led to two EMS standards being available to organisations in European countries, the international standard ISO14001 and the European EMAS scheme. The EMAS regulation was revised in April 2001 and based on ISO 14001, one of the principle benefits of this meant it made it easier for ISO certified organisations to progress to what is considered the more rigorous EMAS regulation (LRQA, 2004). BS8555 was launched after an initial pilot programme called Project Acorn. Through Project Acorn, the Acorn Method for implementation of an EMS was run between October 2001 and March 2003, supported by British Standards Institution and White Young Green Consultants (Sheldon, 2003) Funded in the main by the UK Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), and supported by the UK Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA). On the completion of Project Acorn the Acorn Method was withdrawn and the new British Standard BS8555, the phased approach to the implementation of an Environmental Management System, was published in April 2003 (The Acorn Trust, 2003). 2.2 Types of Environmental Management Systems There are now five main recognised standards in relation to environmental management. The five main standards are: ISO 14001:2004 International Standard for Environmental Management. Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS). IEMA - Acorn Scheme BS8555:2003 Environmental Management Systems. Green Dragon (Arena Network). The first four can be subject to UKAS accredited certification and Green Dragon can be subject to UKAS accredited inspection. ISO 14001:2004 International Standard for Environmental Management ISO, the International Standards Organisation, has developed a series of voluntary standards and guidelines in the field of environmental management which collectively are known as the EN ISO series. Developed under ISO Technical Committee 207, the series of standards addresses many aspects of environmental management including the following: 12

15 Measuring the Effectiveness of Environmental Management Systems: Phase 1 Environmental Management Systems requirements with guidance for use (ISO : 2004) Environmental Management Systems General Guidelines on principles, systems and support techniques (ISO 14004: 2004) Environmental Management Systems Draft Guidelines for a staged implementation of an environmental management system, including the use of environmental performance evaluation (ISO 14005) due for publication in September Environmental Performance Evaluation (ISO 14031:1999) Within this series, EN ISO environmental management systems specifications with guidance for use is the only certifiable standard, the remainder being supportive guidelines. The aims of EN ISO are to promote environmental protection in light of socio-economic concerns. Clause No Clause Title Clause No Clause Title 4.1 General Requirements Environmental Policy Implementation & Operation Resources, roles, responsibility & authority Competence, training & awareness Communication Documentation Control of Documents Operational Controls Emergency Preparedness & Response Checking Monitoring and measurement Evaluation of Compliance Nonconformity, corrective action and preventive action Control of Records Internal Audit Planning Environmental Aspects Legal & Other Requirements Objectives, Targets & Programmes 4.6 Management Review 13

16 Measuring the Effectiveness of Environmental Management Systems: Phase 1 An effective environmental management system based on ISO14001 provides an organisation with a defined structure to allow them to more confidently and effectively manage environmental issues by: Establishing a policy and awareness that good environmental performance is a strategic objective of the organisation. Focusing on the prevention of waste and pollution and on continual improvement of environmental performance. Systematic analysis, planning, control and monitoring of all activities that may affect environmental performance. Assisting companies to more effectively meet legislative and regulatory requirements. Demonstrating to regulators, stakeholders and other interested third parties that a formal environmental management system is operational and effective (www.nsai.ie). The main rationale for the creation of ISO14001 was that its world wide acceptance should facilitate international trade by harmonising otherwise diffuse environmental management standards and by providing an internationally accepted blueprint for sustainable development, pollution prevention and compliance assurance (Delmas Magali A., 2002). Continual improvement Management Review Environmental Policy Planning Checking Implementation and operation Figure 3 ISO14001:

17 Measuring the Effectiveness of Environmental Management Systems: Phase 1 ISO is very similar to EMAS but at the time of registration, Environmental regulators are consulted to make sure that they are satisfied that organisations have identified and know the implications [to the organisation] of all environmental legislation and that their system is capable of meeting these on an ongoing basis., it can take a more prescriptive approach to environmental management issues. The ISO standards, by contrast, rely on voluntary acceptance by all interested parties, and therefore must maintain a balance between the needs and expectations of each of these parties. (www.europa.eu). Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) The EU Eco-Management and Audit Scheme, known as EMAS, is a voluntary market based instrument designed to encourage better environmental performance from all types of organisation. EMAS is completely compatible with the international standard for environmental management systems, ISO 14001, but goes further in its requirements for performance improvement, employee involvement, legal compliance and communication with stakeholders. Uniquely EMAS requires organisations to produce an independently verified report about their performance (www.emas.org.uk). EMAS is a direct response to some of the key principles in the European Union s Environmental Action Programmes and the challenge of sustainable development. Behind EMAS stands the concept of broadening the range of policy instruments and promoting an approach of shared responsibility in environmental protection. EMAS was first adopted by the European Environment Council on 29th June 1993 and became open to industrial participation from April 1995 onwards. EMAS was revised in 2001, and eligibility widened to include all sectors of public and private economic activity (DEFRA). The EMAS Regulation applies to all 27 EU Member States, and the 3 European Economic Area States (Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein) all candidate countries (e.g. Turkey, Croatia and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia) are obliged to implement the scheme in preparation for their accession to the EU. Some international companies operating sites outside of the EU / EEA, have opted to pursue EMAS registration. However, since these countries are not members of the EU / EEA, their registrations do not hold the same legal status; in this instance they are referred to as quasi-registrations currently these quasi-registrations exist in countries such as Brazil, Switzerland, China and the USA. 15

18 Measuring the Effectiveness of Environmental Management Systems: Phase 1 Figure 4 EMAS Source of Diagram : EMAS: A Practical Guide, ISBN : Institute of Environmental Management and Assessment (IEMA) Acorn Scheme Acorn is the name of a project with a main objective to help British SMEs improve their environmental performance through a five-level approach to the implementation of an environmental management system (EMS) in line with ISO 14001, and a sixth level that facilitated external certification to ISO and / or registration to EMAS. Once the project was completed a not for profit organisation, the Acorn Trust, was founded in order to develop a standard based on the project s methodology (www.europa.eu). The IEMA Acorn Scheme, an officially recognised EMS standard, offers accredited recognition for organisations evaluating and improving their environmental performance through the phased implementation of an environmental management system (EMS). Acorn focuses on environmental improvements that are linked to business competitiveness and is flexible so that all types of organisation, whatever their size, can participate. Acorn offers a unique feature whereby organisations can engage environmental performance indicator (EPI) reporting within the procurement process in accordance with ISO This compliments the one size fits all aspects of ISO14001 & EMAS and provides the opportunity to set environmental requirements in supplier contracts and monitor operational/product performance a strength acknowledged by the Government in a recent EMS position statement published by DEFRA. A system of independent inspection is central to providing recognition that an organisation has met the achievement criteria of a particular Acorn phase and continues to improve its environmental performance (www.iema.org). 16

19 Measuring the Effectiveness of Environmental Management Systems: Phase 1 BS 8555:2003 Environmental Management Systems Work on Project Acorn led to recognition by the British Standards Institute (BSI) of the phased approach to development of an EMS and the benefits for small to medium sized enterprises (SMEs). As with Acorn, the standard, BS8555:2003, sets out a six phase implementation programme, to work towards a formal EMS that can be certified to BS EN ISO or the EU Eco- Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) at Phase 6. Each phase is broken into a number of specific stages, with guidance and process planning spreadsheet available to organisations to assist their development. Progress can be acknowledged against the standard, with certification at any of the six phases, allowing SMEs greater control and freedom over the project plan. After full certification to ISO 14001, at phase 6, the second most popular certification for SMEs is at Phase 3. This allows for actual cost, compliance and environmental benefits to be realised before detailed written procedures are required. Although principally aimed at SMEs, the guidance can be used by any organisation, regardless of size, the nature of their business undertaken or their location (Environmental Management Systems Fact Sheet No. 4). The Six Phases of BS8555: 1. Commitment & establishing the baseline 2. Identifying & ensuring compliance with legal and other requirements 3. Developing objectives, targets & programmes 4. Implementation and operation of the EMS 5. Checking, audit & management review 6. Certification to either ISO or EMAS The International Standards Organisation (ISO) is currently reviewing the incorporation of BS8555:2003 into the international family of standards. ISO Guidelines for the staged implementation of an environmental management system, including the use of environmental performance evaluation is currently in development with a proposed publication date of September

20 Measuring the Effectiveness of Environmental Management Systems: Phase 1 Figure 5 BS8555: Overview of the phased implementation of an environmental management system. 18

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